Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a process occurs but in itself tells nothing about its rate. Chemical kinetics includes investigations of how experimental conditions influence the speed of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction's mechanism and transition states, as well as the construction of mathematical models that also can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction.
I am reading the following article on Kirkendall effect leading to the Formation of a hollow binary alloy nanosphere: a kinetic montecarlo study. I am unable to understand or find in references the reasoning to obtain equation (1):
Hi,
I'm following an introduction course to chemistry and I am reviewing the chapter on Chemical kinetics.
It's shown that the reaction speed for a certain component of a general chemical equation such as aA +bB <-> cC + dD , might be expressed as v = k[A]m[ B]m.
I was wondering where it does...
Hi,
I was attempting the following question and don't know how to find the 'reaction rate':
"For the reaction the following stoichiometric coefficients have been determined: 2 ##C## react to form 2 ##E## and 1 ##F##. The rate of formation of E is ##1.6\times10^{–4} mol L^{–1} s^{–1}##. What is...
I want to use the point reactor kinetics equations to solve for the power as a function time when a reactivity of gamma*t is added to a reactor that is at equilibrium at time 0. I am also asked to consider the case where the transients are long-lived compared to the lifetime of prompt neutrons...
PROBLEM
Here from the conservation of angular momentum I found angular velocity just before impact,
$$ H_1 = 0 $$
$$ H_2 = I_0\omega + mV_0d $$
$$ H_2 = 66\omega + 76.(1.2).(0.87)$$
$$ H_1 = H_2 $$
$$ \omega = 1.202 rad/s $$
But I couldn't solve it to find joint force.
Thanks in advance,
Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermokinetics says that "thermokinetics" studies the rate of chemical decomposition, whereas a dictionary https://www.yourdictionary.com/thermokinetic gets no further than saying that it combines thermodynamics and kinetics, and a book on it...
Is there any evidence to support the idea of subquantum kinetics and alternative it provides to the Big Bang? Most publications which touch on it seem to link back to Dr. LaViolette so that seems odd to me. Has this idea been disproven or is there a chance this is a Continental Drift, Alfred...
last week i did a chemistry lab. i mixed NaOH 0.03M with equal part of methyl violet and mesured aborbance in a spectrophotometer. then i did the same thing with a 0.05M and methyl violet
i did today the graphs and got the k' =-0.1647 for the first solution and k'=-0.4022 for the second...
Since the mass of both vehicles is the same, it's possible to calculate Ki which happens to be 512,5J and from there, multiply it by 0,25 since 75% of the energy is gone and I end up with 128,125J.
Now my problem is that for the velocity, I have: 25,0 + -20,0 = V1 + V2 which is 5,00 = V1 + V2...
I'm trying to simulate a simple series reaction stochastically using Gillespie's algorithm. I found this file:
What is this 'propensity function'? Say for example I have the simple reactions:
A --(k1)--> R
R--(k2)--> S
are these 'propensity functions' the rates (a wild guess)? I mean;
α1 =...
Consider the mono-group model and a ramp in reactivity like ##\rho = -\gamma \beta t##
The system is
$$\frac {dP}{dt} = \frac {\rho - \beta}{\Lambda} P + \lambda C$$
$$ \frac {dC}{dt} = \frac {\beta}{\Lambda} P - \lambda C$$
1st method: assume that the concentration of precursor doesn't...
Hi
I am trying to learn kinetics and kinematics:
Euler angles
Directional cosine matrices
Quaternions
Inertia tensors
The usage of Jacobians in robotics
Manipulator kinematics
Eulers equations
Newton-Euler equations
etc
My background is in mathematics, so I would like a book which takes a...
Has anyone ever encountered a discussion on the topic of applying Euler's formula
exp(i*x) = cos(x) + i * sin(x)
to the equation governing first order chemical (and nuclear) reaction kinetics?
d[Reactant]/dt = C*[Reactant]
Hello
The table below shows some kinetics values for two types of the GOD enzyme, the free and the immobilised.
How can I comprehend what these values mean?
I want to know how many grams of substrate are 'converted' per sec per mg of enzyme.
I assume the substrate concentration plays role so...
Hi, I'm having trouble with this simple reaction (1):
$$A + A → I$$
with ##R = kC^2_A##
I'm assuming it takes place in a Batch reactor so the mass balance should yield:
$$\frac {dC_A} {dt} = -2R = -2kC^2_A$$
But, as I recall (I should be wrong though)...
Hi everybody,
Given a generic reaction ## Reagents ↔ Products ## the velocity of the reaction is ##R = R_{right} - R_{left} ##
To take in account that the velocity of the reaction will slow if approaching the equilibrium we say that
$$ R = R_{right}(1 - \frac K K_{eq}) $$
Although it seems...
Homework Statement
13.71 The path of the 3.6-kg particle P is an ellipse given by ##R = \frac {R_0} {(1+ecosθ)}##.
where R_0 = 0.5m and e=2/3. Assuming that the angular speed of line OP is constant
at 20 rad/s, calculate the polar components of the force that acts on the particle when it is at...
Homework Statement
13.69 A packege of mass m is placed inside a drum that rotates in the vertical plane
at the constant angular speed ##\dot {θ} = 1.36 rad/s##. If the package reaches the position
θ = 45deg before slipping, determine the static coefficient of friction between the
package and...
Homework Statement
13.54 The pentulum is released from rest with θ = 30deg. (a) Derive the equation of motion
using θ as the independent variable. (b) Determine the speed of the bob as a function of θ.
The solutions given in the textbok are a) ##\ddot θ = -4.905sinθ rad/s^2##
b) ##6.26\sqrt...
Homework Statement
13.53 The tension in the sting of the simple pendulum is 7.5N when θ=30deg.
Calculate the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the string at this instant.
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
Is this correct?
Homework Statement
13.49 The flatbed railway car travels at the constant speed of 80 km/h around a curve
of radius 55m and the bank angle 15deg. Determine the smallest static coefficient of friction between the crate and the car that would prevent the crate of mass M from sliding.
Homework...
This is problem 12.81 from Pytels Dynamics 2nd edition
1. Homework Statement
A train traveling at 20m/s is brought to an emergency stop. During braking,
the acceleration is a=-(7/4)+(t/16) m/s^2, where t is the time in seconds measured
from when the brakes were applied. (a) Integrate the...
Homework Statement
A projectile launched at A with an initial velocity of 24 m/s at the angle θ=60deg, impacts the vertical wall at B. Neglecting air resistance, calculate the height h
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
Here is my solution
As you can see to find height h I assumed...
Homework Statement
A 2000-kg is launched vertically from the surface of the earth. The engine shuts off after providing a constant propulsive force of 60 kN for the first 20 seconds. Neglect the reduction in the mass of the rocket due to the burning of the fuel and the variation of the...
Homework Statement
The cart carrying the small 9-N package A is moving up the incline with constant acceleration α. If the package stays at rest relative to the cart in the position θ=45deg, determine the value of α. Neglect friction.
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
[/B]
Are my...
Homework Statement
My problem deals with understanding why we substitute in the reaction kinetics equivalent into mass conservation equation instead of dealing with differentials
Homework Equations
From the conservation of mass law about an envelope:
$$\frac{dm}{d t} = \sum m_{in} - \sum...
Hey!
I have a question regarding this question that I have to answer. It is about the kinetics of a substance X whose product is 2Y. It is in Swedish and here is the translation:
The absorbance of a 0,030M-solution of X was calculated with the help of a Spectrometer. The Spectrometer was...
I can't seem to solve it, considering inertia can someone please solve it, both of the following question in the given picture. I would be very much thankful.
Homework Statement
An enzyme catalysed reaction becomes zeroth order when:
a.The velocity of enzyme action very low
b. The velocity of enzyme action very high
c.Enzyme conc very high
d. All of these The attempt at a solution
I understand An enzyme mediation recation becomes Zeroth order if [...
Homework Statement
A man is pushing the wheelchair having combined mass of 80kg with center of gravity at CG. The mass of each rear wheel is 1.6 kg and moment of inertia 0.1kgm^2. Friction coefficient for all wheels 0.6 . Find maximum acceleration of the wheelchair without slippage between the...
I need to design an ammonia production process but I can't find the kinetic info from the articles online. The catalyst will be iron. Can somebody explain how to find kinetics data and conversion rate? I found some articles but there was no conversion info on them.
1. Homework Statement
An iodine clock kinetics experiment was performed by varying the composition of reactant solutions and measuring resulting rates of reaction (based on the data given, I have determined the rate law to be R = [I-]1[S2O82-]1). Which of these four proposed mechanisms below...
Hi,
We are currently working on a small-scale Fischer-Tropsch process.
The modeling software we are using is HYSYS (Aspen).
We want to produce X barils of oil / day using syngas (H2:CO ratio 2:1) using cobalt catalysts.
The problem we are currently facing is that we do not have the kinetics...
Technically, this isn't a question concerning supercritical fluids. It's more about converting thermal energy into velocity by playing "keep-away" with molecules that want to go supercritical.
The idea is simple. In an fully contained system, we can more or less say volume is static...
Homework Statement
Certain pollutants encourage the following decomposition of ozone: 2O 3(g) -> 3O 2(g), at a rate of 6.5 x 10-4 M O 3/s. How many molecules of O2 gas are formed in each litre of atmosphere every day by this process? (As this problem provides a rate in units of mol/L/s and...
Homework Statement
Hi, I've been trying to solve this exercise for the last four hours and I'm totally stuck. The problems goes like this:
Given the mechanism in the image, located in the vertical plane, the OB cord is cut when t=0. Find the reactions Rx, Ry and N in {Kgf} for the instants...
Homework Statement
Please refer to both figures. The result of the example problem was θ=33.2°
Homework Equations
ΣFn=man
The Attempt at a Solution
I am stumped. I thought you could solve the forces in the z direction, straight up from the car, and set that to zero since there is no...
Homework Statement
Hydrolysis of ethyl lactate
Determine the value of the rate constant for the hydrolysis of ethyl lactate from the following data.
Mass of ethyl lactate (grams): 0.5956
Concentration of stock HCl solution (M): 0.01023
Standardization titration volumes (of NaOH):
Run...
I did a practical and am now trying to do the data analysis of it. the prac was the alpha-chymotrypsin catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl trimethylacetate.
I have values for X, Y and B and the lab manual has asked "Using the approximated, simplified expressions for X (equation 2), Y (equation...
This post is not about a homework problem but about a derivation
When i was flipping through a physical chemistry book I found a formula which looked like
How ever I am clueless to what it is
Can anyone explain what it is for
And possibly Derive it
Thank you
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Is the question asking the concentration when the system has reached its half life
Can use the half life formula?[/B]The Attempt at a Solution
So
1/cT + 1/co = kt
1/(4 *10-2) + 1/x = k(half life time)
Is this the right approach
Please help me...
NO TEMPLATE BECAUSE THREAD WAS ORIGINALLY ENTERED INTO WRONG FORUM
Hi Guys,
I have attached the question that I am struggling with (part b of the question)
I have worked out that the conversion of A is X=0.21
Using this conversion I'm trying to work out the time required for the reaction
I...
Homework Statement
A positively charged particle initially at rest on the ground accelerates upward to 180 m/s in 2.70 s .The particle has a charge-to-mass ratio of 0.100 C/kg and the electric field in this region is constant and uniform.
What are the magnitude and direction of the electric...
Hey guys, new here :biggrin:
Just started a kinetics course and I'm looking forward to discuss the meanings and maybe get some examples of the kinetic equations and graph's I'll encounter (just finished the time distance stuff) pardon my newness to the world of physics, this would be my first...
Homework Statement
Calculate activation energy and pre exponential factor, i need help with the pre exponential factor
Homework Equations
Temperature °C
-20 = 253 k
-10= 263
0=273
10=283
20=293
Rate const. s-1
1.15
3.85
11.3
28.7
74.0
The Attempt at a Solution
i already plotted the graph on...
I just now read in my textbook that solids and liquids are not included in equilibrium expressions, are they included in rate laws? If not, why? Would a greater molar amount of solid or liquid increase the rate of reaction? And why isn't surface area included in Rate Laws?
Also, for the...
Homework Statement
An elevator departs the ground at t=0 With uniform velocity. At T1 a boy drops a marbel through the floor of the lift that falls under constant acceleration g=9.8 ms^-2. If it takes marbel T2 time to fall down, what was the height at the T1.
Homework Equations
h=vT1
h= vT2...
Consider the image below
Does it emit all 3 types of heat in the form of UV, IR and light?
At what threshold does light start to appear and what colors should it illuminate?
Hypothetically, say I have an induction furnace and is capable of setting frequencies to about 700THz, will it be able to...