What is Periodic: Definition and 434 Discussions

The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends. The seven rows of the table, called periods, generally have metals on the left and nonmetals on the right. The columns, called groups, contain elements with similar chemical behaviours. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens; and group 18 are the noble gases. Also displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals.
The elements from atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (oganesson) have all been discovered or synthesized, completing seven full rows of the periodic table. The first 94 elements, hydrogen to plutonium, all occur naturally, though some are found only in trace amounts and a few were discovered in nature only after having first been synthesized. Elements 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories, nuclear reactors, or nuclear explosions. The synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is currently being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, and theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension. Numerous synthetic radioisotopes of naturally occurring elements have also been produced in laboratories.
The organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, and also to predict chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed mainly to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements. He also predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts soon proved to be correct, culminating with the discovery of gallium and germanium in 1875 and 1886 respectively, which corroborated his predictions. Mendeleev's idea has been slowly expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, and continues to be widely used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences. Some discussion remains ongoing regarding the placement and categorisation of specific elements, the future extension and limits of the table, and whether there is an optimal form of the table.

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  1. al4n

    B Looking for a specific periodic function

    Is there a function that outputs a 1 when the input is a multiple of a number of your choice and 0 if otherwise. The input is also restricted to natural numbers. The only thing I can come up with is something of the form: f(x) = [sin(ax)+1]/2 but this does not output a 0 when I want it.
  2. fluidistic

    LaTeX Most awesome periodic table of the elements in Latex?

    I would like to print a nice PTOTE, written in Latex. So that I could make small modifications before printing it. I have checked on the Internet, but surprisingly couldn't find any really nice one. Ideally, it should contain information like the fusion point, possibly crystallographic...
  3. Slimy0233

    I Can all possible periodic arrangements of lattices be arranged as a Bravais lattice just by taking a different motif?

    or Are all naturally occurring crystals with periodic arrangement of lattices Bravais lattices? From two days, I have been trying to understand Bravais lattices and what it's importance is and after a lot of research, I came to know that they are a periodic arrangement of lattice points with...
  4. C

    Exploring Periodic Distribution of Rigid Balls in a Vast Space

    First of all, all the physical quantities presented in this topic are unknown variables, and I require a functional relationship between these unknown variables. In a vast space that does not consider gravity , there are many ideal rigid balls moving freely. And in equilibrium. The ball is...
  5. V

    How to prove that motion is periodic but not simple harmonic?

    TL;DR Summary: Prove that a sum of trigonometric ratios is periodic but not not simple harmonic. We need to prove that ##x = sin{\omega t} + sin{2\omega t} + sin{4\omega t}## where ##x## is the displacement from the equilibrium position at time ##t##. I can see that each term is a SHM, but...
  6. Kyuubi

    Current on Infinite Periodic LC Circuit

    I wrote down the equation of motion for In(t) and I'm trying to match it with infinite spring mass system equation solution. In the spring mass system, we consider A to be the equilibrium length of the springs, and we can thus write Xn(t) = X(nA,t) and put it back into the equation of motion...
  7. P

    A Prove a series is periodic

    ##\sum _{n=0}^{\infty }\:\frac{sin\left(2^nx\right)}{2^n}## I have to show the series is periodic, ##2\pi ## ( I think ), it is related to fourier - analyze fourrier course at academics, so I might be right, or just periodic, we learned only periodic of ## 2\pi ## ( of course also continuous...
  8. S

    Comp Sci Plot periodic function with Fourier coefficients

    I have plotted the function for ##T=15## and ##\tau=T/30## below with the following code in Python: import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def p(t,T,tau): n=np.floor(t/T) t=t-n*T if t<(2*np.pi*tau): p=np.sin(t/tau) else: p=0 return p...
  9. F

    I A question about potential in the periodic lattice of a solid

    In 3D period lattice, can we separate variable and write potential as V=V(x)+V(y)+V(z)?Then we can reduce the 3D problems into 1D problems. I ask this question because in Solid State Physics books they often consider the 1D problems.
  10. R

    A Measure of non-periodicity of almost periodic functions

    As is well known, almost periodic functions can be represented as a Fourier series with incommensurable (non-multiple) frequencies https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almost_periodic_function. It seems to me that I came up with an integral criterion for the degree of non-periodicity. The integral of a...
  11. DennisN

    I Discovery: A radio transient with unusually slow periodic emission

    Paper: N. Hurley-Walker, X. Zhang et.al, A radio transient with unusually slow periodic emission (Nature, 26 January 2022) Abstract: The high-frequency radio sky is bursting with synchrotron transients from massive stellar explosions and accretion events, but the low-frequency radio sky has...
  12. DaveC426913

    B Periodic spiral graph interpretation

    Could someone explain the geometry of this graph? Why does the radial distance vary non-uniformly? To-wit: Distance from origin to Nov 2020 is much larger than Nov 2020 to Nov 2021 Why are there two areas - one above and one below - the centre line...
  13. C

    I What's the definition of "periodic extension of a function"?

    I'm learning about Fourier theory from my lecture notes and I have a few questions that I wasn't able to concretely find answers to: 1. What's the definition of periodic extension? I think the definition is as follows ( Correct me if I'm wrong please ): for ## f: [ a,b) \to \mathbb{R} ## its...
  14. R

    Fourier series, periodic function for a string free at each end

    From the statement above, since the ring is massless, there's no force acting vertically on the rings. Thus, the slope is null. ##\frac{\partial y(0,0)}{\partial x} = \frac{\partial y(L,0)}{\partial x} = 0## ##\frac{\partial y(0,0)}{\partial x} = A\frac{2 \pi}{L}cos(\frac{2 \pi 0}{L}) =...
  15. N

    Periodic boundary conditions -> Shouldn't supports hinder all motion?

    Hello everyone, I am currently trying to understand periodic boundary conditions for the mechanical investigation of mechanical properties of a RVE. I found a good video explaining the theory behind it: But something is unclear to me: At the above linked time step, the individual conical...
  16. mcas

    Finding Energy in FCC Lattice Using Weak Potential Method

    I have a problem with finding the energy of an electron in an FCC lattice using the weak potential method. We did that for a one-dimensional lattice during class, and I know that there was a double degeneration at the boundaries of the first Brillouin Zone. However, I'm not sure what...
  17. maistral

    A Backward Euler technique vs. periodic function: Damping out?

    So I've been programming the BDF methods and for some reason I have an issue with the Backward Euler technique. Given the differential equation y" + y = 0 (with y(0) = 2, y'(0) = 0), my backward Euler solution goes like this: Obviously this is not possible as the function should be a...
  18. L

    A Ising model open chain and periodic boundary conditions

    One dimensional Ising model is often treated as open chain system with free ends. Then when external field is added it is treated with cyclic boundary condition. Can someone explain me are those methods equivalent, or not?
  19. abdsaber000

    Periodic vs. oscillatory motion

    I'm hesitated between the first and second choice
  20. Helena Wells

    Energy of valence electrons from period of the periodic table

    I am currently studying Electrical Engineering and I have this question: An energy band is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals of atoms coming close to each other.I suspect that if the energy of the atomic orbital of the valence electrons of a chemical element is less than the energy of...
  21. S

    B Does Dark Matter Have a Periodic Table?

    Hello All There is much discussion on the existence of Dark Matter. Should we think of Dark Matter as having macro structure, ie comprising elementary particles, leading to atoms and a Dark Periodic Table? best regards ... Stef
  22. HansBu

    Periodic and Chaotic Solutions to Chen System/Attractors

    Here is the Chen System I am given the initial condition (t=0) that a particle lies on the xyz-plane at a point (-10,0,35). I was notified that if I plugged in a=40, b=5, and c=30, the trajectory of the particle will be chaotic. On the other hand, if I retained the values of a and c, and...
  23. F

    Radioactivity and the Periodic Table

    Hello, The periodic table organizes all known chemical elements (total of 118) based on their atomic number and properties. My understanding is that the first 92 elements are commonly found in nature while the other 26 are either highly radioactive and/or artificially made. Radioactive elements...
  24. L

    Causing periodic storm events on a fictional planet

    Hi, I’m looking for ideas and guidance (maybe even formulas?) on making an on-planet situation match a hypothetical solar system. It’s for a fantasy role-playing, but the sentient species must necessarily care (and believably calculate) aspects about their solar system. (However, because it’s...
  25. Wrichik Basu

    MATLAB Using repmat to plot a periodic function

    Consider the following function: $$f(x) = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{when} & -\pi<x<0\\ 0 & \text{when} & 0<x<\pi \end{cases}$$ Beyond ##-\pi## and ##\pi##, the function just repeats itself; it is periodic. I want to plot this function for values beyond ##-\pi## and ##\pi##. The graph should look...
  26. S

    Heat Equation with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    I'm solving the heat equation on a ring of radius ##R##. The ring is parameterised by ##s##, the arc-length from the 3 o'clock position. Using separation of variables I have found the general solution to be: $$U(s,t) = S(s)T(t) = (A\cos(\lambda s)+B\sin(\lambda s))*\exp(-\lambda^2 kt)$$...
  27. M_Abubakr

    Wave dispersion in 2D Unit cell subjected to a periodic boundary

    How do I get the wave dispersion for a 2D continuum unit cell subjected to a periodic boundary which is excited longitudinally? I'll be applying forces in ABAQUS with varying frequencies. I have come across Blochs theorem but I can't find any application of it in continuous systems. Every...
  28. michii15

    I Find the only periodic solution of an ODE

    Find the only periodic solution for 𝑦′+𝑦=𝑏(𝑥) with 𝑏:ℝ→ℝ has a period of 2𝑇 and is 1 for 𝑥(0,𝑇) and −1 for 𝑥(−𝑇,0). The ODE is easy to solve: 𝑦(𝑥)=exp(−𝑥)⋅𝑐+1 and 𝑦(𝑥)=exp(−𝑥)⋅𝑐−1. But how can I find the 𝑐 such that the solution is periodic with a period of 2𝑇? The solution is...
  29. patric44

    The periodic time of an elastic string's oscillation

    i guess he is asking for the periodic time : $$Tension = \frac {λ*y}{a} $$ $$ \lambda= mg $$ $$y =3a$$ $$T = 3mg$$ $$F = T-mg\Longrightarrow F = 3mg-mg = 2mg$$ $$m{y}''=2mg$$ $$y'' = 2g \therefore\frac { dy'}{dt} = 2g \Longrightarrow y' = 2gt+c1$$ by applying the boundary conditions and...
  30. M_Abubakr

    RVE Periodic Boundary Conditions in ANSYS Workbench Modal Analysis

    Hi I have a project regarding micromechanics of composites. I'm starting my analysis on the Fiber Matrix RVE. Right now I'm trying to find the natural frequency of the unit cell. The Unit cell has some unique geometry which I will keep on changing to see how natural frequency changes. I have...
  31. B

    I Why does the arrangement of the Periodic Table make no sense?

    We're told that the electron shells give the relative reactivity/affinity to other atoms by their incompleteness, completeness or over-completeness, and arranged in the periodic table accordingly as columns. The shells are are concentrically arranged around the nucleus from smaller capacity to...
  32. Kaushik

    Time period of a periodic function

    Consider the following periodic function: ## f(t) = \sin(ωt) + \cos(2ωt) + \sin(4ωt) ## What is the time period of the above periodic function? The following is given in my book: Period is the least interval of time after which the function repeats. Here, ##\sin(ωt)## has a period ##T_o =...
  33. S

    Periodic Boundaries in Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    In molecular dynamics people use periodic boundaries to confine particles being simulated. I read here that they are used to simulate large "infinite" particle systems. How can I know that the periodic boundary is simulating actual molecular outcomes for a finite particle system that had a large...
  34. S

    Periodic images of dipole line charge followed by a vacuum space

    Can I sum up the potential due to all positive line charges and all negative line charges separately, with the boundary condition being at the edge of my unit cell, the potential should be the same and inside the metal there is a contant potential?
  35. mollwollfumble

    A Are Retrograde Satellites the Key to Stable and Optimal Orbits?

    I was working on a proposal for a spacecraft , and suddenly realized that the ideal orbit may be a high inclination type of near-Earth coorbital called a "retrograde satellite" or RS orbit. Do you know of: * A person who can compute 100 years of coorbital stability using three body (sun...
  36. Adrian Tudini

    Computer code that handles the periodic table of elements

    Hi guys When I ran the Chemical Equilibrium Code from NASA (grc.nasa.gov) to predict the products of a chemical reaction and their concentrations, it says it does not handle certain elements in the database from the periodic table. Is there a computer code that predicts the products of a...
  37. dRic2

    I Periodic electron motion in a perfect conductor using a semiclassical model

    According to the semiclassical approximation, in response to a constant electric field I would get a periodic motion of the electron, like this: The sinusoidal type function is the velocity, while the function that goes to infinity is the effective mass. Thus I was wondering, since ##v## also...
  38. SisypheanZealot

    Dirac Delta using periodic functions

    I know it is something simple that I am missing, but for the life of me I am stuck. So, I used the identity ##sin(a)sin(b)+cos(a)cos(b)=cos(a-b)## which gives me $$\int^{\infty}_{-\infty}dx\:f(x)\delta(x-y)=\int^{\infty}_{-\infty}dx\:f(x)\frac{1}{2L}\sum^{\infty}_{n=-\infty}\lbrace...
  39. Robin04

    I Mean of the derivative of a periodic function

    We have a periodic function ##f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}## with period ##T, f(x+T)=f(x)## The statement is the following: $$\frac{1}{T}\int_0^T f(x)dx =0 \implies \frac{1}{T}\int_0^T\frac{d}{dx} f(x)dx =0$$ Can you give me a hint on how to prove/disprove it? The examples I tried all...
  40. Max Kovalevich

    Transform the periodic table of chemical elements.

    Summary: Transform the periodic table of chemical elements (periodic table) into a universal way of storing and transmitting information using spectral analysis. I propose a concept in which the basis for working with information (conservation, transmission in networks) is to use spectral...
  41. bernardoprepmare

    Plot the graph and if the signal is periodic, what is the fundamental?

    I do not know how to declare time t and unit steps. The image of problems to get a better understanding as well.
  42. S

    Specifying vertical asymptotes in periodic functions in set notation

    Hi all, What is the general set notation for specifying a vertical asymptote and domain for a periodic function? For example, if I have a periodic function which has a period of pi/2, and within that period, a vertical asymptote occurs at pi/4. The domain is R, excluding that vertical...
  43. BillTre

    How Has the Periodic Table Changed Over its 150 Year History?

    The Periodic Table is 150 years old sometime this year (I could not find its exact birthday). Good job Mendeleev! Here is a Science magazine news info graphic on how it has changed over time (before and after Mendeleev). The graphic came out a while ago, but was not working then. Now it does.
  44. Boltzman Oscillation

    How can I prove this discrete signal is periodic?

    Homework Statement Prove the discreet signal is periodic: Homework Equations for periodic funtions: x[n] = x[n + N] The Attempt at a Solution I made an equality (im going to leave the sigma out for simplicity): 2^(-abs(n-2m)) = 2^(-abs(n+N-2m)) I don't know what I need to do from...
  45. S

    Amplitude relation with periodic time

    Homework Statement Ql: Which sound wave will have its crests farther apart from each other - a wave with frequency 100 Hz or a wave with frequency 500 Hz? Homework Equations Frequency= 1/ periodic time The Attempt at a Solution I did it like that: I just found the periodic time for each...
  46. C

    MHB Anti-derivatives of the periodic functions

    Dear Everyone, I do not know how to begin with the following problem:Suppose that $f$ is $2\pi$-periodic and let $a$ be a fixed real number. Define $F(x)=\int_{a}^{x} f(t)dt$, for all $x$ . Show that $F$ is $2\pi$-periodic if and only if $\int_{0}^{2\pi}f(t)dt=0$. Thanks, Cbarker1
  47. Matt Benesi

    B Periodic smooth alternating series other than sin and cos

    1) Are there any periodic alternating series functions other than sine and cosine (and series derived from them, like the series for cos(a) * cos(b))? 2) What is the following series called when x is (0,1) and (1,2]? Quasiperiodic? Semi? \sum_{n=0}^\infty \, (-1)^n \...
  48. jim mcnamara

    Example vue.js application - nice periodic chart

    Chart: https://periodicity.io/ Kadin Zhang's code on github: https://periodicity.io/ edit: https://github.com/kadinzhang/Periodicity The app is very useful for beginning chemistry students, IMO, but is even better for learning the vue.js toolset for web development. Code example itself is...
  49. G

    I Periodic potential V(x) -- how can I show that the period is d?

    periodic potential how can i show that period is d