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I don't think the problems I'm going to post are very difficult, but I'm totally clueless regarding chemistry, so they're pretty difficult for me ^^;; I also have a lot of questions to ask, so I hope you don't mind my sticking them all into one topic. I'm looking forward to your help. You don't have to answer ALL my questions, since I seem to explain them confusingly...but I'd really appreciate explanations. Thanks in advance!

First off is about the Lewis Structures. You have to know the electrons needed and those available and the bonds to be formed, right? But I don't understand the significance of the number of bonds, since it doesn't seem to be followed. (At least this was how we were taught to do LS.)

Anyway, while drawing the structure, how would you know which shape to follow? (I've been trying to listen to class as much as possible, but I still can't get it.) And we're also required to determine the hybridization, which is another thing I can't understand. And how do you solve something with a charge? One problem is below:

Draw the structures and determine the shapes and hybridizations of the following:

a. ClO

no. of electrons needed: 4x8=32

no. of electrons available: Cl=7, O=6x3, total=25, +1 (because of the charge?), total=26

32-26=6 electrons, 3 bonds

http://img142.imageshack.us/img142/3360/cl03rq2.gif [Broken]

Shape: (I have no idea...)

Hybridization:

Cl: (Ne) 3s

ground state: ↓↑3s ↓↑3p ↓↑3p ↓3p

hybrid state: ↓↑3sp

Is that correct?

If the hybridization is correct (hopefully), I have another question about it. For example, the hybridization for BrF

Br: (Ar) 3d

ground state: ↓↑4s ↓↑4p ↓↑4p ↓4p 4d 4d 4d 4d 4d

Is the hybrid state:

↓↑4sp

...or:

↓4sp

I see both being used, and I don't know how to determine which one to use. Sometimes the ns part is just left as it is, working only with the np and nd, but then sometimes all of them are hybridized or something... I hope you got what I'm blabbering about ^^;;

I'd really appreciate help about SHAPES (the seesaw, etc.) because I can't understand them...

Well, another question: how do you draw the molecular orbital diagram of something that has a charge? For example, O

Another about formal charges: For example for SO

Thanks very much in advance

First off is about the Lewis Structures. You have to know the electrons needed and those available and the bonds to be formed, right? But I don't understand the significance of the number of bonds, since it doesn't seem to be followed. (At least this was how we were taught to do LS.)

Anyway, while drawing the structure, how would you know which shape to follow? (I've been trying to listen to class as much as possible, but I still can't get it.) And we're also required to determine the hybridization, which is another thing I can't understand. And how do you solve something with a charge? One problem is below:

## Homework Statement

Draw the structures and determine the shapes and hybridizations of the following:

a. ClO

_{3}^{-}## Homework Equations

no. of electrons needed: 4x8=32

no. of electrons available: Cl=7, O=6x3, total=25, +1 (because of the charge?), total=26

32-26=6 electrons, 3 bonds

## The Attempt at a Solution

http://img142.imageshack.us/img142/3360/cl03rq2.gif [Broken]

Shape: (I have no idea...)

Hybridization:

Cl: (Ne) 3s

^{2}3p^{5}ground state: ↓↑3s ↓↑3p ↓↑3p ↓3p

hybrid state: ↓↑3sp

^{3}↓↑3sp^{3}↓↑3sp^{3}↓3sp^{3}Is that correct?

If the hybridization is correct (hopefully), I have another question about it. For example, the hybridization for BrF

_{5}.Br: (Ar) 3d

^{10}4s^{2}4p^{5}ground state: ↓↑4s ↓↑4p ↓↑4p ↓4p 4d 4d 4d 4d 4d

Is the hybrid state:

↓↑4sp

^{3}d^{2}↓4sp^{3}d^{2}↓4sp^{3}d^{2}↓4sp^{3}d^{2}↓4sp^{3}d^{2}↓4sp^{3}d^{2}...or:

↓4sp

^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}↓4sp^{3}d^{3}I see both being used, and I don't know how to determine which one to use. Sometimes the ns part is just left as it is, working only with the np and nd, but then sometimes all of them are hybridized or something... I hope you got what I'm blabbering about ^^;;

I'd really appreciate help about SHAPES (the seesaw, etc.) because I can't understand them...

Well, another question: how do you draw the molecular orbital diagram of something that has a charge? For example, O

_{2}^{2-}. I only know how to do those without charges, but would it be the same with or without the charge?Another about formal charges: For example for SO

_{4}^{-2}. Does the structure need to be drawn first before determining the FC of S? And does S have only one formal charge?Thanks very much in advance

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