What is Beer: Definition and 95 Discussions

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling, pub quizzes and pub games.
When beer is distilled, the resulting liquor is a form of whisky.

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  1. sbrothy

    Serious science is alive and well....

    Don't let anyone tell you otherwise. Optimizing Beer Glass Shapes to Minimize Heat Transfer During Consumption.
  2. dzbshea

    My glass beer bottle survived a fall from the 10th floor, how, & why?

    All of you sound really smart, I have a question for you. This happened in Hawaii, years ago. I was drinking with my highschool friends, we decided who can throw the empty brown Budweiser bottles (the short stocky kind) the furthest from the balcony 10 flights down would go get another round. I...
  3. D

    I The Price of Beer - Linear Algebra Problem

    I came across the following problem somewhere on the web. The original site is long gone. The problem has me stumped. May be sopmeone can provide some insight. (The problem seems too simple to post in the "Linear/Abstract Algebra" forum.) The Cost of Beer It was nearing Easter, and a group...
  4. Astronuc

    CO2 shortage affecting beer and meat supply in US

    A shortage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the U.S. is leading to complications at a number of breweries and food suppliers across the country. https://time.com/6215461/carbon-dioxide-beer-shortage/ Denbury Energy issued a statement that the contamination was a "minor issue", and they maintain...
  5. V

    Chemistry Beer Lambert problem, where did I go wrong?

    A=ECL A = log(io/I) A = log100/1 = 2 2/105M(1cm) = 0.019M ~ 20mM Apparently the answer is 2mM, where did I go wrong?
  6. Will26040

    How do I get the viscosity of a mash mixture in brewing?

    Hi, I am designing a mash tun to produce beer. I have 1300kg of malted barley (at a known density) and 3250kg of water. Please could someone outline a method I could use as I am really struggling. One of the main problems I am having is accounting for the density change of the malt when it...
  7. B

    Misc. My Winter project -- beer delivery system to my second floor

    Let me start off by saying that I realize it would be much easier to haul a fridge up stairs into the man cave , but what fun is that. I have this novel , totally unnecessary project in mind. I want to make a beer delivery system. Something like you would see in a bank drive threw. My man cave...
  8. S

    Equilibrium value for carbonation level in beer

    Abs Pressure: Gauge press: 1 bar G = 100,000 Pa = 0.987 atm 0.1 bar G = 0.0987 atm Atm press = 101.3 kPa = 1 atm Hydrostatic press: average CO2 occurs 2.5m up the vessel (9.81 ms-2)(1010kgm-3)(5/2) = 24,770.25 Pa 1 Pa = 9.869x10^-6 atm 24,770.25 Pa = 0.2445 atm Abs press= 0.0987 atm + 1 atm...
  9. BillTre

    Today is National Beer Day in the US

    Just found out that today (April 7) is National Beer Day in the US. It marks the day the Cullen-Harrison act had effect. This was before Prohibition (amendment 18) was repealed. Instead the Cullen-Harrison act (in traditional American tradition) worked around the amendment by redefining the...
  10. S

    Equilibrium concentration of co2 in beer

    Absolute pressure is gauge pressure + atmos press Guage press = 1.29 bar G 1 bar = 10^5 Pa 1.29 bar = 129,000 Pa Atmos Pres = 1.01x10^5 Pa Absolute pressure = 230,000 Pa Henrys law: P=KhC 230000Pa = (116x10^3Pa)C 1.98 mole fraction =C 70% CO2 = 1.387 mole fraction 44g Co2 in 1 mole 61.07g...
  11. S

    Calculate the equilibrium concentration of CO2 in beer in grams/liter

    Absolute pressure = Gauge press + Atmos press Atmos press = 105 Pa Co2 press = 0.1 bar g = 10000Pa Abs press = 10,105 Pa Hydrostatic pressure = absolute press + (density)(grav)(height at midpoint) = 10,105 + (1008)(9.81)(10) 10,8989.8 Pa Calc CO2 conc by henrys law P=KHC C=P/KH =...
  12. AchillesWrathfulLove

    What does dark beer taste like?

    What does dark brown beer or maybe even black beer taste like? Not really a fan of beer as I only drink to get wasted and I prefer something sweet like a vodka cruiser that comes in fruity flavors. I have tasted light beers, you know the yellow colored ones but haven't tasted the darker...
  13. jim mcnamara

    Haunted bananas, deep fried beer?

    Maybe people have too much time on their hands... or air pollution has epigenetic effects beyond pulmonary damage. As in brain damage. This recipe is potentially explosive, therefore a dangerous burn potential, which the article is very careful to explain. Definitely a DIY Darwin award...
  14. F

    Does Cavitation Occur in a Beer Bottle Under These Conditions?

    Homework Statement ##\rho##water = 1.94 a = variable ##\gamma## = 1.94(32.2) = 62.4 Pressure outside P1 = 2116 lb/ft3 Temp = 75 F Pressure at bottom P2 = vapor pressure = 52.3 lb/ft3 Height = 6 inch = .5 ft Homework Equations -##\nabla{p}-\gamma\hat{j}=\rho\hat{a}## The Attempt at a...
  15. N

    Create Home Brew Bottle Capper: 6 at a Time

    So I've been working on a home project of creating a movable, self contained, ergonomic beer small (3-6 GA) home brew kit. I'd like to be able to fill and cap 6 bottles at one time. I'm working on a prototype for the filling process but need some ideas for how I could apply 6 caps to six bottles...
  16. Carlos de Meo

    I Understanding the Beer-Lambert Law and Its Derivation

    Hi Guys Studying some optical properties of materials and found this equation on Callister T = I0*(1-R)2*(exp(-βx) Where T is transmission, R reflection, β the absorption coefficient and x the lenght. In the same chapter, the author says that this equation´s derivation is homework I tried to...
  17. Alexanddros81

    I don't understand a sample problem in Dynamics Beer

    Hi! I am new to this forum and i have problem understanding sample problem 13.5 from Vector Mechanics for Engineers 10th edition Statics and dynamics. (Beer) In particular I don't understant how in part b assigns the value aC=-1/2aD If anyone can help thanks
  18. wolram

    Celebrate with a Non-Birthday: Relaxing Bath, Beer, Chinese Food & More!

    I have decided that today is going to be one of my non birthdays, today my bandages come off so i can have a long luxurious bath with lots of bubbles and smelly stuff, i am going to have some beer and eat Chinese food, walk around in my shorts and watch a film of my chose, i may even smoke a...
  19. S

    Thinner beer bottle has lower heat loss?

    I was reading an article about how Heineken has replaced its short stubby bottles with the standard American longnecks, with reason: In 2013 the company replaced its old stubby bottles with a fashionably long-necked version that supposedly keeps the beer cold longer...
  20. Ranger Mike

    Why don't we make beer cans out of Granite?

    Seriously...Granite is 2% heavier than aluminum and takes considerably more time to change with ambient temperature. I value your input. all suggestions welcome.
  21. Mihai Ilie

    How can I calculate the strength of a beer can / soda can?

    Homework Statement I am doing a project which involves making furniture out of beer/soda cans but I need to do some calculations for it. I know the can can hold around 52 Kg or even more based on experimental results but is there any way to find out with some formulas? I found it tricky because...
  22. F

    What has this single dad been up to for the past 35 years?

    Studied physics 35 years ago , been running Hang Gliding school ever since Major nerd with interest in anything and everything Single dad for past 15 years Love skiing and beer!?
  23. H

    Can taste perception be influenced by packaging? A blind trial study.

    ...of physics on both quantum and cosmic scales. I am a chemical engineer and avid programmer who has always had an interest in fundamental physics, but this will be my first effort to truly pursue that passion. And I make beer for a living. :)
  24. W

    How does the Beer Lambert law work at non-normal incidences?

    I want to calculate the intensity of a transmitted wave in a medium, but not at normal incidence. I want to consider the case of 45 degrees. What proportion of the intensity of the wave is lost by reflection? Specifically I am looking at a the reflection off of a thin film of aluminum...
  25. O

    Experiment - beer bottle and ping pong ball

    Hello. I have a question about experiment. You know it. You need beer bottle, water and ping pong ball. You completely fill the beer bottle with water and you take the ball on the top of the bottle. The ball will not fall, if you take the beer bottle upside down. OK, the atmospheric force...
  26. coktail

    Homebrewing beer and galvanic corrosion

    I’ve started home brewing beer recently, and I’m assembling equipment for my first 5 gallon batch. The technique I’ll be using requires me to put grains into a nylon bag and then steep that bag of grains in hot water (approx 160°), much like a giant teabag. The trick is that the bag cannot touch...
  27. 1

    Samuel Smith's is my favorite beer company

    Has anyone tried anything from "Samuel Smith's"? I tried their Strawberry Ale which was by far the best fruit beer I've ever had, and I decided to try their Oatmeal Stout a couple of nights ago which blew me away. Looking forward to trying their pale ale or whatever I see next.. great beer...
  28. E

    Calculating Work Required to Empty a Tank of Beer

    So a cousin has asked me for Calculus help, but my Calculus is rusty. She's in Calculus II (of a 3-semester sequence in the US) and is on Work. I decided to make up a problem for her, but I want to make sure I know what I'm doing. Homework Statement A cylindrical tank (16 feet high with a...
  29. rogerk8

    What is the energy amount in four litres of beer?

    Hi! I wonder how much physical work I have to do to burn four litres of beer (2.8%) which I drink every day. This is a serious question because I have some overweight while being a beer-lover. A friend of mine told me that alcohol (C2H5OH) is converted to pure sugar in the body. This...
  30. M

    Alcohol in beer would evaporate extremely slowly in cold temperatures?

    I'm guessing the alcohol in beer would evaporate extremely slowly in cold temperatures like a fridge. I hear a lot of people say otherwise, so I'm wondering if it even evaporates a noticeable amount in 24 hours?
  31. C

    Cross Product of vectors in vector mechanics by beer and johnston

    Hi, I was reading vector mechanics by beer and jhonston. I came across the equation wherein the cross prodcut of two vectors P and Q is given. It says P x Q = P x Q` . I am not bale to understand how dis is possible. Because as the vector Q changes even the angle teetha will change then how...
  32. A

    Can I trap a gas in a beer bottle with an ordinary bottle capcap?

    Can I trap a gas in a beer bottle with an ordinary bottle capcap?? I would like to trap neon gas in a beer bottle with a bottle capper. My goal is to build a plasma ball (tesla ball) in a beer bottle so I can have corona in my corona :P. I plan on building the tesla coil into the bottom of...
  33. A

    Does wrapping a beer in a wet paper towel increase the rate of cooling

    It is commonly said (based on a quick Google search) that wrapping your beer in a wet paper towel and placing it in the freezer will allow it to cool faster than placing it in the freezer without said paper towel. Newton's Law of Cooling suggests otherwise. The fact that water releases energy...
  34. C

    Help needed for transformation of stresses in beer and johnston book

    Transformation of stresses in beer and johnston mechanics of materials. While reading the section on trsnformation of stresses they have solved by using the force components in x' and y' directions. I have attached a screenshot of the relevant page and the figure. I have few doubt as to how the...
  35. L

    How long would it take for a can of beer to fall over due to quantum tunneling?

    It's on page 4 (this isn't homework, just something I stumbled upon, it's also in Griffith's 8.17):http://www.physics.udel.edu/~msafrono/425/Lecture%2018.pdf . Can someone help me understand this solution? What exactly is happening...are there particles at h/2 that are smashing against the...
  36. P

    Cooling two six packs of beer in a small refrigerator

    Your dorm room has a temperature of 72 °F, and you have two six packs of beer that you want to get ready to a drinking temperature of 61 °F for dinner. Your fridge has a temperature of 44 °F, and experience has shown that a room-temperature six pack, placed in the fridge, will be at drinking...
  37. L

    Understanding Physics for the Beer Mug Problem

    [b]1. A bartender slides a beer mug at 1.50m/s towards a customer at the end of a frictionless bar that is 1.2m tall. the customer makes a grab for the mug and misses, and the mug sails of the end of the bar. What are the speed and direction of the mug at impact? [b]2. Vx=Vocosθ Vy=Vosinθ...
  38. M

    Calculate Min/Max Gas Absorption Sensitivity w/ Beer-Lambert's Law

    Is there anyone here that could help me calculate the min and max sensitivy of gas absorption based on calculated path lengths? I can post specifics if someone can help, but I got no where on one of the other forums. Maybe I posted it on the wrong one? Anybody?
  39. S

    Technical question about nucleation of beer?

    Technical question about nucleation of beer!? I work as a barman and am also a physics student. But I just can't seem to get my head around something: I understand that beer (referring to lager really) consists of water with CO2 dissolved in it with other, irrelevant, stuff also. You cannot see...
  40. M

    Find Errors in Beer and Johnston 9th Edition - Help Problem Solve

    it is a request to all who are using the book BEER and JOHNSTON : STATICS and DYNAMICS 9th edition to please use this as a medium to post any errors you find in the book. It will greatly ease the process of problem solving . Thank You :)
  41. J

    Radial and Transverse Forces Beer and Johnston 9th ed. 12.70

    Homework Statement The 3 kg collar B slides on the frictionless arm AA'. The arm is attached to drum D and rotates about O in a horizontal plane at the rate dθ/dt = 0.75t, where dθ/dt and t are expressed in rad/s and seconds, respectively. As the arm-drum assembly rotates, a mechanism within...
  42. J

    Beer and Johnston Dynamics 9th 11.139 angular acceleration

    Homework Statement An outdoor track is 420 ft. in diameter. A runner increases her speed at a constant rate from 14 to 24 ft./s over a distance of 95 ft. Determine the total acceleration of the runner 2 s after she begins to increase her speed.Homework Equations Vr = dr/dt Vθ = r*dθ/dt Ar =...
  43. M

    Optimizing Beer Temperature: A Scientific Approach

    A friend of mine wants help building a beer temperature calculator program. The idea is this: He is a beer snob, and wants to drink his beer at exactly the perfect temperature. He wants to write a program that will time how long he needs to let his beer sit on his kitchen counter after...
  44. dlgoff

    Would You Buy Walgreens' Big Flats Beer for Just $1 a Can?

    Individual cans for a buck. $2.99 for a six-pack. Would you buy it? http://www.chicagotribune.com/media/photo/2011-01/59044028.jpg http://chicagobreakingbusiness.com/2011/01/private-label-beer-brewing-for-walgreens.html"
  45. B

    How far does a bubble in a glass of beer travel in its first and last second?

    Homework Statement A bubble in a glass of beer releases from rest at the bottom of the glass and rises at acceleration, a, to the surface in t seconds. How much farther does the bubble travel in its last second than in its first second? A) at B)(t-1)a C)(t+1)a D)(1/2)at Homework...
  46. M

    How Does Temperature Affect Dissolved Gas in Beer?

    So if I take a beer from the fridge and open it at RT, the dissolved gas comes out of solution because of the pressure drop. A colleague asked me - why is it then that if he takes a beer from the freezer, that is colder than the beer from the fridge (not frozen though) and opens it at RT - the...
  47. D

    How many craft beer fans we got on this?

    Ok so how many craft beer fans we got on this? This morning I had an Orval and it was delicious. What beers do you guys drink when working or studying or doing neither?
  48. W

    Good old fashion beer drinkin' physics help settle the bet

    Two questions, answer either or both; 1) Will an airplane in flight sustain more damage (due to more total kinetic energy) from hitting a turkey vulture size bird (that's big for those non-ornithologist types)? Or will the bird simply be "vaporized" on impact and the airplane sustain less...
  49. M

    Thermodynamics questions about beer and carbonation

    Why does, when you hit two beer bottles together (one on top of the other) the bottom one overflows? Now I know that the CO2 is released when the beer hits the bottom of the bottle, causing a jump in pressure, but i really want to know why. I was wondering if anyone knows of any real equations...