What is Conducting: Definition and 561 Discussions

Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture." The primary duties of the conductor are to interpret the score in a way which reflects the specific indications in that score, set the tempo, ensure correct entries by ensemble members, and "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. Conductors communicate with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, usually with the aid of a baton, and may use other gestures or signals such as eye contact. A conductor usually supplements their direction with verbal instructions to their musicians in rehearsal.The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score, which contains the musical notation for all the instruments or voices. Since the mid-19th century, most conductors have not played an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common. In Baroque music from the 1600s to the 1750s, the group would typically be led by the harpsichordist or first violinist (see concertmaster), an approach that in modern times has been revived by several music directors for music from this period. Conducting while playing a piano or synthesizer may also be done with musical theatre pit orchestras. Communication is typically mostly non-verbal during a performance. However, in rehearsals, frequent interruptions allow the conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music should be played or sung.
Conductors act as guides to the orchestras or choirs they conduct. They choose the works to be performed and study their scores, to which they may make certain adjustments (such as in tempo, articulation, phrasing, repetitions of sections), work out their interpretation, and relay their vision to the performers. They may also attend to organizational matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, planning a concert season, hearing auditions and selecting members, and promoting their ensemble in the media. Orchestras, choirs, concert bands, and other sizable musical ensembles such as big bands are usually led by conductors.

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  1. J

    The electric potential inside a conducting sphere with charge Q

    If there is no field inside the conductor, how can there be electric potential? I think of potential very similar to gravity, as how much energy would be required to move a particle of mass/charge against the gravitational/electric field. If there is no field at all, how would there still be...
  2. T

    Charge on a grounded conducting sphere in a uniform electric field, after ungrounding and movement

    Question 1: The sphere is at the electric potential of the top plate. As the sphere is small with respect to the capacitor, one can consider the bottom plate to be at infinity and therefore we can use the capacitance formula as C = 4 ∏ε0 R. The charge Q is therefore Q = C (V -0) = C V...
  3. A

    B Magnetic field produced by an electric current

    Hi everyone . if an alternating electric current passes through a piece of straight conducting wire, a proportional magnetic field appears on the orthogonal plane. what happens to the magnetic field if instead of copper, as a conductor, I use different materials with particular characteristics...
  4. T

    Line of charge and conducting sphere (method of images)

    I was thinking of using the sphere and point charge as an analog, but is quite diferent from what i have seen
  5. N

    I Electric Field Shielding by Conducting Sheets

    Dear Experts, When a thin conducting sheet with no charge on is placed at a certain distance from a point charge, does it shield the electric field caused due to the point charge from reaching the other side of the sheet. As an extension of that idea, when a conducting sheet or slab is placed...
  6. J

    Charge of 2 conducting spheres separated by a distance

    First assuming only one sphere at a potential of 1500 V, the charge would be q = 4πεrV = 4π(8.85×10 −12C2/N · m)(0.150 m)(1500 V) = 2.50×10−8C. The potential from the sphere at a distance of 10.0 m would be V =(1500V)(0.150m)/(10.0m) =22.5V. I don't understand the reasoning of the...
  7. Pushoam

    Electric field at a point close to the centre of a conducting plate

    Since the electric field due to a conducting plate is twice the electric field due to a plastic plate having same charge density, the electric field at the point P will be twice in case of conducting plate and hence it is 20 volt per metre. Is that correct?
  8. C

    Induced polarization for collision between conducting spheres

    For this part (b) of this problem, The solution is, However, would a better explanation be: As the spheres are conductors, there will be free electrons within and on the surface of the conductors that will be polarized by the external electric field between the conductor. This will decrease...
  9. T

    Hall effect over a conducting ring

    This is the diagram provided in the question: The ring is made of conducting material. I was originally asked to find the potential difference between ##a## and ##b##. I did so using the Hall effect (and assuming it would work as per normal in this situation). This got me ##\Delta V = vBl##...
  10. L

    Conducting rod in equilibrium due to magnetic force

    I am having problems understanding point (b) so I would like to know if my reasoning in that part is correct and/or how to think about that part because I don't see how to justify the assumption ##v_y=0\ m/s##. Thanks. I set up the ##xyz## coordinates system in the usual way with ##xy## in the...
  11. Gbl911

    I Average Magnetic Field Between 2 Conducting Rods

    I am building small, simple version of a railgun using 2 copper bars and a couple of neodymium magnets to increase the magnetic field. I have also been trying to mathematically describe the magnetic field created by the conducting rods themselves. I am coming across some trouble when trying to...
  12. L

    Conducting cable surrounded by two cylindrical shells

    What I have done: (a) If we start at ##R_5## then we have ##\Delta V=-\int_{R_5}^{R_1}\vec{E}\cdot d\vec{l}=-(\int_{R_5}^{R_4}\vec{0}\cdot d\vec{l}+\int_{R_4}^{R_3}\frac{\lambda}{\varepsilon_0}dl+\int_{R_3}^{R_2}\vec{0}\cdot d\vec{l}+\int_{R_2}^{R_1}\frac{\lambda}{\varepsilon_0}dl=-\lambda(...
  13. fluidistic

    I Energy flux direction in a conducting wire?

    On the Internet, I have read that the energy doesn't flow in the wire, for example in a very simple electric circuit made of a battery and a closed loop. When one computes the Poynting vector ##\vec S \propto \vec E \times \vec B##, one gets that its direction is towards the center of the wire...
  14. J

    Two conducting spheres a distance d away with charges +q and -q

    you can treat the center of two conducting sphere's like two point charges. Therefore it should be equal to ##k_e q^2/d^2##, but the answer is greater than ##k_e q^2/d^2##. Can someone explain how? Thank you
  15. G

    Is electrocution possible from touching a conducting wire?

    why would the current flow through a person when it is already flowing through a copper conductor that is connecting the terminals.
  16. V

    Electric field due to a charged infinite conducting plate

    As shown in figure below, the electric field E will be normal to the cylinder's cross sectional A even for distant points since the charge is distributed evenly all over the charged surface and also the surface is very large resulting in a symmetry. So the derived formula should also apply to...
  17. rudransh verma

    How Do We Calculate Surface Charge Density on a Non-Conducting Shell?

    delta q=rho deltaV rho=dq/dV dq=rho4pir^2dr Then integrate dq from 0 to a because A is to be uniform in shell. Ans: A= 5.3*10^-11 C/m^2 How do we approach these problems? Looking at the answer A seems to be surface charge density. What is A? What is the direction of uniform field E. I don’t...
  18. V

    Electric Field on the surface of charged conducting spherical shell

    When I look at the relevant equations, then there is no mention of field for a point on the surface of the shell, so it gets confusing. On the other hand, I feel the radial E will get stronger as we approach the surface of shell and magnitude of E will approach infinity.
  19. E

    What happens when a conducting sphere rubs against metal?

    I know that metal is a "reservoir" of electrons, whereby electrons can flow out and in easily, so when conducting sphere is rubbed against metals, is there even a resulting charge on the conducting sphere?
  20. S

    How do I calculate the ratio of forces between two conducting spheres?

    Here are the answer choices: a) F1 = 2F2 b) F1 = 8F2 c) 2F1 = F2 d) F1 = 4F2 e) F1 = F2 I figured that Coulomb's law would tell us the magnitude of the forces are identical, so I answered E, but that was incorrect. (Screenshot of question attached)
  21. larginal

    Electromagnetics: find D,E,P between two parallel conducting plates

    I tried to solve this problem on my own, but I'm not sure whether I solved correctly or not. it is electromagnetics homework from my Uni, and it is pretty tough for me. I attached the image of the problem and how I tried to solve this one. I hope somebody will give some feedback.
  22. S

    Conductivity of hydrogel with rubber silicone in NMES device

    I have a question in regards to a neuromuscular device. Can silicone be combined with hydrogel or the rubber silicone encased in hydrogel to form a wrist watch strap combined with a NMES device. If this is possible how would the hydrogel conduct the NMES device and what is the durability of...
  23. A

    A charged conducting ring rotating B field -- referece frames

    Admittedly I found similar threads here already but due to my rather lacking math skills I wanted to go through this myself. As for the math side, I see various different equations with which this is treated can someone please provide the formulas for calculating B field from a rotating charged...
  24. B

    Motional EMF for loops of wire vs conducting plates

    I'm in an intro E&M class, and I'm trying to distinguish between Motional EMF for loops of wire and conducting plates. This question might be kind of silly, but are Eddy currents pretty much the same thing as induced currents in a loop of wire? More specifically, what I am trying to ask is if...
  25. G

    Spherical shells (inner conducting and outer nonconducting)

    a) I think you find V by just integrating E in regards to R. Then we integrate from the point of interest, which is a, to the 0 potential which is (R = 2a)? b) If the same logic as a) applies here as well then we should integrate from the point of interest to the 0 potential. This should be...
  26. huszarerik

    Electric field lines between a point-charge and a conducting sheet

    figure 1: → I don't understand how to approach this problem. Basically it asks for the distance r.I think I should use Gauss's law, but I've been thinking about the shape of the gaussian surface and I'm not sure about how it should look or where I should place it. Any help would be useful...
  27. R

    Electric Field Between two Parallel Conducting Plates of Equal Charge

    Attached is the subsection of the book I am referring to. The previous section states that the electric field magnitude at any point set up by a charged nonconducting infinite sheet (with uniform charge distribution) is ##E = \frac{\sigma}{2\epsilon_0}##. Then we move onto the attached...
  28. BillTre

    Electrically Conducting Bacteria

    This news article in Science magazine describes what is becoming known about the different kinds of bacteria that can do this, what is known about how they do it, and how people might make use of the phenomena. The bacteria conduct electricity through either small nano-filaments sticking out...
  29. preachingpirate24

    Electric Field inside the material of a hollow conducting sphere

    Let's say I place a positive point charge inside a hollow conducting sphere. If we take a Gaussian surface through the material of the conductor, we know the field inside the material of the conductor is 0, which implies that there is a -ve charge on the inner wall to make the net enclosed...
  30. T

    Charged Conducting Sheet v. Charged Non-Conducting Sheet

    The solution to this problem states the electric field is E=σ/ε0. Is that because it's a conducting plate? I know for a non-conducting plate it's E=σ/2ε0. This is a Gauss' Law problem. I know how to derive for non-conducting plate. What's different with conducting plate derivation? Thank you!
  31. F

    Charge rearrangement on conducting spheres

    Hi, I think this problem is solved in exactly as a similar problem where the two spheres are very far apart and connected by a very long thin conducting wire. I'm trying to explain this in words, since LaTeX does not seem to work any more (for some reason LaTeX syntax is not replaced by maths in...
  32. B

    Why does a thyristor keep conducting after removing the gate current?

    i have seen several videos of thyristors but they never really explain the fundamentals they just say that cause there is a current flowing in there it keeps being on but why does a transistor then turn off when you remove gate voltage
  33. imselva

    Conduction heat transfer with varying cross section

    How to modify this Formula? and arrive at the solution. Q = -K(Th-Tc)A/thickness
  34. P

    Gauss' Law question about a conducting rod

    This is my attempt, i am confused at some points a. r = 0; The Electric field is 0 b. At r = a/2.00; I verified the answer and it is non zero, but my understanding is that the net charge should be on the surface of the conductor. Hence the charge q1=5*10^-15 C, should go to the surface of the...
  35. F

    Reducing the charge Q on an isolated charged conducting sphere to Q/8

    It seems to me that one can obtain the required result by using just one neutral sphere and one ground wire. Let A be the charged sphere and B be the neutral one. Initially ##Q_A=Q## and ##Q_B=0##. put A and B in contact. As a result ##Q_A=Q/2## and ##Q_B=Q/2##. ground B, so that ##Q_B=0##...
  36. Z

    Electric field direction on a grounded conducting sphere

    I am required to find the direction of the electric field on the surface of a grounded conducting sphere in the proximity of a point charge ##+q##. The distance between the center of the sphere and the point charge is ##d## and using the method of images we find that the charge of the sphere is...
  37. Sokolov

    3 concentric conducting spheres, the outer one connected to ground

    What would the fact that the fifth surface is connected to the ground imply: that V(r=R_5)=0 or that \sigma _5=0?
  38. P

    Ampere's law -- application with two conducting loops

    I am trying to get more confidence on the direction of current using Amperes law, the problem statement is Loop1: My first task was to assign the direction of current. If I wrap around the my right hand fingers in the direction of integration the thumb is pointing up hence Positive Y direction...
  39. S

    Force on a sphere due to a conducting plate

    I tried to find the the Electric field due to the image charge. So the potential due to the image charge is V=-(pR^2)/√(4R^2-4rRcos(θ)+r^2). When I took the gradient of that in spherical coordinates, I got a mess that doesn't seem to be possible to integrate.
  40. jisbon

    Electric forces between conducting rod and rail

    Alright, to start off: I'm not even sure how this works in the first place. What I do understand is that if they carry current in the opposite direction, using right-hand grip rule, the magnetic field between them will be the same (into the page). Hence using the left-hand rule, I can deduce...
  41. Samanko

    Surface charge density of a conducting spherical shell

    The textbook says ' A conducting sphere shell with radius R is charged until the magnitude of the electric field just outside its surface is E. Then the surface charge density is σ = ϵ0 * E. ' The textbook does show why. Can anybody explain for me?
  42. sdefresco

    Electrodynamics: Conducting sphere of radius R cut in half

    Summary: Electrodynamics: Conducting Sphere cut in half to form a gap, and a charge q is placed on the first half-sphere. Find all four σ. A sphere of radius R is cut in half to form a gap of s << R (ignore edge effects) - the first hemisphere is charged with q, and the second hemisphere is left...
  43. D

    Electromotive force induced in a conducting rod

    i don't understand why in the solution of this exercise, the induced electromotive force / current is counterclockwise. Shouldn't it be clockwise? ##emf=-\frac {d \Phi_B} {dt} ## According to the picture the rod is moving upward, the magnetic flux (entering the page) is decreasing due to a...