Elongation factors are a set of proteins that function at the ribosome, during protein synthesis, to facilitate translational elongation from the formation of the first to the last peptide bond of a growing polypeptide. Most common elongation factors in prokaryotes are EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G. Bacteria and eukaryotes use elongation factors that are largely homologous to each other, but with distinct structures and different research nomenclatures.Elongation is the most rapid step in translation. In bacteria, it proceeds at a rate of 15 to 20 amino acids added per second (about 45-60 nucleotides per second). In eukaryotes the rate is about two amino acids per second (about 6 nucleotides read per second). Elongation factors play a role in orchestrating the events of this process, and in ensuring the high accuracy translation at these speeds.
hi everyone,
In a problem where we have to find the change in length of a steel bar and a wooden beam,
while calculating the change in length the author multiplied the entire thing by 12
I put all the values in the above equation and still couldn't account for the 12.
Thinking of it...
I realized that the tension in the rod is not uniform and found it to be ##T = Wx/L## I found this by splitting the rod into two sections one of length ##x## and the other of length ##L-X## where x is the length from the base of the hanging rod
To find the total elongation in the rod I...
Im new here and don't have a clue for the most part so don't beat up on me too much, but I'm looking for an equation that is simple enough for an idiot like me to understand. I’m looking to build a shock force calculator in Excel (if possible). I’ve found the actual equation online but the...
The Question is posted as a photograph with a. little change. One of the mass in the photo is equal to '2m' rather than 'm'. Now the block won't stop consecutively.
How would we approach the question?
Homework Statement
A specimen with an original length of 165 mm is subjected to a tensile load of 4500 N until it breaks. It’s final length is 202 mm. Calculate the specimen’s ductility in terms of percent elongation to break.
Homework Equations
((Lf - Lo) / Lo) * 100 = %EL
The Attempt at a...
Homework Statement
A spring has been attached to an object which is kept on the ground. The spring is initially in its natural length: 'l' when a force 'F' is applied on it. The force 'F' slowly pulls the object so it does not attain any acceleration. There's a point 'P' on the line which is...
Hello!
First of all, my field is not Mechanical Engineering but Nanotechnology so I apologize if I use very basic terms.
I am currently working on the design of an in-plane optical MEMS accelerometer. The idea is: a waveguide is built within the structure so that when the MEMS is accelerated...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
∆l = Fl/YA
The Attempt at a Solution
[/B]
The net acceleration of the system is F/2M .
Force at the right end of the wire will be F towards right .
Force at the left end of the wire will be F/2 towards left .
Now how should I take the two forces...
Homework Statement
If said percentage of a maximum load (Max load 35N and 30% of that load) is held by a wire, by what percent of its length will it stretch?
Homework Equations
ΔL/L = FA/Y
Y = Youngs modulus
The Attempt at a Solution
(All values are random, just trying to understand the...
Homework Statement
Two rods of the same material, of equal length l, and of cross section A and 2A respectively, are mounted between two rigid (i.e., nondeformable) cross frames. The frames are pulled by a pair of forces P, located at distance x from the thin bar. Derive an expression for the...
Homework Statement
Two wires are made of the same metal but have different dimensions. Wire 1 is 4 times longer and twice the diameter of wire 2. If they are both under the same load, compare (a) the stresses in the two wires and (b) the elongations of the two wires.
Homework Equations
stress...
I have a conceptual misunderstanding it seems. Poisson's ratio is the ratio of elastic strain deformation of the transverse and longitudinal components. That being said, if I were to induce thermal stress (heating up) to a rod by keeping its ends (longitudinal component) rigid, would there be a...
Homework Statement
A metal rod of length 30 cm elongates 0.075 cm when heated from 00C to 1000C. a second rod of the same length but from an other metal elongates, at the same temperature difference, 0.045 cm.
A third rod is made of 2 pieces from the 2 previous ones and of the same length...
Homework Statement
The pendulum of a clock is made of alumina. what is the relative elongation when cooled from 750 fahrenheit to 450?
Homework Equations
$$L=L_0(1-\alpha \Delta t)$$
From Fahrenheit to Celsius:
$$t_f=\frac{9}{5}t_c+32^0$$
Coefficient of thermal elongation of alumina...
spring of mass 'm' hung from ceiling.what is the total elongation?
assume total spring constant 'k',length 'l' and of uniform density when in natural state.
also where is the center of mass?
can we express density at a point as a function of distance from the ceiling?
Homework Statement
Two small identical discs, each of mass ##m##, lie on a smooth horizontal plane. The discs are interconnected by a light non-deformed spring of length ##l_0## and stiffness ##k##. At a certain moment one of the discs is set in motion in a horizontal direction perpendicular...
Homework Statement
L=52 in
A=2.76 in^2
E=10.4*10^6 psi
Homework Equations
σ=F/A
ε=σ/E
δ=εLThe Attempt at a Solution
4) σAB = (3P)/A
ε=(3P)/(AE)
δAB=(3PL)/(6AE) → δAB=(PL)/(2AE)
solving for P
P=[0.17*2*2.76*(10.4*106)]/52 → P=187680 lb → P=187.7 kip
5) Because AB and CD are in tension i...
Homework Statement
A 10 inch long 316stainless steel structure is in service at 1200°F. The maximum creep elongation in service permitted is 0.05 inches in 500 hours. The minimum creep rate vs. applied stress is known at 1100 and 1300°F and given by the following equations σ =...
I have attached a pic which really explains the formula and context of the problem.
I'm guessing a gravitational effect passes for physics...
I am trying to convert the formula in (b) below into feet.
If I could reproduce the answer with English units, I could move on and apply the...
I have attached a pic which really explains the formula and context of the problem.
I am trying to convert the formula in (b) below into feet.
If I could reproduce the answer with English units, I could move on and apply the formula to other situations, but the multiplicity of English...
Elongation of a pendulum?
Not really a specific question just something in general.
When discussing simple pendulums (a ball on the end of a string) or any system involving strings, my textbook always refers to something as the "elongation" of the string?
Before this, I had never heard...
I may be doing it correctly, but the number seems way to small for the initial calculation. Plus I am really not sure how to factor in those other forces. Modulus of elasticity E = 114 GPa (if unclear)
thanks
ps. answer is 0.804 mm
Confused on receiving just one K value for elongation and oscillation
Homework Statement
Ok. For lab, I had to place 5 different masses on a spring and calculate its initial and final position. I did this with a small, medium and large spring.
Then after I gathered my values, I made a...
To simplify things, I have assumed the keel section is a rectangle and not a foil.
(Also, these specs are taken from an existing design.)
dimensions:
keel 38cm (width/chord) X 3.8cm (height/thick), length 1.64m,
bulb 445Kg Using beamboy, (cantilever with weight at end) the deflection is:-...
Me and my Dad were having a conversation about the elongation of EMR wavelengths over an extended period of time. He began to explain to me what Red Shift was but I couldn't understand what he was trying to get at (he's a poor explainer, or I'm bad listener). But his explanation did spark an...
Howdy ya'll,
a relatively simple question,
A circular bar 20mm in diameter and 1m long is subjected to an axial load of 50kN. Determine:
(i) The normal stress.
(ii) The normal strain.
(iii) The elongation.
Assume the material is steel with an Elastic Modulus of 200GPa.
ok so i...
Hey guys, girls stupid question
Whats the actual formula for elongation of a tie rod
\delta = \frac{FL_{O}}{EA}
or
\delta = \frac{FL}{EA}
When searching the net, I've found some use the tie rod length "L"
Others use the original length of the tie rod LO (In my lecture notes the...
Homework Statement
Three wires are made of same materials. Which wire will have the greatest elongation?
wire1: length: 50cm, diameter: 0.5mm
wire2: length: 100cm, diameter: 1mm
wire3: length: 300cm, diameter: 3mm
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I know, the wire having greatest...
Is there a term for the vertical elongation of a planet? This would be the angular distance above the horizon that a planet appears at the instant the sun sets, or in mathematical terms it would be:
x=elongation
theta=angle between the ecliptic and the horizon
"vertical elongation" = x *...
Homework Statement
A strip of elastomer was stretched in tension and elongation and was held constant. After 10 minutes the tensile stress in the specimen dropped by 12%. Assuming that the elastomer behaves in accordance with the maxwell model:
(i) Calculate the relaxation time (to the...
Homework Statement
Find the elongation of a spring of mass "m" natural length "l" force constant "k" when it is hung to a ceiling ?
Homework Equations
cant able to write a relevant equation..
The Attempt at a Solution
i have considered a small element of thickness "dy" and length...
Lets say I have a bar of uniform material where one end has a diameter given by R_1 and another end given by R_2. R_2 > R_1, R(x) is linear.
So I know now three equations:
A) s=\frac{E \Delta L}{L}
B)R_x=R_1+\frac{x}{L}*(R_2-R_1)
C)A_x=\pi*R_x^2
Therefore, I know:
\Delta...
Homework Statement
I'm doing a lab where a known mass is suspended by a spring. All that is known is the mass of the weight used and the length of the elongation of the spring, and I need to find the elastic potential energy of the spring and the spring constant, K.
Homework Equations...
Hi all,
I have to determine the mean elongation of a spring with temperature. The spring constant is alpha and the gravitational acceleration is g. I have the following expression for the force
F = -\alpha*x +m*g
which I can integrate for an expression of the energy
E =...
Homework Statement
How do I find the elongation of a spring when just given K=119 N/m, mass of the wooden block it is attached to=4.17kg and the densty of the wooden block = 695 kg/m^3.
Homework Equations
I do not know what equation to use.
The Attempt at a Solution
I have not...
A prismatic bar AB of length L, cross-sectional area A ,modulus of elasticity E ,and weight W hangs vertically under its own weight
a>derive a formula for the downward displacement d(c) of point C which is located at a distance l from the lower end of the bar
The answer is W(L^2-l^2)/(2EA)...
How to calculate the elongation when we know we all other parameters?
Two sides of a rod is pulled by two forces of F Newtons in opposite directions. What should we consider F or 2F in the equation? I used 2F and got wrong answer as per the book. But, if it is true, why should be use F...
Hi. I am hoping someone can be of assistance in helping me solve a problem.
I am trying to calculate the longitudinal elongation of the steel bar shown in the attachment. I don't know where to start, so if anyone could point me in the right direction such as which formula I should use I would...
Hey guys, I will admit that I am having extra troubles on this chapter and I don't understand most of it so be gentle :\. Anyways I realize these problems are porbably easy but here they are:
1) A Load of 140,000 N (31,500lbf) is applied to a cylindrical specimen of a steel alloy that has a...
An orange spring has a spring constant of 14,000 g/s^2. How much should it stretch if a 200-g mass is attached from it?
I took the equation hanging mass * gravity=spring constant * elongation and turned it around for solving elongation
elongation = 200 * 980/14,000 = 14cm and I'm checking to...
A light spring of constant k = 153 N/m rests vertically on the bottom of a large beaker of water (as seen in the picture below).
An m=4.63 kg block of wood (density = 675 kg/m3) is connected to the spring and the mass-spring system is allowed to come to static equilibrium (b).
What is the...
This is a graphfor a bungee cord that is being tested by adding load to one end while fixing its other end on some support system
how I got the x-axis data: So say the initial length is 2 cm and after one pound is added to it it became 2.50cm. So I use 2.50cm-2cm and use it to find the...