What is Fundamental particle: Definition and 11 Discussions

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a subatomic particle with no (currently known) substructure, i.e. it is not composed of other particles. Particles currently thought to be elementary include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is called a composite particle.
Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles—atomos meaning "unable to be cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1905, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Subatomic constituents of the atom were first identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation. At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation.Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks – up quarks and down quarks – now considered elementary particles. And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate via the wavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, and orbiton). Yet a free electron – one which is not orbiting an atomic nucleus and hence lacks orbital motion – appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle.Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary – an ultimate constituent of substance – was mostly discarded for a more practical outlook, embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, what's known as science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the popular supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates with a "shadow" partner far more massive, although all such superpartners remain undiscovered. Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation – the graviton – remains hypothetical. Also, as hypotheses indicate, spacetime is probably quantized, so there most likely exist "atoms" of space and time themselves.

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    B What is source of fundamental particle charge?

    Hello, Analogous to mass of fundamental (not composite) particles coming from interaction of those particles with the Higg's Field, does charge of fundamental particles come from interaction of those particles with some known/hypothesized fundamental field? Thank you!
  2. R

    B Pauli's exclusion principle

    So my question is why can't 2 object be at the exact same potion, (i.e. overlap). Why can't a +ve quark and electron just merge. In an universe where there is no force caused due to charge, why can't we just walk through a solid wall.
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    B Is there anything smaller than quarks?

    Do we actually know for sure that quarks and leptons are as small as it gets, the complete fundamental particles? If so, how?
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    A Is the electron a fundamental particle?

    According to this article an electron can be split into 3 quasiparticles: ‘holon’ carrying the electron’s charge ‘spinon’ carrying its spin ‘orbiton’ carrying its orbital location The article links to an experiment that was made in 2012, where physicists were able detect the spinion and the...
  5. A

    What is a fundamental particle according to QFT?

    In quantum field theory, a fundamental particle is an excitation in the underlying field, but what does that mean? Do fundamental particles have any physical existence according to QFT?
  6. A

    Intuitive Interpretation of Rest Energy

    Hi there, I'm trying to get a better intuitive handle on the concept of rest mass and rest energy - the energy term associated with rest mass. Introductory Physics textbooks often give statements along the lines of "mass is a form of energy" or "mass can be converted to energy" to explain...
  7. I

    Why the muon is considered a fundamental particle?

    This question arises from the fact that the muon has a mass close to the first excited state of the radial vibration of the electron (Prog. Theor. Vol. 47 (1972), No. 3 Cohesive force of electron and Nambu's mass-formula).
  8. E

    Least energy required for creation of a fundamental particle

    What's the least energy required to create a fundamental particle of mass m,what would be ur answer? mc^2 or 2mc^2 For fermions,we always have to create anti fermion too... Is it true for bosons too... Say I want to create any boson... Would I have to create 2 of it?
  9. E

    Creation of a fundamental particle

    Do I always have to use pair production for the fundamental particles... If I have to produce a fermion,I have to create an anti fermion at the same time? what about bosons? i mean what about those who doesn't have antiparticle? Or do I have to create 2 of them as they themselves are their own...
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    Fundamental Particle: Is It Possible?

    I have a question that may seem kind of simple, but I would like to hear your thoughts about it. Is there such a thing as a fundamental particle of which all other particles are made of, or even if is even possible for such a thing to actually exist? A particle of continuous matter (no empty...
  11. E

    Fundamental particle structure table

    On http://elasticity2.tripod.com/ I have replaced all previous work with a table showing tha structural relationship between fundamental particles. (Muon and Tau will be included when I have changed the scale of current work tables). I show that there are only three fundamental particles, each...