What is Iss: Definition and 65 Discussions

The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, an American proposal which was conceived in 1984 to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting station, and the contemporaneous Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal with similar aims. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations and the U.S. Skylab. It is the largest artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda Service Module or visiting spacecraft. The ISS circles the Earth in roughly 93 minutes, completing 15.5 orbits per day.The station is divided into two sections: the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is operated by Russia, while the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) is run by the United States as well as many other nations. Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024, having previously proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. The first ISS component was launched in 1998, and the first long-term residents arrived on 2 November 2000 after being launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on 31 October 2000. The station has since been continuously occupied for 20 years and 233 days, the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by the Mir space station. The latest major pressurised module, Leonardo, was fitted in 2011 and an experimental inflatable space habitat was added in 2016. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch starting in 2021. As of December 2018, the station's operation authorization was extended to 2030, with funding secured until 2025. There have been calls to privatize ISS operations after that point to pursue future Moon and Mars missions, with former NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstein saying "given our current budget constraints, if we want to go to the moon and we want to go to Mars, we need to commercialize low Earth orbit and go on to the next step."The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, photovoltaic solar arrays, thermal radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles. The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the SpaceX Dragon 2, the Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems Cygnus, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and, formerly, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and SpaceX Dragon 1. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. As of November 2020, 242 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 19 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times; this includes 152 Americans, 49 Russians, 9 Japanese, 8 Canadians, and 5 Italians.

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  1. P

    Looking for blueprints to the ISS solar panel array

    Hello I have a question regarding the ISS (international space station) For about a year now, I've been using free youtube tutorials to teach myself how to 3D model for free. Just something I'm doing to educate myself. As sort of an "exercise" I'm 3D modeling an interplanetary cycler ship...
  2. DaveC426913

    NASA ISS orientation over its orbit

    Does the ISS remain oriented with the Earth? I.e. it rotates 360 degrees every 24 hours, or is it fixed with the stars? If the latter, there should be a time when it's visible end-on. I looked it up but did not find the deets. I guess that what the gyros are for.
  3. berkeman

    B Exploring Attitude Control of Satellites & ISS

    I tried a Google search on this question, and got mixed results. I was curious if satellites (and the ISS) have to burn power to stay pointed at Earth, or if any were able to use passive tidal locking instead. I did find that satellites in geosychronous orbit are less likely to use tidal...
  4. Induana

    B Hydrostatic pressure in a bottle of water on ISS

    Hello, I am new in physics but I really like it so far. I have a question about hydrostatic pressure. I know that hydrostatic pressure equals (height)x(density)x(g). Am I right if I say that hydrostatic pressure in a bottle of water on ISS (state of weightlessness) will be zero ? Thank you for...
  5. A

    Time Dilation in the ISS: 2 Seconds in a Year

    Using the above formula I get that the time goes 6.5∗10−86.5∗10−8 percent faster in ISS. Thus, this is approximately 2 seconds in a year. But the answer is much lower. Where am I making a mistake?
  6. T

    Stargazing How can we see the ISS at 200 miles away with the naked eye?

    NASA says the ISS is 200 miles away. Planes fly at around 10 miles from the surface and we can't see them due limits to the angular resolution of the human eye. Given the inverse square law of light and the ISS being 20 times the distance to the plane, how is it possible to see the ISS?
  7. A

    I Portable telescopes inside the International space station (ISS)

    I would like to know what will be the visibility from the portable telescope aboard the International Space Station. What could they potentially view, and what are (at least some of) the things they are known to have looked at? Presumably they use it *inside* the ISS and not outside, and are...
  8. J

    I Exploring Magnetism in Space: Rings Around a Magnetized Sphere on the ISS

    I saw a physics problem on Craig’s List (of all places) that piqued my interest. I’ll paraphrase it: An astronaut on the ISS placed a large magnetized sphere outside the station far enough where the station had no effect on the magnet then threw a large pail of iron filings at the sphere. He...
  9. mfb

    Chaotic ISS attitude after Nauka misfires thrusters (resolved)

    Nauka, a Russian multipurpose science module and one of the largest ISS modules, was docked to the ISS. During the checkout procedures after docking the module suddenly fired its thrusters, rotating the ISS quite rapidly (up to 0.5 degree/s). The Zvezda module and a docked Progress resupply ship...
  10. S

    B Time Dilation Effect: Corrections to Clocks on ISS

    Hello All The Hafele-Keating experiment in 1971 confirmed measurable time dilation effects on atomic clocks flown around the Earth on aircraft. Presumably clocks aboard the International Space Station suffer worse time dilation because of their greater speed in orbit. How often are corrections...
  11. anorlunda

    Boeing Starliner launches to space (but not ISS) (reached ISS in 2022)

    The Boeing Starliner just launched into a pre-sunrise cloudless sky. It was fun to see the black smoke trail change to white as it lifted into the sunlight (pic 1). It was not as spectacular as the post-sunset launch from California a few months ago. The trajectory became more horizontal...
  12. Z

    What does a helium balloon do on the ISS vs in open space?

    What does a helium balloon do on the ISS . most say, its a 0 g environment, but is it really the same as intercosmos travel "0g"? I saw a video of helium ballons on the vomit comet, where during the "0 g phase" the helium balloons went to the floor, while all other things floated. I would...
  13. W

    I Gravitational Jerk Computation

    I've seen much about jerk, and how it's generally nearly instantaneous, and for general acceleration, that's fine. However, if I lift at a constant acceleration upward slightly stronger than gravity is pulling me downward, the gravitation pull of the Earth will offset part of my force, so that...
  14. F

    Extract anomalies from two-line element set (TLE) on ISS

    Homework Statement I am faced to a problem of interpretation illustrated on figure below : I must precise that I talk about **mean anomaly**. Homework Equations for the 2 questions, I am asked to find : 1) at which anomaly is the ISS at the two lines epoch ? 2) at wchich anomaly is the...
  15. scottdave

    CIMON Robot Behavior on ISS: Unexpected Result

    behavior on the ISS. https://gizmodo.com/in-video-debut-cimon-the-iss-robot-throws-an-unexpecte-1830768737
  16. Tom Hammer

    I Was the recent ISS leak imminently dangerous?

    The ISS suffered a leak apparently caused by a 1/8 inch hole left during manufacture and never repaired. On Quora, the claim has been made that such a hole with one atm of pressure difference would only cause 324 cu ft of air to rush out per hour. I don't think this is close to correct, but I am...
  17. Prof Sabi

    Stargazing Spotting the ISS With My Binoculars: A Lucky Moment

    I JUST spotted the ISS with my powerful binoculars, How luck I am... :woot: I was looking at Sirius and just then a streak of non twinkling light passed through, when I ran to desktop to check ISS tracker i saw it was just over India... I feel very lucky to see the greatest project of mankind...
  18. A

    I Changing the ISS's orbital inclination to match the Moon

    What is the practical feasibility of changing the International Space Station's orbital inclination to match the orbit of the Moon? Major future missions beyond the Earth-Moon system (ie: space colonization) will likely require in-orbit assembly of components from multiple launches. And...
  19. UsableThought

    Stargazing Child-like pleasure in seeing ISS and detached Dragon capsule

    Last time I looked at the stars for fun must have been when I was 6 or 7 or 8 years old - who knows. Somewhere I learned about the Big Dipper - whether from a parent or from passing through Grand Central Station - but not much more. Very recently I have realized that although I live in a...
  20. L

    I Can 2 spheres orbit each other say inside ISS?

    I was thinking about two spheres of lead, 1 Kg and if I remember right would be about 3 cm radius. So inside the ISS in microgravity could the gravitational attraction of the two spheres allow them to orbit one another? I calculated an orbital time, if 2 cm apart of about one hour per orbit...
  21. C

    I Sun elevation for ISS visibility

    I use several web sites to search the visible passes of the ISS over a given location. Then I calculate the Sun elevation as seen from the ISS and I get surprisingly low elevations; for example, I get ISS magnitude= -3.8 and Sun elevation at the ISS= -19.9 deg. I suppose that the atmospheric...
  22. Phlogiston

    I Understanding the Visibility of the ISS: Physics Explained in Simple Terms

    I have a friend who I was trying to explain why we can see the ISS. Unfortunately though I don't have a good enough physics background to adequately answer his question, which was: "Why can I not see a plane once it reaches about 80 km away, yet I can see the ISS, at over 250 km away" This is...
  23. Stavros Kiri

    NASA NASA's spacewalks, on the ISS, Jan 6 and Jan 13

    Tomorrow Fri Jan 13 the second part of the mission to replace the batteries, the second recent spacewalk outside the International Space Station (ISS). Last week commander Shane Kimbrough and flight Engineer Peggy Whitson of NASA. This week commander Kimbrough and Thomas Pesqet of ESA (European...
  24. M

    I Is Artificial Gravity Created on the ISS Due to Tidal Locking?

    When International Space Station is at rest, it revolves around it's axis once per orbital revolution (92.65 minutes). In other words, is tidally locked. Does the spinning around it's axis do create non-zero artificial gravity? Does it have non zero angular momentum?
  25. L

    B Clear definition of microgravity?

    Hi, I read about definition of microgravity. It is usually described as reduced g, but not zero g. How can one say then that an object is in microgravity? I was looking hours for a clear definition, like an object is in microgravity if there are just 10^-6g left (clearly wrong, because I read...
  26. Y

    How to Calculate Capillary Rise on the ISS

    Homework Statement Consider an experiment on the International Space Station, which is illustrated below. A cylindrical capillary of length L= 10. [cm] and inner diameter of dc=500. [µm] (sealed at one end), is positioned to contact a droplet of water, D = 1.0 [cm], which is floating in the ISS...
  27. Z

    B Why isn't water on the ISS dangerous?

    Obviously, just about anywhere you go in the ISS, the walls are lined with electronics. Potentially a silly question, but why don't the astronauts need to be more careful when they handle water, considering that it could short circuit the electrical systems? Example:
  28. 1oldman2

    B Exploring the Frontiers of Quantum Physics on the ISS

    Before I begin this thread I must confess to nearly complete ignorance of Quantum Physics, or for that matter most any technical science.(I'm somewhere between a consumer and a parasite). That being said I came across this JPL link and it caught my attention, seems to be some groundbreaking...
  29. ErdosFan

    A Is Detecting Distant Asteroids/NEOs from the ISS Possible?

    The B612 Foundation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B612_Foundation http://b612foundation.org/ is a nonprofit composed of astronauts, scientists and engineers dedicated to the cause of developing a technological early warning system to detect distant asteroids that might be future dangerous...
  30. L

    Docking with ISS: Questions on Orbital Mechanics

    I was watching the following video, and I have a question about something they said that seemed kind of vague (I know I could have asked in the video comments section, but this forum tends to supply much better answers, so I hope it's OK that I am asking about a YouTube video here): If you...
  31. Z

    What's going on in this snapshot from the ISS?

    I was watching the ISS live feed (from YouTube) and came across this strange look. https://gyazo.com/c5a09c7af0412c4c361fa0549b03a29d Does anyone know what would cause this in the live feed?
  32. A

    Why they don't increase altitude of ISS to overcome drag

    Experts - Why they don't increase altitude of ISS to overcome slight atmospheric drag it faces. Due to this, they need to make altitude corrections frequently to ISS. I want to know, why they can not put ISS in higher orbit where there is almost nil atmospheric drag (or may be altitude...
  33. A

    Ball thrown from ISS to earth at right angle to it's path

    Suppose I am on ISS and Earth is exactly below (at the right angle to the ISS's line of path). Now if I throw one ball below towards Earth from window at exactly 90 degrees to the line of path of ISS and one ball upwards at right angle to the line of path of ISS. **Assume normal human strength...
  34. vamsinaruto

    Designing a Space Capsule for ISS to Earth transits

    My name is Vamsi and I am from India. I am currently pursuing Ms in ME at University of Houston-Houston-Texas-USA. I have taken a course called "space vehicle design" in which we need to form a team and do a project of our choice. My team project is "Designing a space capsule to carry...
  35. Andy Resnick

    How is the ISS Captured Using a Telephoto Lens?

    ISS flyover about an hour ago: 800/5.6, 1/1000 s, ISO 1000. ISS was maximum magnitude -2.0, I tried to 'pre-calibrate' against Vega but still underexposed.
  36. O

    Path of object dropped from ISS

    An astronaut on a revolving space station releases a wooden spoon out of the satellite, into empty space. Will the spoon fall toward Earth ? What will happen next ?
  37. B

    Stargazing Why is there no Hubble-like telescope on the International Space Station?

    why is there no telescope like Hubble on the international space station/? as i know, the iss is only 150 km lower in orbit than the Hubble space telescope, and is at different inclination. Having people around is pretty convenient i think, so replacing parts and doing regular maintenance would...
  38. G

    Space Hazards on ISS: How Much Is at Risk?

    I wondered, how much micrometeors, solar storms endanger the infrastructure and personnel of ISS? Does it require really thick outer walls, and quite regular maintenance?
  39. Ganesh Ujwal

    Why doesn't ISS pass over the polar regions?

    I'm aware that it orbits West to East and covers almost every part of the land on Earth. But what is the reason behind it not passing over Arctic and Antarctic regions?
  40. Gary Boothe

    Relativistic Effects On International Space Station (ISS)

    On the ISS, special relativity dictates the station's clocks run slower than clocks on Earth because of the high velocity, but general relativity dictates that the station's clocks run faster than clocks on Earth because of the lesser gravity. Which effect is predominant, and do the station's...
  41. B0b-A

    Gold Fish-Eye View: YouTube Video

  42. T

    Results from TLE & SGP4 propagation - don't seem right & with interpretation

    Greetings all ! I have this problem with SGP4 propagation, that I hope someone can help me out with. I acquired a TLE of the ISS from internet and used the C++ SGP4 propagator to compute future position and velocity vectors of the Station. I am unsure about some aspects of results though and...
  43. Q

    ISS Visibility If Painted Black?

    Hey All, Would the International Space Station be visible to the naked eye if it was painted black? Thanks for any replies!
  44. Borg

    Tracking the International Space Station

    The International Space Station now has a set of High Def cameras hooked up to a live stream. High Definition Earth Viewing When it's on the dark side of the earth, it will often appear black. You can use this image to check it's location. Refresh the page to get the current location.
  45. C

    [Python] Simulating rocket trajectory to ISS

    background information is that I have been working on code for a rocket launch to the ISS and I have gotten it close. The problem is when calculating the Force of drag, the problem occurs with it. As entering space, and for this "model" were going to say that temperature is 0 K in space or...
  46. M

    Why did the ISS cost so much money?

    Why did the ISS cost just over 57 times as much as the LHC? What was it about the ISS that made it so expensive to build? $150billion is crazy! The LHC costs just $2.6billion
  47. 4

    *If* the ISS is freely falling, doesn't that mean it's following

    ...curvatures in spacetime being created by Earth's gravity? My understanding is that its speed offsets the gravity being created by earth, that it's freely falling towards Earth but never hits it because its speed somehow causes it to keep missing. If that's the case, wouldn't that suggest...
  48. collinsmark

    If you had nothing pressing to do, would you look at the ISS?

    If you had nothing particularly pressing to do, and the International Space Station was passing over at the right time to be easily visible, would you bother watching it? The International Space station (ISS) is easily visible, if the timing is right: it needs to be passing overhead within a...
  49. C

    SpaceX SpaceX Makes History As First Company to Dock a Spacecraft At ISS

    I have been following this for the last few days, they launched the Falcon 9 rocket with the Dragon capsule on Tuesday, then Thursday had to perform a series of tests to make sure the Dragon spacecraft was working fine, now they are docking. They had to perform multiple tests on it to make...
  50. R

    How do Occupants of the ISS Survive a CME

    How do occupants living on board the International Space Station (ISS) survive exposure to solar storms and especially coronal mass ejections?