A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. In a nozzle, the velocity of fluid increases at the expense of its pressure energy.
Hello,
so the thrust equation goes like: F = (m dot)*v_e + A_e*(p_e - p_a), where
F ... thrust [N]
m dot ... mass flow rate [kg/s]
v_e ... velocity of exhaust [m/s]
A_e ... area of the exit nozzle plane [m2]
p_e ... pressure of the exhaust at the exit of the nozzle [Pa(a)]
p_a ... ambient...
Suppose there is a steady source of compressed air/gas at 5 barA pressure, and that will be released through an overexpanded convergent-divergent nozzle. I want to know how to design such a nozzle and what would be the parameters for that. And also what would be the minimum pressure at the exit?
Under certain conditions, a supersonic flow in a nozzle will result in a "normal shock", an abrupt change in pressure and velocity. In the videos I've looked at, they draw the P and v graphs with a vertical step at that point.
But in practice, I assume there will be a non-zero transition zone...
Plasma instability may be a solution for magnetic nozzle plasma thrusters
https://phys.org/news/2022-12-plasma-instability-solution-magnetic-nozzle.html
Kazunori Takahashi (Tohoku University), Christine Charles (ANU, Canberra, AU) & Rod W. Boswell (Tohoku University)
Wave-driven electron...
In case of De Laval nozzle, the static pressure at the exit can be as low as 1/3rd of the ambient/release pressure. Kindly look at the conditions of operation part of the page. At present, I want to know any real life example (in as much detail as possible) of a De Laval nozzle where the exit...
Sufficiently pressurised (difference between inlet and release pressure is enough to create supersonic flow) gaseous fluid is being released through a convergent-divergent nozzle. And it's a known fact that if pressure difference is sufficient, a convergent-divergent nozzle can release gaseous...
If one Googles for "laminar flow nozzle", one finds many interesting tutorials on creating a nozzle for a laminar water jet; a stream of water that remains coherent over a long distance without breaking up. These typically consist of a large-diameter tube with regions inside (like sponges and...
Hi all
Another random, kinda open-ended question here. Sorry for that. I found myself reading about atomizing nozzles in oil burners, and got curious about the physics of atomized sprays. I didn't have much luck researching this on my own, so I'm turning to you all. It was the kind of situation...
Hi,
I started to think about the drag coefficient of a sphere. At high Reynolds number Cd drops of suddenly when the boundary layer separates. If the Reynolds number is increased further, Cd increases with increasing Re. (I'm thinking about what is referred to as "post critical separated flow")...
I would like to write a program to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of 10 or more chemical species at any axial location along a quasi 1D isentropic methane-liquid oxygen rocket nozzle. Is anyone aware of any good textbooks that cover this topic in depth, specifically dealing with large...
Hi All,
I'm trying to get a better understanding of the momentum thrust given by an over-expanded rocket nozzle (I realize this case voids the isentropic flow assumption used for the 1D isentropic gas expansion equations typically used for rocket engine design since the normal shock is not an...
Hi all, I'm working on programming a simple 2D method of characteristics program to design the nozzle wall contour for a supersonic rocket nozzle. I'm wondering roughly what sort of difference I should expect from a 2D vs 3D method of characteristics program and where I could find a good...
I have air/gas pressurised gas (pressure is 7 barG). I want to know what are the parameters of the divergent nozzle needed so that the pressurised gas can be released to atmospheric pressure level smoothly and necessary enthalpy conversion can be achieved i.e. the air/gas will accelerate to its...
We all know that a convergent nozzle can increase the velocity of a fluid at the throat/exit than the inlet. But there are different type of nozzles available in market now like parabolic nozzles, straight nozzles and elongated nozzles. I want to know which shape/geometry is the best to get the...
My first post here!
I have calculated everything i need, except the thickness of the second layer dZ*, therefore i can't solve V3/V2=(R2ˇ2)/(R3ˇ2)
Trying for days now, i would appreciate any help.
Hi,
when modeling convective cooling in FEA one needs to define film coefficient ##h## and ambient temperature ##T_{amb}##. The software calculates convective heat flux using this data and current surface temperature ##T_s##: $$q=h(T_{s}-T_{amb})$$ However, modeling of moving cooling nozzle may...
Hello,
I have built a device and i want to test different types of nozzles. Problem is; the size of the nozzles i need are hard to find in company stock. So i need to make sure before i make any order.
I have no background or degree any related area so it is hard to understand the equations...
I want to present two scenarios here. First, there is a convergent nozzle shaped structure having a fan/blower fitted inside. In this case, the fan/blower is fitted at the throat of the nozzle. The inlet to throat ratio isn't important here. And the second scenario, the same nozzle is used but...
I am attempting to calculate the force (in KgF) of a water pump + nozzle system. I have the pump curve (head vs. flow rate) for the pump, the diameter of the connection hose (2 inches) and the nozzle diameter (1 inch). The connection hose between the pump and nozzle is very short (approx 10 cm)...
Suppose, there is a convergent-divergent nozzle where the inlet and the outlet both has 5 sq cm area while the throat has 1 sq cm area. A pressurised compressible fluid at 5 barA pressure having velocity 10 m/s entered the c/d nozzle. The back pressure i.e. the pressure at the outlet is 1 barA...
I am attaching a standard 5/8" garden hose with approximately 70psi pressure to a copper pipe that is capped on the opposite end with mist nozzles mounted periodically along its length. I want the pressure at each mister to be as similar as possible. The hose attaches at the base, a solid line...
I have one question about the many wash nozzles.
The pump has 20 GPM @ 1000 PSI , the pipe size is 1" and connect 20 nozzles.
So the 1/4" nozzle may be 1GPM @ 1000 PSI. But the nozzle standard show the 1GPM is about 10 PSI.
and 1000psi need 10 GPM.
Can anyone know how to calculate the nozzle...
This time, i have a question that came to my mind a few days ago. There is an ideal nozzle having inlet to throat ratio of 8:1. Air will enter the nozzle at around 84 m/s velocity. it can be easily understood that the velocity will become sonic much ahead of the throat. And I am wondering what...
I want to know what's the most efficient type convergent nozzle available now at present. I means what's the shape that is most efficient for a convergent nozzle. By efficiency, I want to mean that the inlet velocity to throat velocity ratio will be as close as possible to the throat area to...
Obviously expanding the gas cools it down. I'm interested if you could boil water and then expand the high pressure steam to cool it down to 0°C. Or are there subtler thermodynamics that would prevent this?
Homework Statement
A hose of inside diameter ##1.5cm## can reach a distance of ##1.5m##. A nozzle is inserted in the hose and water can now reach ##24m##. What is the inside diameter of the nozzle? The height is the same in both cases.
Homework Equations
Use continuity equation...
Let us assume we have a cylindrical wind tunnel having a 0.5 m diameter fed by an electric fan. The cross-sectional area of the wind tunnel would be A1 = (PI/4) D1^2 = 0.196349541 m2. Let us suppose the motor driving the fan has a power rating of 1,500 W. At this stage, let us assume that the...
Recently I have some conversation with an electrical engineer and from him I cam to know about a peculiar information. We were talking about what will happen if we put a convergent nozzle before a electricity driven fan/blower. I have concentrated what will happen at the throat and other...
In both the cases, the flow cross section area of the pipe is reduced.But in case of nozzles the velocity increases,pressure reduces and the flow rate is maintained.But in case of flow control valve, flow rate changes.(Assuming the fluid to be incompressible) Why is there a difference between...
Is the pressure due to the hot gas exhaust stream on the inside walls of a rocket motor bell nozzle positive or negative?
Does the rocket exhaust exert a outward pressure on the nozzle walls due to the sheer volume of the exhaust gases or is the pressure a negative one due to the exhaust stream...
ρ
I am trying to estimate and validate the pressure of water exiting a nozzle. For an unknown reason, the validation is consistently twice as high as the estimation.
Here the approach:
Estimation:
I am using the dynamic pressure equation for the estimation:
q = 1/2 * ρ * u2
where,
q = dynamic...
Why is it that variable geometry nozzles, like those found on jet engine(iris nozzles), are not used as rocket nozzle to provide better altitude compensation?
Hello,
Can anybody please tell me the typical diameter of the exhaust nozzle of a jet engine? I know, there are different types of engines and nozzle types also vary. For instance, I am interested to know the typical diameter of the nozzle of a turbofan engine.
Thanks
Hello
I`m working on a vacuum project, and I am trying to understand how the vacuum ejector I am using works.
I understant the basic principle of how it works, but can anybody here try to explain the concept in detail,
taking into consideration that I am using air? Most of the stuff i find...
Good day everyone. I have a few question that I would like to confirm. Currently I am doing a project that rinses a plastic pallet.
The type of nozzle I am looking at is a 65 degree full cone nozzle. Pressure = 0.7 MPa. Flowrate = 3.88 lpm.
Pallet size is 1300mm x 1300mm x 100mm.
Q1. Is it...
I want to know whether we can create supersonic flow with a blower fitted with De Laval Nozzle. We all know that convergent-divergent i.e. De Laval Nozzles can create supersonic flow.
Let's make it more clear. Suppose we have blower in our hand that can create an airlfow (air will be at STP) of...
So we have: stability for n < 1
instability for n > 1
I assume to get the time growth, I have to integrate the above first eqn. However I also get ln(δpc) at the LHS from the integrating. However the above equation for time growth removed that ln(δpc) and thus I can't...
Homework Statement
where the boldface type denotes a vector quantity. In general, the incremental surface dS may be expressed as r dψ R d∅. Examining Figure 1, we see that dS = R2 sin∅ dψ d∅ for this particular nozzle. Substituting Equations 3 and 4 in Equation 2 and integrating ∅ from zero...
Hi, I have this problem:
I have a vertical tube 1 meter D, in the bottom end there is a nozzle with 0,5 m D. The tube is full of water. the tube length is 10 meters and the nozzle length is 2 meters. I need to calculate the power of this by this equation:
W = Q * g * h * p
where W is watt, Q...
Hi guys,
I need to determine the performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) from CFD results with different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR). For some NPR the nozzle is overexpanded and for some underexpanded.
Now the impact of the control volume definition on especially the axial thrust...
Homework Statement
I am happy to re-write the question, but I'm just leisurely working through a list of problems I found online, so here is the link (with picture).
http://web.mit.edu/2.25/www/5_pdf/5_01.pdf
Homework Equations
Cons of Momentum
Cons of Mass
The Attempt at a Solution
a) I...
member 428835
Thread
Conservation
Conservation of momentum
Momentum
Nozzle
Homework Statement
[/B]
This is problem 10.27 in the Exercises for the Feynman Lectures on Physics, or Problem C-2 in Chapter 10 of Leighton and Vogt's Exercises in Introductory Physics.
Homework Equations
Using ##v_f^2 = v_i^2 + 2 a S## for the water in the vertical direction, we can find...
Homework Statement
I am using the NASA CEA code to generate Isp and thrust data for the SSME. I solve the problem twice, once with a frozen flow condition and a second time with an equilibrium flow condition.
However, there is a third request for solving the problem with equilibrium flow from...
I am intending to design a CD nozzle that produces 20mN thrust under atmospheric conditions.
The reservoir pressure will be 1.4 bar, and the ambient pressure will be 1 bar. The other variables are adjustable. This will in the end be sent out for fabrication.My process is as follow,
May I know...
I have been reading many examples of control volume calculations regarding nozzles
They all end up with a reaction force on the nozzle in the direction of the flow.
I can't understand this from a Conservation of momentum perspective.
I would expect that the reaction force, by Newtons third...
Hey,
I have an air tank that is at a set pressure, say 3000psi, and I have attached a regulator to the end that regulates the pressure down to 800psi. As the valve on the tank is opened the pressure and the mass in the container will decrease. If there was no regulator the mass flow rate would...
Hello,
We have a system with a 70 bar pump and 9 nozzles connected to the pump lines. Total flow rate is 2 l/m. Is there a way to change only one nozzle flow rate manually, with a pressure regulator valf just behind that nozzle?
Thank you.
Hey,
So I have a system where there is an air tank (0.2Litres @ 3000psi, 293K) and I have a convergent-divergent nozzle attached directly to it. What I want to know is an expression for how the mass flow rate varies with time as the mass in the tank decreases causing the pressure to decrease...