What is Sensitivity: Definition and 110 Discussions

Climate sensitivity is a measure of how much the Earth's climate will cool or warm after a change in the climate system, for instance, how much it will warm for doubling in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. In technical terms, climate sensitivity is the average change in the Earth's surface temperature in response to changes in radiative forcing, the difference between incoming and outgoing energy on Earth. Climate sensitivity is a key measure in climate science, and a focus area for climate scientists, who want to understand the ultimate consequences of anthroprogenic climate change.
The Earth's surface warms as a direct consequence of increased atmospheric CO2, as well as increased concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Increasing temperatures have secondary effects on the climate system, such as an increase in atmospheric water vapour, which is itself also a greenhouse gas. Because scientists do not know exactly how strong these climate feedbacks are, it is difficult to precisely predict the amount of warming that will result from a given increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. If climate sensitivity turns out to be on the high side of scientific estimates, the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to below 2 °C (3.6 °F) will be difficult to achieve.The two primary types of climate sensitivity are the shorter-term "transient climate response", the increase in global average temperature that is expected to have occurred at a time when the atmospheric CO2 concentration has doubled; and "equilibrium climate sensitivity", the higher long-term increase in global average temperature expected to occur after the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration have had time to reach a steady state. Climate sensitivity is typically estimated in three ways; using direct observations of temperature and levels of greenhouse gases taken during the industrial age; using indirectly estimated temperature and other measurements from the Earth's more distant past; and modelling the various aspects of the climate system with computers.

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  1. DaveC426913

    Inclusivity and sensitivity: a term

    In a discussion, looking for source material. I'm not sure how to categorize this, let alone cite some authority on it. They aren't "disabled people"; they are "people with disabilities". They aren't "homeless people"; they are "people experiencing homelessness". The logic is that they are...
  2. MathematicalPhysicist

    I GW detectors -- How much has their sensitivity improved since 2008?

    According to Schutz's second edition of "A First Course in GR" on page 318: So to my question. The book was written in 2008, since then have the GW detectors become sufficiently sensitive to detect radiation from black holes? What has changed since 2008? Thanks!
  3. F

    Spectrometer sensitivity (photons/count) at different wavelengths

    Hello Everyone, I am trying to better understand how a spectrometer must be used to measure the wavelength content of the radiation from a specific source. All spectrometers measure irradiance over a wavelength range (for ex, UV-VIS) but the sensitivity (photons/count) is not the same for all...
  4. Jonathan008

    Sensitivity of the liquid-in-glass thermometer

    Question description: How could we increase the sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer such as the mercury thermometer? What is the basic principle for each method ? There are some options: 1.Increase the size of the bulb. 2. Use thinner glass wall outside the capillary tube. 3. Decrease...
  5. K

    I What is the difference between sensitivity and efficiency in particle detection?

    Hello! What is the difference between the sensitivity and the efficiency of a detector. In the detector books I found they seem to be treated as 2 different concepts, but based on the descriptions, I can't seem to understand the difference. Efficiency seems to be how many particles you detect...
  6. mattyboson12

    High sensitivity continuity tester

    Hello, I'm a mechanical designer so have limited experience on circuit design. I'm designing a product in my freetime which requires a high speed continuity signal to trigger my system - the faster it is, the more accurate the output so ideally looking at sub 1ms. I'm hoping to power it with a...
  7. R

    B LIGO Arm Length & Sensitivity: What's the Relation?

    [Moderator's note: Spun off from previous thread due to new question.] I have read here: http://backreaction.blogspot.com/2016/02/everything-you-need-to-know-about.html?m=1 That there is a proportionality between the size of LIGO arms and the wavelength of gravitational waves that it can...
  8. R

    B Modern Cavendish vs LIGO: Gravity Scale & Wave Interruption?

    What is the scale of magnitude of gravity, that a modern Cavendish like laser detector of gravity pull between small daily size objects can detect in comparison to the magnitude of gravitational wave a LIGO like detector can detect? Will such a modern Cavendish like device measurements be...
  9. R

    B Scale of Measurement vs Equipment Sensitivity: Does Symmetry Always Hold?

    Many times when i ask about test theories of SR, i am reminded by forum members, that equipment sensitivity, is equivalent to producing more extreme physical values. For example, you don't necessarily have to go faster in speed, in order to have a better measurement of time dilation, if you have...
  10. L

    I PMT Sensitivity Explained: Understanding Photomultiplier Tube Sensitivity

    What does Photomultiplier tube sensitivity mean? When people say that it is highly sensitive, how do they measure that?
  11. R

    Stress concentration factor and notch sensitivity in a shaft

    Homework Statement [/B] I can't seem to get the image links to work sorry! Also, I think the question is supposed to say 2.5mm radius notch, not 10mm https://imgur.com/Klxw4gG https://imgur.com/C9d81Rl https://imgur.com/7H421ou Homework Equations [/B] q = Ka - 1 / Kt - 1 M = Fd (σa / σ'e)...
  12. E

    RF and MW receivers' sensitivity

    I'm currently working on a novel RF and MW sensor and I wanted to know whether there is a paper that shows the current very best receiver sensitivity for a range of wavelengths in the RF-MW range in dBm preferably so I can directly compare to my device.
  13. P

    Galvanometer sensitivity

    Homework Statement If a shunt of 1/10th of the coil resistance is applied to a moving coil galvanometer,then it's sensitivity becomes (a)10 fold (b)11 fold (c)1/10 fold (d)1/11 foldHomework Equations ϕ / I = NAB/LThe Attempt at a Solution [/B] So sensitivity gets increased by only these...
  14. adamaero

    Engineering KVL and sensitivity of a simple circuit

    Homework Statement Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Note to self - simple diode concept: http://www.cs.tut.fi/kurssit/TLT-8016/Chapter3.pdf#page=5 Unsure about this KVL (above). For the last sensitivity part, equations be falling out of the sky...
  15. Jones15

    Force exerted by the abdomen on our vest

    How to calculate the force or pressure by the movement of the abdomen (due to inhalation and exhalation) on the vest(tight T-shirt for example) that we are wearing ?
  16. Roger Dodger

    B Least / Smallest / Minimum Detectable Difference

    In scientific experiment, we often have a physical property that can change but have no detectable impact on the measurement. For example, suppose I have a mass of (say) 30 grams attached to a string passing over a pulley. I can add up to another 2 grams and the system doesn't budge. In our...
  17. D

    MHB Sensitivity Analysis model for omnivory systems (coupled system of ode's)

    \chapter{Stage Structured Omnivory Model} %\indent For our initial computations we will be using a standard Lotka-Volterra omnivory model which was developed to analyze the population and community level dynamics. The model depicted below (figure 1.4) is a standard Lotka-Volterra model of...
  18. G

    Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity

    Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity - what is the relevance of the word 'equilibrium' - why not 'climate sensitivity?' Hope you can help.
  19. E

    High end Radar receiver sensitivities

    I am looking for what the high end radar receivers can achieve in terms of sensitivity? I have had trouble finding examples online, I have seen -100 to -103dBm as typical sensitivities, but I'm looking for the cutting edge stuff. I've also seen the GPS satellites also have a sensitivity of...
  20. Asmaa Mohammad

    Factors determining the sensitivity of a galvanometer

    Homework Statement A galvanometer is connected to a solenoid, and there is a magnet bar entering the solenoid to induce an emf. What factors determine the displacement of the pointer of the galvanometer? Homework Equations emf (induced) = -N ΔΦ/ Δt sensitivity of the galvanometer = θ/i The...
  21. Asmaa Mohammad

    The sensitivity of the galvanometer

    Homework Statement Homework Equations sensitivity= θ/i The Attempt at a Solution That's the answer in my textbook: Sensitivity = θ/i = 60/30 = 2 deg/mA But I wonder why it used the angle 60 (the angle between the coil face and the field lines) instead of the angle 30 (the angle between the...
  22. R

    Hockey Stick and Climate Sensitivity

    I wonder if you might be able to help me with a question I have about climate change, specifically Mann's MBH99 hockey stick graph in relation to climate sensitivity equation. I would like to know where the climate sensitivity equation "Delta T = RF*lamba fits into the making of the hockey stick...
  23. J

    How to determine the range of sensitivity for a camera sensor?

    I am not sure if this is the best place to ask and I will change locations if need be, but I need some guidance on how to choose a proper sensor for my project. I am currently working as part of a team on a polarimetric camera for ocean imaging. The basic premise is that images, from above the...
  24. L

    Optical detector sensitivity at low and medium flux

    Dear all, This is my first post and I'm not sure if it's the right place to ask so don't hesitate to advise if necessary. I would like to know if it's possible that an optical detector (the complete system including sensor and front-end electronics) has a better sensitivity at medium flux than...
  25. Rahul Shenoy

    Parameter sensitivity analysis for nonlinear system

    I am working on a problem, where I have arrived at the following nonlinear state space equation: dx1/dt = x2; dx2/dt = c11 x1 + c21x2 + c31x3 + c41x4 + c51x1x22; dx3/dt = x4; dx4/dt = c12 x1 + c22x2 + c32x3 + c42x4 + c52x1x22; c11, c21, c31, c41, c51, c12, c22, c32, c42, c52 are all a function...
  26. moenste

    Calculate the deflection sensitivity in mm per volt

    Homework Statement Describe a method by which the charge / mass ratio e / m of the electron has been determined. Calculate the deflection sensitivity (deflection of spot in mm per volt potential difference) of a cathode ray tube from the following data: electrons are accelerated by a...
  27. S

    I Spectral Sensitivity and Solar Energy

    I'm trying to understand the link between Spectral Sensitivity and Solar Energy. To give some context, I've been learning about external quantum efficiency and spectral response. I found a lot of literature about spectral sensitivity, with one saying the units of it were Ampres / lux. Is...
  28. R

    A ALIGO interferometer sensitivity

    Hi everyone! One thing that's been bothering me about all the hype and comments related the detection of GWs by the aLIGO team is that given the amazing sensitivity(strains~1.0E-22) achieved by the interferometers nobody has mentioned the possibility that they have become sensitive to not only...
  29. K

    Sensitivity of a thermocouple from thermometric function

    Homework Statement In what range of temperature will this thermocouple be more sensitive (i.e. having a measureable voltage for a small change in temperature)? Homework Equations The thermal electromotive force (E) of a thermocouple is described in terms of temperature by the function: E =...
  30. A

    Sensitivity of photosensors

    Hi there, My name is Anar Kazimov and I want to carry out an experiment related to the sensitivity of the photosensors(photodiode,photoresistors and etc.). To find their sensitivity I am going to change the distance, from the light source to the sensors, and compare the change in output...
  31. M

    Understanding sensitivity of a variable using derivatives

    Hi, Please see the attached file. Homework Statement I am trying to figure out K’s sensitivity to x and y. I wish to know which variable K is more sensitive to. Both x and y are positive decimals less than 1. I want to be able to say a 1% increase in y results in a p% change in K. As the...
  32. F

    Why a 6dB attenuator for receiver effective sensitivity test

    The diagram is a reproduction from instructions to perform an effective sensitivity test for a generic radio receiver. In our organization it's considered the proper way to do an effective sensitivity test for a receiver. My question is, what does the 6 db attenuator do in this case. It is...
  33. P

    Difference between Creep and Strain Rate Sensitivity

    Hello, recently I became interested in some basics of material science and there was one thing that I did not really understand. What is the difference (or what are things in common) between creep and strain rate sensitivity? I read about it in connection with indentation. - To measure the...
  34. A

    Sensitivity threshold development

    I am trying to develop a sensitivity analysis tool and I would appreciate it if anyone had any information on how does the error in the semimajor axis and/or other orbital elements of the orbit of a LEO satellite influence the error in pitch, yaw and roll angles?
  35. E

    Fresnel Relations and the Sensitivity of a Camera

    Reflectance, according to the Fresnel Relations, is given by ##R \equiv \frac{I_r}{I_i}##, and Transmittance is ##T = \frac{I_t \cos \theta_t}{I_i \cos \theta_i}##. Do these values depend on the wavelength of light? For example, if I have a beam of white light rather than a monochromatic...
  36. Zafa Pi

    Sensitivity to initial conditions

    Let M = {x1, x2, x3, ...} U {p} be a perfect metric space. Let f be continuous, taking M to M with f(xn) = xn+1 and f(p) = p. I would like to know if this dynamical system is necessarily sensitive to initial conditions.
  37. J

    Understanding Bridge Sensitivity and Checking Vout Expression for Accuracy

    Can anyone tell me if my Vout expression for this bridge is correct or can correct me if there is anything wrong. Vout = 10{(Rt/100+Rt)-1/2}
  38. adoion

    IC temperature sensitivity?

    How sensitive are ICs to temperature? I recently replaced a digital signal processor IC (IC:cxd3098aq) Sony made on a PlayStation 2 and while doing so I heated the chip first to remove it, then I re-balled all the pads and then put the new chip on the pads applied some flux in the form of paste...
  39. T

    EMU sensitivity unit for SQUID magnetometers

    In many, many articles about the SQUID magnetometer, I see people referring to the sensitivity of the magnetometer in units of EMU, as in this article: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/26/6/064006 or this http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02570388 Could someone please explain...
  40. S

    Calculating Correlations and Sensitivity Coefficients

    I have a numerical simulation where I'm randomly varying an input parameter. This results in variations in three output parameters: A, B and C. The output parameters can be assumed to have normal distributions, but are correlated to each other. If I calculate the mean and standard...
  41. K

    Need some guidance on sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    Hi, I have a set of results for which I wish to carry out sensitivity analysis. I have already googled it and it always comes up with examples on Microsoft Excel but I don't want to use excel for the sensitivity analysis. So can someone explain to me what sensitivity and uncertainty analysis...
  42. C

    Reduce Power Source Sensitivity

    I am currently designing an electronic circuit to detect fluctuations of the geomagnetic field in response to solar activity. One problem I am anticipating however is an over sensitive power source which will respond to thermal fluctuations in the holding room (can’t control room...
  43. A

    MHB Trying to investigate and find the sensitivity of function

    I have a question about function F(x) = sqrt(x) I found that it has Kappa value equal to 1/2 I am not too sure what happens if when x = 0 is it just a minimum? But now I am trying to investigate and find the sensitivity of F(x) to errors in x when we use x+ϵ, where ϵ is small.
  44. M

    Thermistor temperature sensitivity

    Homework Statement . (a) It was pointed out in Section 15.3 that the temperature sensitivity of conductivity in semiconductors make them superior to traditional thermocouples for certain high-precision temperature measurements. Such devices are referred to as thermistors. As a simple example...
  45. C

    Climate Sensitivity math problem

    Homework Statement Using a climate sensitivity of 0.5K per watt per square meter, estimate how much of the .9 c global temperature increase since 1900 could be due to solar forcing who value is the range of .06 to .24 w/m2 Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I am not...
  46. A

    Confused about human sensitivity to color

    I am trying to design an optimal colormap for display interval data. I would like to create a scale that is linear in perceived luminance while adding a hue component to help mitigate the simultaneous contrast effect. However, I am confused on what hue to pick. The longest curved path I...
  47. U

    Graphical Sensitivity Analysis of LP

    Homework Statement This was from a test I took today: Maximize z = 4x + y subject to: 4x + 2y = 7 3x + 2y >= 6 4x + 2y <= 8 1.Graphically solve and find x y and z 2.What are the range of values for c1 (Coefficients of x) so that the solution remains optimal. Homework Equations The Attempt...
  48. C

    Strain gauge force sensitivity

    Hello, I'm new here and that's because I've run into a problem I can't reliable find anywhere else. I guess I need some personal experience or input from someone. I'm designing a force sensor for a project of mine, it will be measuring force in three orthogonal directions. Now, I'm confident...
  49. F

    Sensitivity of lock-in amplifier

    Hey I have a quick question whose answer is well-hidden on google since the key word of the search attempts is sensitivity, which of course returns results about phase-sensitive detection, and seemingly phase-sensitive detection only... My question is what the exact definition of the...
  50. F

    Colors and eye sensitivity

    The color coordinates of displays for portable electronics such as laptop computers generally provide smaller color spaces than for television. Battery power is a critical limitation on the light sources used for the display and maximum display brightness is desired. Explain why a reduction in...