What is Sensitivity: Definition and 110 Discussions
Climate sensitivity is a measure of how much the Earth's climate will cool or warm after a change in the climate system, for instance, how much it will warm for doubling in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. In technical terms, climate sensitivity is the average change in the Earth's surface temperature in response to changes in radiative forcing, the difference between incoming and outgoing energy on Earth. Climate sensitivity is a key measure in climate science, and a focus area for climate scientists, who want to understand the ultimate consequences of anthroprogenic climate change.
The Earth's surface warms as a direct consequence of increased atmospheric CO2, as well as increased concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Increasing temperatures have secondary effects on the climate system, such as an increase in atmospheric water vapour, which is itself also a greenhouse gas. Because scientists do not know exactly how strong these climate feedbacks are, it is difficult to precisely predict the amount of warming that will result from a given increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. If climate sensitivity turns out to be on the high side of scientific estimates, the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to below 2 °C (3.6 °F) will be difficult to achieve.The two primary types of climate sensitivity are the shorter-term "transient climate response", the increase in global average temperature that is expected to have occurred at a time when the atmospheric CO2 concentration has doubled; and "equilibrium climate sensitivity", the higher long-term increase in global average temperature expected to occur after the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration have had time to reach a steady state. Climate sensitivity is typically estimated in three ways; using direct observations of temperature and levels of greenhouse gases taken during the industrial age; using indirectly estimated temperature and other measurements from the Earth's more distant past; and modelling the various aspects of the climate system with computers.
In a discussion, looking for source material.
I'm not sure how to categorize this, let alone cite some authority on it.
They aren't "disabled people"; they are "people with disabilities".
They aren't "homeless people"; they are "people experiencing homelessness".
The logic is that they are...
According to Schutz's second edition of "A First Course in GR" on page 318:
So to my question.
The book was written in 2008, since then have the GW detectors become sufficiently sensitive to detect radiation from black holes?
What has changed since 2008?
Thanks!
Hello Everyone,
I am trying to better understand how a spectrometer must be used to measure the wavelength content of the radiation from a specific source.
All spectrometers measure irradiance over a wavelength range (for ex, UV-VIS) but the sensitivity (photons/count) is not the same for all...
Question description:
How could we increase the sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer such as the mercury thermometer? What is the basic principle for each method ?
There are some options:
1.Increase the size of the bulb.
2. Use thinner glass wall outside the capillary tube.
3. Decrease...
Hello! What is the difference between the sensitivity and the efficiency of a detector. In the detector books I found they seem to be treated as 2 different concepts, but based on the descriptions, I can't seem to understand the difference. Efficiency seems to be how many particles you detect...
Hello,
I'm a mechanical designer so have limited experience on circuit design. I'm designing a product in my freetime which requires a high speed continuity signal to trigger my system - the faster it is, the more accurate the output so ideally looking at sub 1ms.
I'm hoping to power it with a...
[Moderator's note: Spun off from previous thread due to new question.]
I have read here:
http://backreaction.blogspot.com/2016/02/everything-you-need-to-know-about.html?m=1
That there is a proportionality between the size of LIGO arms and the wavelength of gravitational waves that it can...
What is the scale of magnitude of gravity, that a modern Cavendish like laser detector of gravity pull between small daily size objects can detect in comparison to the magnitude of gravitational wave a LIGO like detector can detect?
Will such a modern Cavendish like device measurements be...
Many times when i ask about test theories of SR, i am reminded by forum members, that equipment sensitivity, is equivalent to producing more extreme physical values. For example, you don't necessarily have to go faster in speed, in order to have a better measurement of time dilation, if you have...
Homework Statement
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I can't seem to get the image links to work sorry! Also, I think the question is supposed to say 2.5mm radius notch, not 10mm
https://imgur.com/Klxw4gG
https://imgur.com/C9d81Rl
https://imgur.com/7H421ou
Homework Equations
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q = Ka - 1 / Kt - 1
M = Fd
(σa / σ'e)...
I'm currently working on a novel RF and MW sensor and I wanted to know whether there is a paper that shows the current very best receiver sensitivity for a range of wavelengths in the RF-MW range in dBm preferably so I can directly compare to my device.
Homework Statement
If a shunt of 1/10th of the coil resistance is applied to a moving coil galvanometer,then it's sensitivity becomes
(a)10 fold
(b)11 fold
(c)1/10 fold
(d)1/11 foldHomework Equations
ϕ / I = NAB/LThe Attempt at a Solution
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So sensitivity gets increased by only these...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
Note to self - simple diode concept: http://www.cs.tut.fi/kurssit/TLT-8016/Chapter3.pdf#page=5
Unsure about this KVL (above).
For the last sensitivity part, equations be falling out of the sky...
How to calculate the force or pressure by the movement of the abdomen (due to inhalation and exhalation) on the vest(tight T-shirt for example) that we are wearing ?
In scientific experiment, we often have a physical property that can change but have no detectable impact on the measurement.
For example, suppose I have a mass of (say) 30 grams attached to a string passing over a pulley. I can add up to another 2 grams and the system doesn't budge.
In our...
\chapter{Stage Structured Omnivory Model}
%\indent For our initial computations we will be using a standard Lotka-Volterra omnivory model which was developed to analyze the population and community level dynamics. The model depicted below (figure 1.4) is a standard Lotka-Volterra model of...
I am looking for what the high end radar receivers can achieve in terms of sensitivity? I have had trouble finding examples online, I have seen -100 to -103dBm as typical sensitivities, but I'm looking for the cutting edge stuff. I've also seen the GPS satellites also have a sensitivity of...
Homework Statement
A galvanometer is connected to a solenoid, and there is a magnet bar entering the solenoid to induce an emf. What factors determine the displacement of the pointer of the galvanometer?
Homework Equations
emf (induced) = -N ΔΦ/ Δt
sensitivity of the galvanometer = θ/i
The...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
sensitivity= θ/i
The Attempt at a Solution
That's the answer in my textbook:
Sensitivity = θ/i = 60/30 = 2 deg/mA
But I wonder why it used the angle 60 (the angle between the coil face and the field lines) instead of the angle 30 (the angle between the...
I wonder if you might be able to help me with a question I have about climate change, specifically Mann's MBH99 hockey stick graph in relation to climate sensitivity equation. I would like to know where the climate sensitivity equation "Delta T = RF*lamba fits into the making of the hockey stick...
I am not sure if this is the best place to ask and I will change locations if need be, but I need some guidance on how to choose a proper sensor for my project.
I am currently working as part of a team on a polarimetric camera for ocean imaging. The basic premise is that images, from above the...
Dear all,
This is my first post and I'm not sure if it's the right place to ask so don't hesitate to advise if necessary.
I would like to know if it's possible that an optical detector (the complete system including sensor and front-end electronics) has a better sensitivity at medium flux than...
I am working on a problem, where I have arrived at the following nonlinear state space equation:
dx1/dt = x2;
dx2/dt = c11 x1 + c21x2 + c31x3 + c41x4 + c51x1x22;
dx3/dt = x4;
dx4/dt = c12 x1 + c22x2 + c32x3 + c42x4 + c52x1x22;
c11, c21, c31, c41, c51, c12, c22, c32, c42, c52 are all a function...
Homework Statement
Describe a method by which the charge / mass ratio e / m of the electron has been determined.
Calculate the deflection sensitivity (deflection of spot in mm per volt potential difference) of a cathode ray tube from the following data: electrons are accelerated by a...
I'm trying to understand the link between Spectral Sensitivity and Solar Energy.
To give some context, I've been learning about external quantum efficiency and spectral response.
I found a lot of literature about spectral sensitivity, with one saying the units of it were Ampres / lux.
Is...
Hi everyone!
One thing that's been bothering me about all the hype and comments related the detection of GWs by the aLIGO team is that given the amazing sensitivity(strains~1.0E-22) achieved by the interferometers nobody has mentioned the possibility that they have become sensitive to not only...
Homework Statement
In what range of temperature will this thermocouple be more sensitive (i.e. having a measureable voltage for a small change in temperature)?
Homework Equations
The thermal electromotive force (E) of a thermocouple is described in terms of temperature by the function:
E =...
Hi there,
My name is Anar Kazimov and I want to carry out an experiment related to the sensitivity of the photosensors(photodiode,photoresistors and etc.). To find their sensitivity I am going to change the distance, from the light source to the sensors, and compare the change in output...
Hi,
Please see the attached file.
Homework Statement
I am trying to figure out K’s sensitivity to x and y. I wish to know which variable K is more sensitive to. Both x and y are positive decimals less than 1.
I want to be able to say a 1% increase in y results in a p% change in K. As the...
The diagram is a reproduction from instructions to perform an effective sensitivity test for a generic radio receiver. In our organization it's considered the proper way to do an effective sensitivity test for a receiver. My question is, what does the 6 db attenuator do in this case. It is...
Hello,
recently I became interested in some basics of material science and there was one thing that I did not really understand.
What is the difference (or what are things in common) between creep and strain rate sensitivity?
I read about it in connection with indentation.
- To measure the...
I am trying to develop a sensitivity analysis tool and I would appreciate it if anyone had any information on how does the error in the semimajor axis and/or other orbital elements of the orbit of a LEO satellite influence the error in pitch, yaw and roll angles?
Reflectance, according to the Fresnel Relations, is given by
##R \equiv \frac{I_r}{I_i}##,
and Transmittance is
##T = \frac{I_t \cos \theta_t}{I_i \cos \theta_i}##.
Do these values depend on the wavelength of light? For example, if I have a beam of white light rather than a monochromatic...
Let M = {x1, x2, x3, ...} U {p} be a perfect metric space.
Let f be continuous, taking M to M with f(xn) = xn+1 and f(p) = p.
I would like to know if this dynamical system is necessarily sensitive to initial conditions.
How sensitive are ICs to temperature?
I recently replaced a digital signal processor IC (IC:cxd3098aq) Sony made on a PlayStation 2 and while doing so I heated the chip first to remove it, then I re-balled all the pads and then put the new chip on the pads applied some flux in the form of paste...
In many, many articles about the SQUID magnetometer, I see people referring to the sensitivity of the magnetometer in units of EMU, as in this article:
http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/26/6/064006
or this
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02570388
Could someone please explain...
I have a numerical simulation where I'm randomly varying an input parameter.
This results in variations in three output parameters: A, B and C. The output parameters can be assumed to have normal distributions, but are correlated to each other.
If I calculate the mean and standard...
Hi, I have a set of results for which I wish to carry out sensitivity analysis. I have already googled it and it always comes up with examples on Microsoft Excel but I don't want to use excel for the sensitivity analysis. So can someone explain to me what sensitivity and uncertainty analysis...
I am currently designing an electronic circuit to detect fluctuations of the geomagnetic field in response to solar activity.
One problem I am anticipating however is an over sensitive power source which will respond to thermal fluctuations in the holding room (can’t control room...
I have a question about function F(x) = sqrt(x)
I found that it has Kappa value equal to 1/2
I am not too sure what happens if when x = 0 is it just a minimum?
But now I am trying to investigate and find the sensitivity of F(x) to errors in x when we use x+ϵ, where ϵ is small.
Homework Statement
. (a) It was pointed out in Section 15.3 that the temperature sensitivity of conductivity in semiconductors make them superior to traditional thermocouples for certain high-precision temperature measurements. Such devices are referred to as thermistors. As a simple example...
Homework Statement
Using a climate sensitivity of 0.5K per watt per square meter, estimate how much of the .9 c global temperature increase since 1900 could be due to solar forcing who value is the range of .06 to .24 w/m2
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I am not...
I am trying to design an optimal colormap for display interval data.
I would like to create a scale that is linear in perceived luminance while adding a hue component to help mitigate the simultaneous contrast effect. However, I am confused on what hue to pick.
The longest curved path I...
Homework Statement
This was from a test I took today:
Maximize z = 4x + y subject to:
4x + 2y = 7
3x + 2y >= 6
4x + 2y <= 8
1.Graphically solve and find x y and z
2.What are the range of values for c1 (Coefficients of x) so that the solution remains optimal.
Homework Equations
The Attempt...
Hello, I'm new here and that's because I've run into a problem I can't reliable find anywhere else.
I guess I need some personal experience or input from someone.
I'm designing a force sensor for a project of mine, it will be measuring force in three orthogonal directions. Now, I'm confident...
Hey
I have a quick question whose answer is well-hidden on google since the key word of the search attempts is sensitivity, which of course returns results about phase-sensitive detection, and seemingly phase-sensitive detection only... My question is what the exact definition of the...
The color coordinates of displays for portable electronics such as laptop computers generally provide smaller color spaces than for television. Battery power is a critical limitation on the light sources used for the display and maximum display brightness is desired. Explain why a reduction in...