What is Crispr: Definition and 21 Discussions

CRISPR () (which is an acronym for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a family of DNA sequences found in the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. These sequences are derived from DNA fragments of bacteriophages that had previously infected the prokaryote. They are used to detect and destroy DNA from similar bacteriophages during subsequent infections. Hence these sequences play a key role in the antiviral (i.e. anti-phage) defense system of prokaryotes and provide a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR are found in approximately 50% of sequenced bacterial genomes and nearly 90% of sequenced archaea.

Cas9 (or "CRISPR-associated protein 9") is an enzyme that uses CRISPR sequences as a guide to recognize and cleave specific strands of DNA that are complementary to the CRISPR sequence. Cas9 enzymes together with CRISPR sequences form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 that can be used to edit genes within organisms. This editing process has a wide variety of applications including basic biological research, development of biotechnological products, and treatment of diseases. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technique was recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020 which was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna.

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  1. berkeman

    Medical CRISPR treatment has been greenlit in UK in global first (for sickle cell disease and beta thalassemia)

    Interesting developments; I'm not sure how controversial this is... https://www.cnn.com/2023/11/16/health/uk-casgevy-approval-crispr-gene-editing-sickle-cell-scn/index.html
  2. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Progress for Gene Therapy and CRISPR against Blood Diseases

    The New England Journal of Medicine published two papers showing data for successful treatment of a handful of patients with sickle cell disease or β- thalassemia using gene therapy techniques. Both teams used the strategy of inhibiting the BCL11a transcription factor in blood cells, which...
  3. DrClaude

    Who Won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry?

  4. BWV

    Medical Successful CRISPR treatment of a Sickle Cell patient

    Encouraging news that the technology can potentially cure a number of genetic disorders https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/11/19/780510277/gene-edited-supercells-make-progress-in-fight-against-sickle-cell-disease
  5. Ygggdrasil

    New CRISPR-based tool for find-and-replace editing of DNA

    Over the past half decade, researchers have envisioned the https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/system as a way to...
  6. mfb

    CRISPR against cancer in human trial

    crispr-as-gene-editing-human-trials-get-underway?utm_source=twitter.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=npr&utm_term=nprnews&utm_content=20190416]First U.S. Patients Treated With CRISPR As Human Gene-Editing Trials Get Underway[/url] The study takes immune cells out of the patient, modifies them...
  7. Ygggdrasil

    Measuring off target mutations during CRISPR gene editing

    https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/ is a newly developed tool that allows researchers to easily make changes to...
  8. Ygggdrasil

    Medical First genetically edited human babies reportedly born

    https://apnews.com/4997bb7aa36c45449b488e19ac83e86d As detailed in the AP news story, most scientists believe the work to be unethical as the safety of the CRISPR gene editing technique used has not yet been fully established. See also...
  9. Ygggdrasil

    Can CRISPR-Cas9 Technology End Mosquitoes and Should We?

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spreading a number of human diseases (including malaria, Dengue fever, and Zika virus), and account for nearly half a million deaths per year worldwide. For many years, scientists have been investigating technologies that could help control or even eliminate...
  10. jim mcnamara

    CRISPR and unwanted DNA alterations

    @Ygggdrasil is far more qualified to comment on this than I am, but it seems like a good idea to raise the issue. Published today July 16, 2018 Letter in Nature Biotechnology: https://www.nature.com/articles/Nbt.4192 M. Kosicki, K. Tomberg & A Bradley Abstract: In plain English this says...
  11. TranscedentKid

    What Makes CRISPR-Gold a Promising Tool for Genetic Diseases?

    Why is gold un-reactive enough to be used as nanoparticles? Why do cells preform endocytosis upon detection of the gold delivery system? What are the chemical receptors active? Why is does it cause less genetic damage than doing it virally? Is this system partly designed to change the DNA of...
  12. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Scientists identify major safety issue with CRISPR

    https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/provides scientists with an easy way to introduce targeted genetic changes to...
  13. Greg Bernhardt

    Gene-edited immune cells could help wipe out deadly tumors

    U.S. Doctors Plan to Treat Cancer Patients Using CRISPR https://www.technologyreview.com/s/609999/us-doctors-plan-to-treat-cancer-patients-using-crispr/
  14. BillTre

    Can CRISPR precisely alter single base pairs in DNA and RNA sequences?

    CRISPR is often used to switch out a length of DNA for a different piece of sequence, which can change several base pairs at once. crispr-derived-base-editors-surgically-alter-dna-or-rna-offering-new-ways-fix?utm_campaign=news_daily_2017-10-25&et_rid=33537079&et_cid=1624006']Here is a Science...
  15. jim mcnamara

    CRISPR research under scrutiny

    Egli, D. et al. Preprint at http://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/08/28/181255 (2017). A critique of: doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22382 (dated Aug 2) Here is the more news science version of the CRISPR study: https://www.nature.com/news/crispr-fixes-disease-gene-in-viable-human-embryos-1.22382...
  16. F

    CRISPR Cas9: Answers to Questions

    Hello guy, been a while since I was here, recently I've been studying biology and we had a brief explanation on what cripsr cas9 is. My teacher does not have answers to the questions I need so I will ask them here and sorry If there is misspelling here and there, I am on my phone. First of...
  17. 1oldman2

    Another cool thing CRISPR can do

    http://www.nature.com/news/lights-camera-crispr-biologists-use-gene-editing-to-store-movies-in-dna-1.22288 "The technical achievement, reported on 12 July in Nature1, is a step towards creating cellular recording systems that are capable of encoding a series of events, says Seth Shipman, a...
  18. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Using CRISPR to cut HIV out of infected cells

    A major impediment to curing patients with HIV is the fact that the virus integrates its DNA into the genome of the cells it infects. While antiretroviral drugs and therapies can prevent infection of new cells and kill cells that are actively producing virus, a "latent reservoir" remains that...
  19. Ygggdrasil

    Medical National Academies Recommendations on Human Gene Editing

    This week on, Feb 14, the US National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine released a report giving recommendations on how...
  20. F

    Can CRISPR turn a dog into a cat (not at embryo stage)?

    Right I've read all about CRISPR but I can't help to think if such a possibility exists. As far as I know the only way to cause such changes is by modifying cells at the embryo stage. But if crispr can help grow a missing limb or create structural changes at adult stage it does sound like a...
  21. Ygggdrasil

    Insights Don't Fear the CRISPR - Comments

    Ygggdrasil submitted a new PF Insights post https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/...