What is Treatment: Definition and 177 Discussions

Sewage treatment (or domestic wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater treatment) is a type of wastewater treatment which aims to remove contaminants from sewage. Sewage contains wastewater from households and businesses and possibly pre-treated industrial wastewater. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or treated effluent) that is safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land. The term "sewage treatment plant" is often used interchangeably with the term "wastewater treatment plant".For most cities, the sewer system will also carry a proportion of industrial effluent to the sewage treatment plant that has usually received pre-treatment at the factories to reduce the pollutant load. If the sewer system is a combined sewer, then it will also carry urban runoff (stormwater) to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage is conveyed in sewerage which comprises the drains, pipework and pumps to convey the sewage to the treatment works inlet. The treatment of municipal wastewater is part of the field of sanitation. Sanitation also includes the management of human waste and solid waste as well as stormwater (drainage) management.At the global level, an estimated 52% of municipal wastewater is treated. However, wastewater treatment rates are highly unequal for different countries around the world. For example, while high-income countries treat approximately 74% of their municipal wastewater, developing countries treat an average of just 4.2%. Wastewater that is discharged untreated into the environment can cause water pollution.
In developing countries and in rural areas with low population densities, sewage is often treated by various on-site sanitation systems and not conveyed in sewers. These systems include septic tanks connected to drain fields, on-site sewage systems (OSS), vermifilter systems and many more. A typical sewage treatment plant in a high-income country may include primary treatment to remove solid material, secondary treatment to digest dissolved and suspended organic material as well as the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and – sometimes but not always – disinfection to kill pathogenic bacteria. Sewage can also be treated by processes using "Nature-based solutions".

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  1. BillTre

    New Stroke Treatment: Quick Removal of Clot for Good Recovery

    There is a new treatment for strokes described in this NY Times article. It has to happen quickly and requires big (non-portable) equipment. If the stroke is a blockage of blood flow by a clot, rather that a burst vessle, the location of the clot can be identified by CT scan and endoscopically...
  2. Nic sign

    Are Antineoplastons actually a cure or significant treatment of cancer

    The FDA has been constantly trying to take away this doctor's license away for 40 years, and many says the doctor is a quack. But apparently there are many patients that back him and claim that the doctor cured them with antineoplastons. Many patients had brain cancer which is untreatable in...
  3. T

    A Grassmann number: a more rigorous treatment?

    Most textbooks on fermionic path integral only briefly introduce Grassmann numbers. However, I want a more systematic treatment to feel comfortable about this approach. For illustration, I have several examples here. Example 1: Consider a system with only one state, how to calculate ##\langle...
  4. berkeman

    Medical New Treatment for TBI using a C1q Blocker

    Interesting article about a new treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury, which looks to be pretty effective if given soon after the injury: SF researchers find possible breakthrough in treating traumatic brain injuries...
  5. ergospherical

    Math Treatment of Approaching Event Horizon

    [This thread can be considered the A-level footnote to https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/is-there-an-inside-to-a-black-hole.1007588/] For a static [admits a hypersurface orthogonal timelike Killing field ##k##], spherically symmetric spacetime, a time coordinate ##t## can be chosen as the...
  6. M

    Treatment of source term on the boundary: FEA and Comsol

    I would like to solve a coupled system of two PDEs using Comsol for the following geometry: Equation 1 (valid for 0⩽Z⩽bm): The initial and boundary conditions are: Tm(r,t→0)=20 Tm(r→rw,t)=70 Tm(r→∞,t)=20 However, for bm⩽Z⩽bm+b2, the equation to solve is: With the following initial and...
  7. M

    Biology Duration of Action of a drug treatment

    Hi, I was attempting the following question, but didn't understand how to make further progress with it. Question: A single dose of 10 mg of the drug with 200 ml water immediately after a low fat meal consisting of fruit juice, skim milk, cereal and toast with jelly. The concentration of the...
  8. Astronuc

    COVID Monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 patients

    Eli Lilly says its monoclonal antibody prevented Covid-19 infections in clinical trial https://www.statnews.com/2021/01/21/eli-lilly-says-its-monoclonal-antibody-prevented-covid-19-in-clinical-trial/ I heard that the infection was less severe and prevented some patients from requiring...
  9. Andrew Mason

    COVID Remdesivir - a possible treatment for COVID-19?

    For anyone following Remdesivir as a treatment for COVID 19: this New England Journal of Medicine report on Gilead's remdesivir and this NIH/NCBI article explain how it works. The NIH paper has a nice chart showing how different drugs might interfere with viral replication. The recent phase 3...
  10. Nantes

    I Treatment of Relativity in "Las Leyes de la Termodinámica" Movie

    Background: There is a very interesting Catalunyan film on Netflix called "Las Leyes de la Termodinámica" (The Laws of Thermodynamics) which is perhaps the world's first hybrid of a physics documentary and a romance film. The main character is a physics professor who falls in love and attempts...
  11. neilparker62

    COVID Is low dose radiation therapy a potential treatment for COVID-19?

    https://www.thegreenjournal.com/article/S0167-8140(20)30185-7/fulltext What's the relevant science here ? Would just like to hear a bit more as to whether it holds out any meaningful prospects for treatment of Covid 19.
  12. berkeman

    COVID Innovations to help COVID-19 treatment efforts

    I didn't see a thread so far in the Medical forum that addressed the specific innovations that are being worked on to help combat this pandemic, so I thought I'd start this thread. There is a thread about trying to use a single ventilator to serve multiple critical Patients (Pts) in ICU, but...
  13. patric44

    Perturbation treatment of hydrogen molecular ion

    hi guys i am a the third year undergrad student and in this 2nd semester in my collage we should start taking quantum mechanics along with molecular physics , our molecular physics professor choose a book that we are going to take which is " molecular physics by wolfgang Demtroder " when i...
  14. DariusP

    Medical Varicose vein treatment with fiber lasers

    So I've read that varicose veins can be treated using fibre lasers. First, anesthetics are used locally to numb the limb and also act as an insulator for heat. Then, a small cut is made and a fiber is guided to the vein. Using laser light somehow the vein shrinks. This is what I don't...
  15. BWV

    Medical Successful CRISPR treatment of a Sickle Cell patient

    Encouraging news that the technology can potentially cure a number of genetic disorders https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/11/19/780510277/gene-edited-supercells-make-progress-in-fight-against-sickle-cell-disease
  16. A

    I Classical treatment of quantum eraser?

    The below experimental setup is of the sort one finds frequently discussed in the delayed choice quantum eraser (QE) experiments, such as that of Kim et al. (https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9903047) I extracted only the essential part I'm wondering about and did not find a satisfying answer in...
  17. A

    Tritium concentration at Fukushima Water Treatment Facility

    Hello there, maybe I am wrong but I found something inconsistent between the espected tritium concentration in Newly RO Treated Water (6.7 10^4 bq/l --> graph at pag. 16 here) and last measurement published by Tepco on 22th of August at the Water Treatment Facility (1*10^3 bq/cm3) Converting...
  18. A

    MHB Treatment of axioms of formal axiomatic theory

    What is the proper treatment of results about a formal axiomatized theory which are obtained from outside the theory itself? For example, there are 9 results dealing with the "≤" relation for Robinson Arithmetic, some of which are established by using induction, which is not "native" to Q...
  19. S

    I Newton vs Einstein: Explaining Other Forces

    Under Newton, gravity is what I term an "invisible magic rope" that pulls you down. Enter Einstein. We do away with the invisible magic rope, and say that space (or space-time) is warped by mass. However, we still have other forces, that (as far as I know, anyway) are "invisible magic ropes."...
  20. BillTre

    Protective Hormone may Raise Issues of Treatment vs. Enhancement

    The recently described hormone Klotho (which I never heard of before) seems to provide relief from some aging and brain problems (like Alzheimer's) and may even enhance brain function (as in a "smart" pill). This NY Times article describes research background and some of the potential issues it...
  21. ZeGato

    Medical Ashwagandha (Withaferin A) effective in cancer treatment

    Withaferin A, a compound present in the Ashwagandha herb, was shown to reduce tumor size in different cancers on mice, as well as preventing metastasis. Research of this compound has gained momentum in recent years, and there are now dozens of studies on its anti-cancer properties. It seems to...
  22. BillTre

    What is the potential of using a modified adenovirus to treat cancer?

    This Science News article reports that researchers using a modified adenovirus (that normally causes mild respiratory infections) that only grows in retinoblastoma tumor cells, researchers were able to improve upon (but apparently not cure) the results of cancer drugs in rabbits and mice. Trials...
  23. MichPod

    Susskind's treatment of a rotor in a magnetic field

    My question is related to the chapter 10 of L.Sussknd's book on analytical mechanics named "The theoretical minimum". There he considers dynamics of a charged rotor in magnetic field using Hamiltonian formalism and poisson brackets. He also introduces a treatment of the same kind for a...
  24. mktsgm

    Medical What is the rationale behind blindly supplementing deficiencies?

    In many deficiency-related diseases doctors prescribe to supplement, that which is deficient. For example, if insulin is found deficient they replace with insulin. Similarly the case with vitamin deficiencies, calcium deficiency, thyroid deficiency etc. I have a few doubts on this regard, 1)...
  25. Abdul Quader

    I Free particle: Quantum and Classical treatment

    I have a problem finding ##\left|Ψ(x,t)\right|^2## from the following equation: $$Ψ(x,t) = \frac 1 {\pi \sqrt{2a}} \int_{-∞}^{+∞} \frac {\sin(ka)} k e^{i(kx - \frac {ħk^2} {2m} t)} dk$$ and tried to plot like the pic below (Source Introduction to quantum mechanics by David. J. Griffiths, 2nd...
  26. BillTre

    Eradication may be Possible due New Treatment for Yaws

    Yaws is a human infection in hot humid areas of the world that causes skin ulcers but can long term also affect bone growth and lead to disfigurement and disability. It is caused by he bacterium Treponema pallidum, a close relative of the organism that causes syphilis. It used to be treated...
  27. D

    How does corrective treatment of lymphedema help lymph flow?

    Homework Statement Produce an detailed understandsing of the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system, using correct scientific terminology to explain the rationale for use of corrective treatment for lymphedema. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Lymphatic edema is the...
  28. S

    I Boltzmann Distribution: Feynman's treatment of p-n junction

    In Vol III, 14-4 and 14-5 of the Feynman Lectures (http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/III_14.html), Feynman gives a discussion of the p-n junction, in which he derives the diode characteristic equation via a nice, simple and convincing application of the Boltzmann distribution to the...
  29. J

    Medical Diagnostic procedure turned into potential treatment

    Hello everyone, I found this article that explains how some sorts of radiation treatments could be controlled with positron-emission tomography (PET). A team of researchers, led by Professor Samuel Achilefu from the Washington University School of Medicine’s departments of radiology and...
  30. D

    Does Heat Treatment Affect Elasticity? Investigating Changes in Young's Modulus

    Homework Statement The experiment : How the elasticity of material might change under heat treatment? The experiments conducted in two different way, first one the hot bobby pin set to cool down slowly after heated (the professor called annealing treatment), and the second one the pin set to...
  31. B

    I Standard deviation of data after data treatment

    I was given the averages (AVG) and the corresponding standard deviation (SD) of sets of data. I have no copy of the raw data for each data point that were used to calculate the AVG and SD. I performed further data treatment on the data. I want to ask what is the relationship between the...
  32. Kunal Aggarwal

    Medical How nanotechnology has affected treatment of tuberculosis?

    To be more precise, which nano particles are being used or can be used to deliver tuberculosis drugs in the human body?
  33. caters

    Medical Why can't appendicitis be treated with just antibiotics?

    I started having appendicitis 3 nights ago. It woke me up from sleep with lots of pain and nausea. I took pepto-bismol for the nausea but despite the fact that it had salicylic acid which is the prodrug of aspirin and releives pain by affecting genetic expression of the COX enzyme that forms...
  34. caters

    Chemical water treatment: Acid base reaction

    I was thinking of a hypothetical waste system that uses nanotechnology to its advantage. At the individual level, waste just passes through into pipes when flushed like it normally does. But once it reaches the water treatment plant there is an initial filter to catch solid waste(in other...
  35. Hiero

    B Is this an incorrect treatment of SR? Oblique coordinates....

    To draw oblique coordinates with the coordinates measured perpendicular to each axis would be wrong, right? I saw it done in a fairly popular book. It's usually the case that I'm the one who is wrong, but I think the book is incorrectly treating minkowski diagrams. Look at these images from...
  36. Twigg

    Book Hunt: Statistical Treatment of Macroscopic Maxwell Eqns

    Hello all, Jackson Ch. 6 (3rd edition) tells the reader to look at de Groot for a statistical mechanical derivation of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. I figure he means "Foundations of Electrodynamics" by S. R. de Groot. I requested that book be sent to my school library on loan, but I was...
  37. davidge

    I Quantum-Mechanical treatment of circuits

    Hi everyone. I have to say I never get satisfied with introductory explanations of how electric phenomena occurs. Specifically, I would like to know how Quantum Mechanics explain the raise of a electric current and especially what makes a resistor being (maybe) the most dissipative element in a...
  38. mktsgm

    Hyperglycemia and its treatment

    I have a few fundamental questions about diabetes and its treatment. 1. Are diabetes and hyperglycemia the same? If not, a) What is the difference? b) Our current treatment seems to be against hyperglycemia. What are we doing for diabetes? If both are same, a) What are the ill effects...
  39. Mordred

    A Vacuum birefringence QFT treatment

    Evidence for vacuum birefringence from the rst optical polarimetry measurement of the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5−3754...
  40. R

    Finding a rock porosity change after an acid mix treatment

    Homework Statement A 3 wt% HF / 12 wt% HCL treatment is injected without an HCL preflush into a sandstone reservoir containing 10% CaCO3. If half of the HF is consumed in reaction with CaCO3 to form CaF2, what will be the next porosity change, considering both CaCO3 dissolution and CaF2...
  41. rajen

    What are the operational problems in filtration in water treatment plants

    Can anyone tell me about the operational problems involved with filtration in water treatment plant?
  42. Recycler

    Chemical treatment of silicon carbide

    I modified an employer's patented device,in order to treat bulk silicon carbide grit.It became crystal clear resembling clear silica grainsThe resultant was not analyzed.This was a low-temperature process.Is there any potential application for this type of process?
  43. Deniz

    Heat treatment for bolt design

    Hello, I have a final tomorrow and I am having a difficulty to understand the heat treatment subject. I would be happy if someone can explain this question or suggest a good document shorter than Askeland (i know it is very good but there is no time unfortunately). Thank you. Two different high...
  44. R

    Systematic treatment of equilibrium

    Homework Statement Determine [Zn2+], [CN–], and [HCN] in a saturated solution of Zn(CN)2 with a fixed pH of 1.060. The Ksp for Zn(CN)2 is 3.0 × 10–16. The Ka for HCN is 6.2 × 10–10. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I don't have a phone or camera right now to take a picture of my...
  45. S

    A Treatment of singlets in the Hubbard model

    I'm using the general Hubbard model (H = U \sum n_{i,\uparrow} n_{i,\downarrow} - t \sum (c^{\dagger}_{i,\sigma} c_{i+1,\sigma} + c^{\dagger}_{i+1,\sigma} c_{i,\sigma})) to solve for eigenstates of simple quantum dot configurations. For the case of a double dot with two electrons in singlet...
  46. bcrowell

    Giancoli's Treatment of GR & Cosmology: Shockingly Inaccurate

    My daughter's high school physics class is using Giancoli (6th ed.) as their text. I'd previously looked at the treatment of SR, and it seemed OK, although old-fashioned. But this morning I started flipping through ch. 33, "Astrophysics and Cosmology," and I was pretty shocked. It reads like a...
  47. S

    Patient treatment with photon beam

    Homework Statement Doing some past papers but I got stuck to this question! Any medical physicists can give me a hand please? A patient is treated with a 6MVphoton beam, 12.5 x 12.5cm at 110cm (Source to Axis Distance: SAD) to a 9cm depth. The machine is calibrated to deliver 1.0cGy per MU at...
  48. jk22

    Mixed State Treatment: Eigenvalue Degeneracy

    Suppose i have an eigenvalue which is two fold degenerate-. Is it possible to have a density matrix formulation for the following : there is a continuum of states considered namely every state in the eigenspace. How would it be written : $$\sum_{\lambda}\int \rho (\lambda,\alpha)|\lambda...
  49. mfb

    Potential cancer treatment discovered thanks to Malaria

    Sometimes the enemy of your enemy is still an enemy, but also a friend... Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, scientists were able to link this to a specific sugar in the placenta that seems to be relevant for its rapid growth. The same sugar molecule is found in most types of...