Cancer Definition and 43 Discussions

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation, and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically, many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.The risk of developing certain cancers can be reduced by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, limiting consumption of processed meat and red meat, and limiting exposure to direct sunlight. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%.In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer. As of 2019, about 18 million new cases occur annually. Annually, it caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of deaths). The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa, where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age, and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer were estimated at 1.16 trillion USD per year as of 2010.

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  1. E

    Most common cancers caused by radiation exposure?

    What are the most common types of cancer caused by exposure to excessive amounts of radiation?
  2. Wrichik Basu

    Energizing the immune system to engulf cancer

    While @BillTre wrote about how scientists are trying to use the adenovirus in treating retinoblastoma, another team has published that the macrophages in the immune system can themselves engulf cancerous cells. Macrophages have the power to engulf and destroy cancerous cells, but tumour cells...
  3. nomadreid

    Evidence of foods that have been shown to have a direct positive influence on cancer patients

    Using the keywords "nutrition" and "cancer", the Internet spews out thousands of articles. Ignoring the supermarket-checkout-magazine type of article, the others tend to either (a) be debunking various myths or (b) advising to avoid carcinogenic substances or (c) recommending to have a healthy...
  4. M

    Considering a career as Radar technician: cancer risk?

    I've done a good bit of online research and have concluded that both in the past and AFAIK currently there is a significant risk of cancer if I work for companies that make military or civilian radar systems. I'm looking at high powered systems for missle detection, defense radar of all types...
  5. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Scientists identify major safety issue with CRISPR

    crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/']CRISPR-Cas9 technology [/URL]provides scientists with an easy way to introduce targeted genetic changes to DNA and a number of different companies are looking at ways to use CRISPR to fix genetic diseases in humans. Two groups of...
  6. J

    Medical Diagnostic procedure turned into potential treatment

    Hello everyone, I found this article that explains how some sorts of radiation treatments could be controlled with positron-emission tomography (PET). A team of researchers, led by Professor Samuel Achilefu from the Washington University School of Medicine’s departments of radiology and...
  7. John Vance

    Physics Guidance for postgrad in radiation physics.

    Hi, I’m currently at college for my B.S. in physics and I’m working toward my minor in bio. My original goal was to go for a B.S. in physics and then through the program offered by my school, get a M.S. in engineering. However, I had a change in heart beginning of last semester and dropped the...
  8. Question_

    Is cancer as prevalent as it was prehistorically?

    Almost everyone I've known has had someone close to them have cancer in some form or another. When I was doing some reading on the matter I encountered a statistic saying that one in two Americans will have any form of cancer. I really have a hard time understanding why so many people are...
  9. B

    Cancer Metastasis processes

    1. Hey, I need some urgent help regarding an assignment. We are given 8 processes: Extravasation, Intravasation, Invasion, Angiogenesis, Differentiation, Migration, Transformation, Circulation and we are meant to talk about them. However, I am unsure at the order that these processes occur. We...
  10. T

    Medical Lymphoma vs Leukemia

    Lymphoma is a cancer due to malignancy of lymphocytes. Leukemia is a cancer due to malignancy of leukocytes usually beginning in the bone marrow ( that includes lymphocytes too). The thing I don't understand is what is the starting point of these two types of cancer (difference in their...
  11. Domenico94

    PDEs and cancer modeling

    Which are the most frequently used PDEs in cancer modelling? Are navier-stokes' equations and fluidodynamics equations used there?
  12. Shadow-Shocker

    Any natural, non-flammable, alternative to acrylic cement?

    I am doing a project that relates to welding acrylic. I got the bottle today, and I can't use it because its flammable and has chemicals known by the state of California to cause cancer (makes you wonder why the hell they would market this crap). Are there any clean, non-flammable, and...
  13. Ygggdrasil

    Insights What Causes Cancer: Bad Luck or Bad Lifestyles? - Comments

    Ygggdrasil submitted a new PF Insights post What Causes Cancer: Bad Luck or Bad Lifestyles? Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  14. Borseth

    Best way of getting into cancer research?

    Hi all! I have recently found that I want to get into cancer research after my studies, and want to know more about my options. Right now I'm in the first year of my masters, and have finished most of the standard subjects for a physics degree, I think. I will be continuing on with different...
  15. SpunkyMonkey

    Fukushima Critiques of Fukushima Thyroid-Cancer Study

    Two weeks ago a study claiming a Fukushima thyroid-cancer epidemic made headline news. The epidemic is being associated with the nuclear disaster. However, the study may be seriously flawed. Here are two informed critiques (please post more if found): Nope—There’s No Thyroid Cancer Epidemic in...
  16. M

    Physics applications in cancer research/treatment

    I am a third year undergraduate physics major. Often time people ask what I want to do with physics, and I didn't really have an answer for them. I guess I always assumed I'd pursue a masters degree in some kind of engineering, but I want to be able to do something that I'm passionate about...
  17. M

    Physics applications in cancer research/treatment

    I am a third year undergraduate physics major. Often time people ask what I want to do with physics, and I didn't really have an answer for them. I guess I always assumed I'd pursue a masters degree in some kind of engineering, but I want to be able to do something that I'm passionate about...
  18. Owlcool

    Cancer Cure? Polio?

    I was just wondering about how potent this was. Here are some sources I found.
  19. ryanuser

    Why so many treatments for cancer?

    After spending some time doing a project on cancer I found out there are dozens of treatments abailable to at least decrease the cell divison in cancerous cells. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgury. Each one divides into sub categories with tons of treatments available. After looking at lung...
  20. S

    Medical Is there any harm by using Microwave oven?

    Dear friends; People say that using of Microwave oven is harmful for human body as the high frequency raise of microwave oven destroy the internal structure of food. Some people say that the person who daily use the microwave oven, can be faced blood cancer. Please share your comments as now...
  21. Pythagorean

    Case of cancer cured by measles vaccine

    Is this is good as it sounds?
  22. OmCheeto

    Jack Andraka, the Teen Prodigy of Pancreatic Cancer

    I saw a video of Jack on Upworthy this morning. Interesting kid. I read several articles about him. Someone at Forbes said they didn't include him in their "30 under 30" list, because he'd never published in a peer reviewed journal, nor were his numerical claims correct. I thought that...
  23. N

    Open Source Cancer Research

    I have looked around for a group of people who perform cancer research as a kind of open /crowd sourced project. Not paid researchers, but a group of people passionate about science and finding a cure. I have found some resources for this kind of research through organizations like COSMIC but no...
  24. Saxby

    Low energy mammogram

    Question: Explain why it is necessary to use relatively low energy X-rays to produce an image of the breast. My answer: Currently x-rays energy levels used during mammograms have approximately a one in a million chance of inducing cancer, this means that approximately for every two-hundred...
  25. Greg Bernhardt

    New Surgeon General report on smoking

    Nothing surprising, but worth repeating. 480k Americans die each year from smoking related illness. Stop smoking...
  26. W

    Medical What Might Cause Morgellan's Disease?

    If you are not familiar with Morgellan's, it is a disease where lesions appear on the skin, and then weird fibers begin to grow out of the lesions. Some in the medical community seem to think it's a hoax or a self-induced condition due to scratching and such, and that the fibers are just...
  27. Greg Bernhardt

    Multivitamins a waste of money?

    Are multivitamins a waste of money? Editorial in medical journal says yes I've taken vitamins and supplements during some periods and I admit, I can't tell the difference.
  28. Q

    Minimum daily whole-body X-ray dose to cause radiation poisoning?

    Hi, If I were given a whole-body X-ray dose daily for many days (a year for example) What would be the highest dosage per day which would result in an increased cancer risk but no noticeable signs of radiation poisoning by the end of the year, or during? And also, I've read that a 2KRad dose...
  29. R

    Medical Root Canals and Cancer

    I recently had a friend on facebook share this website Edit by mentor: link deleted it suggests there's a causal relationship between root canals and cancer. Right off the bat, given the website name, realfarmacy, i was skeptical. I tried to check their sources and did a few searches on google...
  30. T

    Why is dry tap found during bone marrow aspiration in leukaemia?

    Dry tap means failure to obtain any material at all during bone marrow aspiration. In leukaemia, aren't you supposed to find at least some material, like abnormally growing cancer cells? Similarly, in multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells can be found. But in my haematology textbook...
  31. Greg Bernhardt

    Hookah vs Cigarettes, which is worse?

    I always thought Hookah was sightly better because it doesn't generally contain many of the dangerous additives as cigarettes, but apparently it's still quite bad because you end up inhaling bar larger quantities per session. The CDC has a nice article on it CDC - Fact Sheet - Hookahs -...
  32. Integral

    Mega doses of Vitamins

    I have never thought of Linus Pauling as a quack but this article seems to indicate otherwise. I find the last paragraph rather misleading. If fails to mention that he was 93yrs old.
  33. T

    What are the most promising research studies on cancer's cure?

    Every now and then, a news appears saying a new research could revert cancer on mice or something similar. But then I don't hear about them anymore. So what are the most promising research studies on curing cancer, and were there any promising researches before that failed when tested on humans?
  34. A

    Doctor ethics question

    A person needs to undergo surgery. Someone shot him. He will die in three hours. No one knows him. He has no family. He comes to the hospital and his mental situation is bad. He seems to be crazy and says irrational things. He can't think or make decisions for himself. You are a medical doctor...
  35. J

    Marie Curie's leukemia

    Does anyone know what might be the cause of Marie Curie's cancer
  36. Greg Bernhardt

    New Study: Roundup could be linked to health issues

    Anyone find themselves going more organic these days? Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases...
  37. N

    Radiation therapy

    Not sure if this belongs here or in the nuclear engineering forum. Many cancer patients in radiation therapy for cancer receive as much as 170-190 rads of daily radiation for 7-9 weeks. When I looked at a radiation chart I found that equates roughly to the dose at 1 mile from a Hiroshima...
  38. F

    Medical Radiation and Health Interest Group

    Dear Colleagues, Is there anyone here who would be interest in sharing articles, data, theories, and discussions on risks of EMF, RF, radiation emission from devices and man made structures and health consequences and epidemiology. Please contact or send a follow up post here. I am...
  39. Borek

    Medical Cancer & pain

    What triggers the cancer related pain? I did some reading about pain (mostly wikipedia) and nociceptors and I understand they react to several types of stimuli. Apparently mechanic and thermal stimuli are out of the question, that leaves us with some kind of chemical stimuli - but what it is...
  40. C

    Medical Any medical issues against artificial contraceptives?

    Example of medical issues against artificial contraceptives: The World Health Organization has classified oral contraceptives as an A-1 level carcinogen, which puts it on the cancer-causing level as asbestos and cigarettes...
  41. P

    Medical Phys-Org Medical Xpress prostate cancer 'Golden Era

    Phys-Org Medical Xpress prostate cancer 'Golden Era" The article "Golden age of prostate cancer treatment hailed as fourth drug in two years extends life" has attracted my attention, just a few weeks following my surgery for prostate cancer. Because the study tracks cancer that has...
  42. J

    Medical Cure for cancer lies in biotechnology and manipulating Virus’s?

    Cure for cancer lies in biotechnology and manipulating Virus’s?? What to kill a cancer cell without killing healthy cells around it? What’s the perfect candidate? Something small to avoid the immune system. Something specific to the cancer cells. Something lethal to the target cancer...
  43. V

    Medical A treatment for Cancer to replace Chemotherapy

    Hello, As far as I understand Chemotherapy intends to stop cancer growth and reduce it as much as possible as well as to destroy cancerous cells in the blood stream to avoid metastasis. Now, and again as far as I understand, if someone else cancerous cell would enter my bloodstream my...