What is Cancer: Definition and 211 Discussions

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation, and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically, many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.The risk of developing certain cancers can be reduced by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, limiting consumption of processed meat and red meat, and limiting exposure to direct sunlight. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%.In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer. As of 2019, about 18 million new cases occur annually. Annually, it caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of deaths). The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa, where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age, and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. The financial costs of cancer were estimated at 1.16 trillion USD per year as of 2010.

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  1. russ_watters

    PFAS and Power Lines Cause Cancer?

    Here's an article(labeled as opinion) I just read from CNN: https://www.cnn.com/2023/08/16/opinions/chemicals-in-clothes-harmful-health-wicker/index.html This OP is only a starting point; I intend to look into the issue more deeply. But from what I see, this article (not unique these days) is...
  2. kolleamm

    Remove cancer with centrifugal forces?

    Would it be possible to remove cancer from blood samples with the aid of centrifugal forces to separate it out by weight? I do realize cells can have similar densities but what if the machine was really precise?
  3. Astronuc

    Engineered white blood cells may eliminate cancer?

    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2023-06-white-blood-cells-cancer.html The challenge is to find a way for our own macrophages to recognize cancer cells, i.e., discern cancer cells from healthy cells. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41551-023-01031-3 (Subscription or purchase required)
  4. nomadreid

    COVID Need to refine an argument against an (almost) anti-vaxxer

    I am trying to build an argument against a friend (F) who is presently not an anti-vaxxer, but is heading in that direction when he told me that a friend (FF) of his told him (F) that his (FF’s) doctor told him that his Covid mRNA vaccine caused his lymphoma. Of course, FF either misinterpreted...
  5. Astronuc

    Can a COVID vaccine cause a cancer (e.g., lymphoma) to be worse?

    https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2022/09/mrna-covid-vaccine-booster-lymphoma-cancer/671308/
  6. Buzz Bloom

    Medical An Odd Description of Skin Cancer Cause from UV Radiation

    Scientific American June 2, 2022 Vol 32 Number 6 Page 62 Title: Skin Cancer around the World Two Quotes: “The main cause of skin cancer is the exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays…” “UV radiation is about 40% stronger in New Zealand than it is at corresponding latitudes in the Northern...
  7. Nic sign

    Are Antineoplastons actually a cure or significant treatment of cancer

    The FDA has been constantly trying to take away this doctor's license away for 40 years, and many says the doctor is a quack. But apparently there are many patients that back him and claim that the doctor cured them with antineoplastons. Many patients had brain cancer which is untreatable in...
  8. T

    Medical Therapy holds back Cancer more than a decade

    Initial success rate reported as ≥25% and improving. Overview: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00241-0 Couldn't find the technical report.
  9. E

    Most common cancers caused by radiation exposure?

    What are the most common types of cancer caused by exposure to excessive amounts of radiation?
  10. CPW

    Encouraging fact from cancer statistics

    We study cancer to get better at killing it. And here is an enouraging detail: Since 1975, the cancer death rate in the United States has decreased by 21.9% with a 15% decrease from 2007 to 2017. (https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017)
  11. DaveC426913

    Why Humans Hate Crabs: Uncovering the Mystery

    God loves crabs so much, he is trying to make everything into crabs. So what is it about crabs that humans hate? The term for "convergent evolution to a crab-like form" is carcinization. Which as the same root as carcinogen - meaning cancer. The zodiacal symbol for the cancer sign is a crab...
  12. E

    Medical What are some terminal illnesses other than cancer?

    Can someone name some terminal illnesses other than cancer?
  13. docnet

    Cancer and autoimmune diseases

    Richard Dawkins, a famous evolutionary biologist, thinks there is an evolutionary connection between cancer and the immune system. To paraphrase his work, autoimmune diseases are the result of the evolutionary arms race between the body and cancer cells. I'm not an immunologist nor a cancer...
  14. C

    Can Carbon Nanotubes Cause or Treat Cancer? Safety Tips

    I did a quick google search and there some places that say carbon nanotubes can CAUSE cancer, and other places say that doctors use it to TREAT cancer. Nanotubes cause cancer. Nanotubes can treat cancer. So what do I do? If I were to handle them or make them myself, what do I need to do to...
  15. A

    MHB Probability of cancer because of microwaves

    Please help understand how to solve this question. Sorry for the terrible English. If there’s 10% chance of getting cancer from microwaves, and 3% of the population gets cancer, what is the probability that a certain person who have cancer and was exposed to microwaves got it as a result from...
  16. R

    Need a cancer to fit a fictional plot

    Summary: For fictional purposes, looking for a cancer which has a very low survival rate but which a patient might be fighting for 1-2 years I'm sure that this is actually a fairly common sub-genre of medical questions, authors asking for a disease to fit a story. I have a lot of side...
  17. TytoAlba95

    What are IC50 and CTC50 in cancer biology?

    Here's an excerpt from a cancer biologyhttps://www.antiox.org/article/78: Is CTC50 and IC50 the same, in cancer biology. According to this book, CTC50 (Common toxicity criteria 50) is the concentration of drug which can kill 50% of total cells/ inhibit 50% of the cell growth. Here's a link to...
  18. Wrichik Basu

    Medical New target for treating pancreatic cancer identified

    Interesting paper: Chandrayee Ghosh et. al., Super-enhancers: novel target for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma I haven't yet read the whole paper (which is free-access), but I believe it is worth a read.
  19. T

    Sleeping too long or too much causes cancer? (and other questions)

    Hi, just wanted to know does sleeping to much or to long cause cancer? Does not sleeping enough cause cancer? does not sleeping enough or to much raise blood pressure and possibly give me diabetes? Does all citrus acid fruits like lemons bad for the teeth and damage tooth enamel?
  20. mfb

    CRISPR against cancer in human trial

    crispr-as-gene-editing-human-trials-get-underway?utm_source=twitter.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=npr&utm_term=nprnews&utm_content=20190416]First U.S. Patients Treated With CRISPR As Human Gene-Editing Trials Get Underway[/url] The study takes immune cells out of the patient, modifies them...
  21. H

    Medical Do you have higher chances of having cancer if you get injured more?

    Just curious. Based on studies I’ve read, I am assuming this because the cells have to divide to recover from wounds/injuries. Therefore, DNA has to be replicated and there’s a chance of a cancer-causing mutation to occur.Would this be right?
  22. ZeGato

    Medical Ashwagandha (Withaferin A) effective in cancer treatment

    Withaferin A, a compound present in the Ashwagandha herb, was shown to reduce tumor size in different cancers on mice, as well as preventing metastasis. Research of this compound has gained momentum in recent years, and there are now dozens of studies on its anti-cancer properties. It seems to...
  23. Wrichik Basu

    Energizing the immune system to engulf cancer

    While @BillTre wrote about how scientists are trying to use the adenovirus in treating retinoblastoma, another team has published that the macrophages in the immune system can themselves engulf cancerous cells. Macrophages have the power to engulf and destroy cancerous cells, but tumour cells...
  24. ZeGato

    Cancer risk after CT scan

    Hello, I don't have a background in medical research, but I was interested in understanding the conclusions of this paper: Cancer risk in 680 000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians I'm not understanding a few...
  25. nomadreid

    Nutrition and Cancer: Finding Evidence of Direct Benefits

    Using the keywords "nutrition" and "cancer", the Internet spews out thousands of articles. Ignoring the supermarket-checkout-magazine type of article, the others tend to either (a) be debunking various myths or (b) advising to avoid carcinogenic substances or (c) recommending to have a healthy...
  26. TytoAlba95

    Can PCR detect chromosomal translocations in cancer?

    How is PCR able to detect chromosomal translocations causing cancer? I understand it is possible through FISH but how PCR?
  27. jim mcnamara

    News Cancer risk and organic food

    This thread is about cancer risk and organic food consumption - reporting on it mostly. USA today: (drive by journalism?) https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/10/23/eating-organic-food-may-prevent-cancer-french-study-suggests/1737791002/ Commentary from JAMA (a critique)...
  28. M

    Considering a career as Radar technician: cancer risk?

    I've done a good bit of online research and have concluded that both in the past and AFAIK currently there is a significant risk of cancer if I work for companies that make military or civilian radar systems. I'm looking at high powered systems for missle detection, defense radar of all types...
  29. T

    All or certain types of beef linked to cancer and cow milk

    Hi again and as always, I appreciate the responses. I had read a article on food babes website on fast food burger places and beef where the regular/conventional beef could give you cancer and she gives a source supposedly from oxford university and I eat regular beef now so that makes me very...
  30. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Scientists identify major safety issue with CRISPR

    https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/dont-fear-crispr-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/-new-gene-editing-technologies-wont-lead-designer-babies/provides scientists with an easy way to introduce targeted genetic changes to...
  31. BillTre

    Immunotherapy Cures Woman of Breast Cancer

    lymphocytes from her tumor were taken out. Those reacting to her tumor were multiplied an injected back into her. She has been cancer free for two years. Science News article here.
  32. mark!

    "Spontaneous" cancer development

    I have a question regarding the development of cancer. Cancer can be a genetical mutation inside a cell that can have an external/environmental cause, such as UV light, oncogenes in food sources, or with the help of oncoviruses and carcinogenic bacteria. Other than that, cancer is also said to...
  33. J

    Medical Diagnostic procedure turned into potential treatment

    Hello everyone, I found this article that explains how some sorts of radiation treatments could be controlled with positron-emission tomography (PET). A team of researchers, led by Professor Samuel Achilefu from the Washington University School of Medicine’s departments of radiology and...
  34. T

    Medical Ultra-processed Food = Greater Cancer Risk

    Just out in the British Medical journal. http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322 or permalink doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k322 And here is a link to the NOVA classification of "Ultra-processed" food...
  35. Buzz Bloom

    New Cancer Research at Stanford

    https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2018/01/cancer-vaccine-eliminates-tumors-in-mice.html Some quotes from the report. Activating T cells in tumors eliminated even distant metastases in mice, Stanford researchers found. Lymphoma patients are being recruited to test the technique in a clinical...
  36. mark!

    Medical The role of bacteria in cancer development

    It is known that a high amount of bacterial DNA is often present near cancer cells. There are about 7000 pieces of bacterial DNA in healthy cells, but researchers found 691,000 inserted pieces of bacterial DNA in cancer cells. That’s almost 200 times as much, which implies that there is a...
  37. John Vance

    Physics Guidance for postgrad in radiation physics.

    Hi, I’m currently at college for my B.S. in physics and I’m working toward my minor in bio. My original goal was to go for a B.S. in physics and then through the program offered by my school, get a M.S. in engineering. However, I had a change in heart beginning of last semester and dropped the...
  38. LLT71

    Medical Self learning about cancer

    I come from totally engineering background but I'm passionate learner in my free time! I would like to start learning from the fundamentals about cancer and see if I can get some insights using my (engineering) background, as I'm progressing more and more in my learning career. Just give me your...
  39. morrobay

    Medical Any Epidemiologists Re: Radon/Lung Cancer, Fri Harbor, WA?

    Are there any Epidemiologists here who can determine if the lung cancer rates in Friday Harbor, WA. (San Juan island) as a result of radon gas exposure are way above average ? I have searched and contacted WA.Dept of Health and got little information. Other searches bring up the commercial...
  40. jim mcnamara

    Medical Vitamin B megadoses, smokers, and lung cancer rates

    http://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/JCO.2017.72.7735?journalCode=jco For male aged 50-70 smokers taking vitamin B pills with megadose levels, rates of lung cancer increased by a factor of 30% - 40%. Females did not show the same response. "Single" vitamin B pills: ex: Vitamin B12 only...
  41. Question_

    Mitochondrial uncoupling and cancer?

    I've been pondering over whether it is possible to cause cancerous cells to self-destruct by increasing the metabolic rate of an organism via mitochondrial uncoupling of various agents, such as DNP (Dinitrophenolate). The rationale is that cancerous cells require much more energy than other...
  42. Question_

    Is cancer as prevalent as it was prehistorically?

    Almost everyone I've known has had someone close to them have cancer in some form or another. When I was doing some reading on the matter I encountered a statistic saying that one in two Americans will have any form of cancer. I really have a hard time understanding why so many people are...
  43. Elaine Sokolov

    Medical Unlocking the Cure for Cancer through Homeostasis Regulation

    Everyone knows that cancer is caused by the failure of homeostasis. So, the way to cure cancer would be to fix the failure. So, how could we do that? Homeostasis is your ability to regularly stimulate extracting bodily fluids (sweating) and keeping your body temperature the same. If maybe your...
  44. B

    Cancer Metastasis processes

    1. Hey, I need some urgent help regarding an assignment. We are given 8 processes: Extravasation, Intravasation, Invasion, Angiogenesis, Differentiation, Migration, Transformation, Circulation and we are meant to talk about them. However, I am unsure at the order that these processes occur. We...
  45. jim mcnamara

    Medical Cancer causes: circa 67% are Replication error

    New article, abstract: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6331/1330 abstract:
  46. gilakmesum

    Evidence that marijuana can cure cancer or Parkinson's disease?

    present time we just knew that US Government legalized the use of marijuana cigarettes. Is there any proven that marijuana can heal parkinson disease and also can heal cancer.
  47. T

    Medical Lymphoma vs Leukemia: Origin & Differences

    Lymphoma is a cancer due to malignancy of lymphocytes. Leukemia is a cancer due to malignancy of leukocytes usually beginning in the bone marrow ( that includes lymphocytes too). The thing I don't understand is what is the starting point of these two types of cancer (difference in their...
  48. wolram

    What is the root cause of cancer

    One reads of cancer ever more these days, it seems like one can get cancer of anything, surly there must be a different switch to switch on breast cancer or prostate cancer.
  49. Domenico94

    Exploring the Role of PDEs in Cancer Modeling: A Comprehensive Overview

    Which are the most frequently used PDEs in cancer modelling? Are navier-stokes' equations and fluidodynamics equations used there?
  50. R

    Reverse Cancer, Prevent aging and Take control

    Hey all, It's been quite a while since I've been on here, I'm an IT Technician and recently lost a student to brain cancer at the age of 11 so i thought I'd brainstorm until i worked out a possible and feasible way to beat cancer, this might be sci-fi or false information as I'm not entirely...
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