In electronics, acoustics, and related fields, the waveform of a signal is the shape of its graph as a function of time, independent of its time and magnitude scales and of any displacement in time.In electronics, the term is usually applied to periodically varying voltages, currents, or electromagnetic fields. In acoustics, it is usually applied to steady periodic sounds—variations of pressure in air or other media. In these cases, the waveform is an attribute that is independent of the frequency, amplitude, or phase shift of the signal. The term can also be used for non-periodic signals, like chirps and pulses.
The waveform of an electrical signal can be visualized in an oscilloscope or any other device that can capture and plot its value at various times, with a suitable scales in the time and value axes. The electrocardiograph is a medical device to record the waveform of the electric signals that are associated with the beating of the heart; that waveform has important diagnostic value. Waveform generators, that can output a periodic voltage or current with one of several waveforms, are a common tool in electronics laboratories and workshops.
The waveform of a steady periodic sound affects its timbre. Synthesizers and modern keyboards can generate sounds with many complicated waveforms.
Since figure (a) shows the waveform at t = 1 s, I also look at figure (b) when t = 1 s. The value of y is zero so I try to find the location of x from figure (a) for which y = 0. There are two value of x, 0 and 2 m.
Let say x = 0 is point P and x = 2 m is point Q. The period is 4 s so at t = 1...
I'm a marine engine mechanic, and as engine controls & sensor systems have gotten more complicated with current technology, my shop gets more & more requests for instrumentation & control system repairs.
I have a lot of trouble getting technical info from suppliers, so I have been starting to...
This paper gives the following expression for the waveform from an in-spiralling compact binary:\begin{align*}
h(t;\boldsymbol{\theta}) = \frac{1}{r} Q(\boldsymbol{\phi}) \mathcal{M}(\pi \mathcal{M} F)^{2/3} \cos \Phi(t)
\end{align*}where
##\boldsymbol{\phi} = (\theta, \varphi, \psi, \iota)##...
Homework Statement:: I tried google search and I give up.
Relevant Equations:: How does output wave of wifi/bluetooth look like?
How does output wave of wifi/bluetooth look like?
There was a thread recently in another subforums where a user talked about creating "square waves" at Ghz frequencies. It was said there that at that frequency range one cannot have a square wave as the inductance "rounds off" the edges making the waveform sine like.
I am wondering then how...
Option (A) and (B) is wrong because the waveform should be half-wave, not full-wave. But how to know whether it will be (C) or (D) based on the circuit given?
Thanks
I’ve been asked to create a sawtooth wave form with four input voltages. After doing this I then added a second op-amp to both change the range of the wave form from -/+5v to -/+2.5 and DC offset of 2.5v to create a wave form that ranges from 0v – 5v as required by the question. For the most...
Hi guys,
Can someone please provide graphical representation (waveform) of emf induced in coil due to a bar magnet spinning perpendicular to axis of coil.
Thanks,
SB
In my limited understanding of the quantum measurement problem, I am imagining the whole thing as corresponding to a kind of "weighting down" by a cascade of entaglement.
Here is my very simple understanding of the quantum measurement problem: A waveform (Schrödinger equation) describes the...
A thought experiment:
A electron is moving in a straight line at velocity v. It instantly stops dead. It doesn't move another femtometer.
Obviously its magnetic field collapses and produces light. What is the waveform of the light produced?
Is it something like this...
The answer given is d).
Seeing the problem statement, it can be concluded that the load has some inductance, and when the switches S1, S2, S3 and S4 are off, conduction takes place through the anti-parallel body diodes (freewheeling action).
Seeing the triggering pulse waveforms, S1-S4 ON...
Hi
I received some great help yesterday and i was hoping someone would be able to help me out again today
Note: the given equation is very long and would look very messy without being typed in the correct format so I didn't enter the entire thing in the relevant equations box; instead it is...
For the following circuit I need to find the output waveform.
A. Conceptually I am at sea here but I will have a stab at it. My though process is as follows :
At a given instant, the AC voltage is at a fixed value and this value drops (##V_drop##) across the resistor ##R##.
The voltage...
Using any Electrical Engineering software:
I tried to solve this question using Multisim. Here's my attempt:
That's what I got :
Kindly,could someone tell me where is my mistake ?
I have calculated V3 to be 294.62sin(1800 pi t + -0.56)V
I am confident this is correct but I now need to work out the frequency of the waveform, I believe it may be 900 but I am not too sure if my calculations are correct and I can't find anywhere on line that aids me in this particular instance.
Hello! Can someone point me towards some papers that use AI for gravitational wave generation? I found many papers using AI to analyze data, but not really something where AI is used to actually generate waveforms. For example this was done for particle physics simulations to increase the speed...
Summary:: My understanding of integrators and the waveforms they generate is hazy.
The question I am trying to solve is : Sketch the output waveform for an inverting integrator if the input signal is a square wave with amplitude 5 V and frequency 1kHz where the product of Resistance and...
Hello, I am looking for a controller whether programmable or otherwise that could function as a drive and control circuit which would monitor a transformer output connected to a load and then drive an amplifier with a signal that is proportional to the needed one in order to control the output...
A is given waveform, we have to use circuits to get B and C waveform. For B we can use an And Gate with 2 inputs, X and Y. X is buffered (to get some delay) and is fed to Y input of And Gate. So we'll get waveform B.
But I don't know how to get C waveform. The question is that even if I extend...
So, I was working on autocorrelation for my pulse laser system and I started to wonder what is the difference between single wave with 400nm of wavelength and two 800nm waves overlapped.
In the knowledge, I know of, is that wavelength is the length between two picks.
And when it is pulse laser...
This is based on the Hugh Everetts interpretation of quantum mechanics, where the waveform never collapses but the observer becomes a part of it, thus experiencing decoherence of the wave form from their point of view.
So, let's say someone is doing the two-slit experiment. The particles going...
Homework Statement
Sketch, on a set of common axes, waveforms to represent the transient
response of circuits having transfer functions with the following parameters:
a) ζ = 0.5, ω = 1×10^3 rad s^-1
b) ζ = 0.2, ω = 2×10^3 rad s^-1
c) ζ = 2, ω = 1×10^3 rad s^-1
Homework Equations
wd=wo√(1-ζ^2)...
I have a complex waveform in MATLAB that is of the form
y = A1 ei * 2 * π * f * t + Φ
I need to amplify each sample point of the waveform to an amplitude A2 and also for it to shift phase by φ. I therefore construct a complex waveform for amplification
y = (A2 / A1 ) ei+φ
Then with...
Hi, I have the two operators:
\begin{equation}
Q = i\hbar \frac{d}{dx} - \gamma
\end{equation}\begin{equation}
Q' = -i\hbar \frac{d}{dx} - \gamma
\end{equation}
where ##\gamma## is a constant. Both of these are not self-adjoint, as they do not follow the condition:
\begin{equation}...
Hello Forum,
I am first wondering about the possibility to factor a function ##f(x,t)## into a product of two functions, i.e. ##g(x) p(t)##. Is there any general rule that tells us if this decomposition is possible based on the characteristics of the function ##f(x,t)##?
If a function...
I hoped to use a Keithley 2400 source meter to generate a ~120Hz AC signal by outputting a 2-point sweep from 1A to -1A on an infinite trigger. The waveform image is attached below.
The end goal is a resistance measurement for bulk semiconductor materials, we prefer AC measurement to avoid...
in our laboratory class we made a simple bridge rectifier circuit like this
then we replaced D1 and D2 with resistors, and when we connected the probes of the oscilliscope on the load resistor it showed a DC output something like this(sorry for the bad drawing)
can you guys explain why it...
I am looking to make a pencil whose tip moves to create a waveform as you move it across the paper.In essence, I want to be able to record a sound and then play the sound through the pencil whilst I draw with it, of course, I will use software to lower the frequency to make it more of a waveform...
Homework Statement
An A.C. voltage, V, comprises a fundamental voltage of 100V rms at a frequency of 120 Hz, a 3rd harmonic which is 20% of the fundamental, a 5th harmonic which is 10% of the fundamental and at a phase angle of 1.2 radians lagging.
(i) Write down an expression for the...
Why armature mmf is triangular in waveform? According to Faraday's law, the mmf should be rectangular. But I read some where that the total mmf of all the coils sums up to produce triangular waveform. I don't understand how that happen.
I need a better understanding and explanation of how a percussion wave form can move through biological soft tissue. I know that human soft tissue functions microscopically in a fluid environment however I also understand that there are also obstructive forces in the way of a wave moving in a...
Why so?
Quoted from Quantum Physics 3rd ed. by Stephen Gasiorowicz, p. 26.
It was explaining why we ignore the terms with exp[iwt] when adding plane waves to form a wave packet:
Homework Statement
[/B]
Estimate the total harmonic distortion [THD] present in the current waveform using the formula:
Homework Equations
##THD\left(I\right)=\frac{1}{I1}\sqrt{\sum_{n=2}^\max\left(In\right)^2}\times 100\%##
The Attempt at a Solution
I have attached a worksheet for this. The...
I am doing guided wave simulation in ANSYS workbench. I applied a load (tone-burst signal) on the model and I ran the simulation successfully. Now, I want to extract the time waveform. Does anybody have any idea?
My understanding is that the wavelength or frequency of an
individual photon cannot be reliably measured. For example,
if a beam of monochromatic light is filtered so that only one
photon at a time enters a spectroscope, each photon may land
anywhere on the screen. Only when a statistically...
I have a permanent magnet alternator. It does not produce a sine wave output, but rather a sort of distorted triangle wave. I did a frequency analysis on it and it showed a series of harmonics. The strongest was the third, with each odd harmonic getting progressively less powerful. It also...
Hi,
While studying opamps I came across comparator and window comparator.
I had trouble understanding case of Vin > 2/3 Vcc.
As per waveform, comparator 1 is functional and o/p goes negative.
But isn't now Vin also more than 1/3 Vcc, so shouldn't comparator 2 make o/p positive.
Also when Vin...
Homework Statement
To analyze these circuits, we need to draw the current path right? I know that current can only flow one direction through a diode.
http://i.imgur.com/kipBcax.pngHomework Equations
N/A
The Attempt at a Solution
Are these paths correct? Green = positive, red = negative
1...
I did a small project on ac power measurement using arduino a few months ago. But it was specifically for 50Hz supply only. I sampled the waveform in a 20ms interval and applied DFT to get the amplitude and phase. This works good when the frequency is between 49.5 Hz to 50.5 Hz. The aim was to...
https://files.slack.com/files-pri/T0GNF95E2-F0TV5JSSG/voltage_reversed_and_shifted.png
This the voltage waveform across a resistor load (15W). The applied voltage is 230V AC at 50Hz. What can be inferred from this? [ the Analog to Digital conversion of Voltage happens at around 1690 Samples per...
Homework Statement
Circle all that are correct
Homework Equations
V(t)=Vocos(wt)
The Attempt at a Solution
I don't really understand what the question wants when they ask for an average value. Average value of what? And how do you find it. There are a lot of questions with graphs like this...
so I am hatching an idea for a system of equipment which requires a focussed wavelength which will not greatly widen over distances of less than a mile. Also the waveform needs to be sensible by receiver antenna or something of a similar nature. It is necessary that the waveform be able to...
Hi all! I have a question about representing waves mathematically. I hope it will make sense.
The waves I've been learning about are of the form F(x-vt), which represents a wave-form, every point of which is translated spatially with velocity v. I am wondering if there is a way to...
Hi all,
Having difficulty understanding the above resultant wave form, been looking at power electronics (C.W.Lander) but don't quite get the addition of the wave forms (positive and negative cycles)can anyone point me to some reading of theory I am missing for this, thanks.
Hi,
I am just trying to understand the output of a sound spectrum analyzer. There are three dimensions
1) Time
2) Frequency
3) Volume (db)
I am confused about few things here:
1) How should I perceive the volume dimension here?
2) Why are the db values negative here and w.r.t what reference...
I lightly placed my finger a quarter of the length down the E-string of a violin and drew the bow, forcing the third harmonic. I used an oscilloscope app to look at the waveform. I got this unusually regular pure pattern...
Homework Statement
Draw a time-depended waveform of all components in DC RLC circuit.
R=4*1,412
L=1,6 mH
C=0,2 mF
Udc=15 V
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
DoCircuit simulator
I am a bit confussed with this homework because I am aware that capacitor do not conduct a current in DC...
Homework Statement
Identify the principal frequencies in the current waveform
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
From the excel file, I have identified 3 principle frequencies at 52Hz, 246Hz and 351Hz. Is this correct? What does the term principle frequency actually mean?
Homework Statement
Sketch the waveform defined below and explain how you would obtain its Fourier series:
f(wt) = 0 for 0 ≤wt ≤pi/2 (w=omega)
f(wt) = Vsin(wt) for pi/2 ≤wt ≤pi
f(wt) = 0 for pi ≤wt ≤3pi/2
f(wt) = Vsin(wt) for 3pi/2 ≤wt ≤2pi
Develop the analysis as far as you are...
Homework Statement
FIGURE 5 shows a proportional plus derivative controller that has aproportional band of 20% and a derivative action time of 0.1 minutes.
Construct the shape of the output waveform for the triangular input
waveform shown, if the input rises and falls at the rate of 4 units...