What is Kinetic theory of gases: Definition and 12 Discussions

The kinetic theory of gases is a simple, historically significant classical model of the thermodynamic behavior of gases, with which many principal concepts of thermodynamics were established. The model describes a gas as a large number of identical submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion. Their size is assumed to be much smaller than the average distance between the particles. The particles undergo random elastic collisions between themselves and with the enclosing walls of the container. The basic version of the model describes the ideal gas, and considers no other interactions between the particles.
The kinetic theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases, such as volume, pressure, and temperature, as well as transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The model also accounts for related phenomena, such as Brownian motion.

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  1. R

    B Parcel theory -- how can there be buoyancy with miscible gases?

    Parcel theory holds that as air is heated, it expands. Its density hence decreases and the hot air "floats" upwards, pushed by the colder, more dense air surrounding it. It is an experimental fact that hot air rises, but the explanation from buoyancy seems suspect. In a gas, all motions are...
  2. V

    B Conflicting definition of degree of freedom in Kinetic Theory of Gases

    I am seeing conflicting definitions of degree of freedom in my textbook. If I look at the definition given as per screenshot below then it is the number of independent terms/variables/coordinates used to define the energy of a molecule. But, if I look at the statement of Equipartition of energy...
  3. P

    I Is RMS speed dependent on pressure?

    As it is clear from the formula for r.m.s speed ,it is only dependent of temperture for a particular gas,I think the answer should be "No change happens".But I wonder whether there is more insight to this.And is my assumption true?
  4. Rongeet Banerjee

    Root Mean Square Velocity of Gases

    This question came in NEET Exam 2018.Now my first query is that in the question,the mass of one Oxygen molecule is given wrong.Its exactly half it's true value.I don't think anybody has noticed this before because I couldn't find any change in the printed question on so many different books...
  5. Parzeevahl

    Pressure and Volume of a Neutral Hydrogen Cloud

    Here's how I approached it. We know the total mass of the cloud, it is given. Let's call it 'M'. We can also find out the mass of a single hydrogen atom from its atomic weight. Let's call this 'm'. Then N = M / m is the total number of hydrogen atoms in the cloud. The temperature (T) is given...
  6. Krushnaraj Pandya

    Change in temperature when a gas is in a moving container

    Homework Statement Some gas at 300K is enclosed in a container. Now the container is placed on a fast moving train.is the change in temperature of the gas the same as the change dT observed when train suddenly stops? Homework Equations 1/2mv^2=dU?? or dU=0?? The Attempt at a Solution...
  7. S

    The question: Can nitrogen molecules escape from Europa and into space?

    Homework Statement :[/B] An astronaut visiting Jupiter’s satellite Europa leaves a canister of 1.20 mol of nitrogen gas 28.0 g/mol^2 at 25.0°C on the satellite’s surface. Europa has no significant atmosphere, and the acceleration due to gravity at its surface is 1.30 m/s2. The canister springs a...
  8. SciencyBoi

    Internal Energy of an Ideal gas related to Molar specific heat

    Homework Statement Please look at the below images which is the derivation of the relation between the internal energy of an ideal gas and the molar specific heat at constant volume. (Snaps taken from Fundamentals of Physics Textbook by David Halliday, Jearl Walker, and Robert Resnick) As...
  9. D

    Volume occupied a single molecule of water.

    Homework Statement My problem includes answers from previous problems that are to be used as data in this problem so I will state the previous problems and the answers but not their solutions because I have solved them and they are pretty clear to me. So, I will be only posting the solution to...
  10. T

    (2/3) as constant factor In Kinetic theory of gases

    Hi I'm in high school but what I'm going to ask you is probably being teached in college. General formula: p=(2/3)*(N/V)*Ek p- pressure N- amount of molecules V- volume of the container Ek - AVERAGE kinetic energy I've been told by my physics teacher, that 2/3 constant factor in kinetic theory...
  11. F

    # of gas particles hitting one face of a cubic container

    Homework Statement [/B] 1 mol of gas at temperature T is contained in a cubic container of side L. Estimate the number of collisions per second between the atoms in the gas and one of the walls of the cubic container. My book gives this formula for that quantity \frac{N_A}{6L}\sqrt{\frac{3 k...
  12. F

    Video about pressure in kinetic theory

    Hi, I am looking for a video helping intuition on pressure, in the context of kinetic theory of gases. I remember seeing a video where someone poured a bucketful of little hard balls (lead sinkers for fishing?) onto an electronic scales (a dynamometer, really) showing that this corresponds to...