# What is Stokes theorem: Definition and 80 Discussions

In vector calculus and differential geometry, the generalized Stokes theorem (sometimes with apostrophe as Stokes' theorem or Stokes's theorem), also called the Stokes–Cartan theorem, is a statement about the integration of differential forms on manifolds, which both simplifies and generalizes several theorems from vector calculus. It is a generalization of Isaac Newton's fundamental theorem of calculus that relates two-dimensional line integrals to three-dimensional surface integrals.Stokes' theorem says that the integral of a differential form ω over the boundary of some orientable manifold Ω is equal to the integral of its exterior derivative dω over the whole of Ω, i.e.,

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{\displaystyle \int _{\partial \Omega }\omega =\int _{\Omega }d\omega \,.}
Stokes' theorem was formulated in its modern form by Élie Cartan in 1945, following earlier work on the generalization of the theorems of vector calculus by Vito Volterra, Édouard Goursat, and Henri Poincaré.This modern form of Stokes' theorem is a vast generalization of a classical result that Lord Kelvin communicated to George Stokes in a letter dated July 2, 1850. Stokes set the theorem as a question on the 1854 Smith's Prize exam, which led to the result bearing his name. It was first published by Hermann Hankel in 1861. This classical Kelvin–Stokes theorem relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field F over a surface (that is, the flux of curl F) in Euclidean three-space to the line integral of the vector field over its boundary (also known as the loop integral).
Simple classical vector analysis example
Let γ: [a, b] → R2 be a piecewise smooth Jordan plane curve. The Jordan curve theorem implies that γ divides R2 into two components, a compact one and another that is non-compact. Let D denote the compact part that is bounded by γ and suppose ψ: D → R3 is smooth, with S := ψ(D). If Γ is the space curve defined by Γ(t) = ψ(γ(t)) and F is a smooth vector field on R3, then:

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{\displaystyle \oint _{\Gamma }\mathbf {F} \,\cdot \,d{\mathbf {\Gamma } }=\iint _{S}\nabla \times \mathbf {F} \,\cdot \,d\mathbf {S} }
This classical statement, is a special case of the general formulation stated above after making an identification of vector field with a 1-form and its curl with a two form through

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{\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}F_{x}\\F_{y}\\F_{z}\\\end{pmatrix}}\cdot d\Gamma \to F_{x}\,dx+F_{y}\,dy+F_{z}\,dz}

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{\displaystyle \nabla \times {\begin{pmatrix}F_{x}\\F_{y}\\F_{z}\end{pmatrix}}\cdot d\mathbf {S} ={\begin{pmatrix}\partial _{y}F_{z}-\partial _{z}F_{y}\\\partial _{z}F_{x}-\partial _{x}F_{z}\\\partial _{x}F_{y}-\partial _{y}F_{x}\\\end{pmatrix}}\cdot d\mathbf {S} \to }

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{\displaystyle d(F_{x}\,dx+F_{y}\,dy+F_{z}\,dz)=(\partial _{y}F_{z}-\partial _{z}F_{y})\,dy\wedge dz+(\partial _{z}F_{x}-\partial _{x}F_{z})\,dz\wedge dx+(\partial _{x}F_{y}-\partial _{y}F_{x})\,dx\wedge dy}
.Other classical generalisations of the fundamental theorem of calculus like the divergence theorem, and Green's theorem are special cases of the general formulation stated above after making a standard identification of vector fields with differential forms (different for each of the classical theorems).

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21. ### Line Integral - Stokes theorem

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22. M

### When using stokes theorem to remove integrals

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24. ### Flux integral of surface using Stokes theorem

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26. ### Understanding Z = -sin(t) in Stokes Theorem: A Simple Explanation

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30. ### Use Stokes Theorem to evaluate the integral

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32. ### Parameterizing Z-Value in Line Integral for Cylinder (Stokes Thm)

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35. ### Stokes theorem over a hemisphere

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36. ### Help doing an integral using stokes theorem?

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38. ### When is not necesary to do surface ordering in the non-Abelian Stokes theorem?

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39. ### [Calc 3] Verifying Stokes Theorem

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40. ### Stokes theorem application

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41. ### Verify Stokes theorem for the given Surface

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42. ### Is it possible to derive Divergence Theorem from Stokes Theorem?

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43. ### Question about Stokes Theorem?

So I'm self teaching myself Multivariable Calculus from UCBerkeley's Youtube series and an online textbook. I'm up to Stokes Theorem and I'm getting conflicting definitions. UCBerkeley Youtube series says that Stokes Theorem is defined by: \int {(Curl f)} {ds} And then the textbook says that...
44. ### Proving Stokes Theorem for Vector Field E on Given Contour and Surface

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45. ### Solving Double Integral Using Stokes Theorem for Curl

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46. ### Troublesome Stokes Theorem Problem

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47. ### Stokes Theorem Question

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48. ### Stokes theorem and downward orientation problem

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49. ### Special case of Stokes theorem

Do you agree that the following identity is true: \int_S (\nabla_\mu X^\mu) \Omega = \int_{\partial S} X \invneg \lrcorner \Omega where \Omega is volume form and X\invneg \lrcorner \Omega is contraction of volume form with vector X.
50. ### On an alternative Stokes theorem

I find in a homework an alternative Stokes theorem tha i wasn't knew before. I wold like to know that it is really true. Any can give me a proof please? It is: Int (line) dℓ′× A = Int (surface)dS′×∇′× A