Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) (also known as long interspersed nucleotide elements or long interspersed elements) are a group of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons that are widespread in the genome of many eukaryotes. They make up around 21.1% of the human genome. LINEs make up a family of transposons, where each LINE is about 7,000 base pairs long. LINEs are transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein that acts as a reverse transcriptase. The reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the LINE RNA that can be integrated into the genome at a new site.
The only abundant LINE in humans is LINE1. The human genome contains an estimated 100,000 truncated and 4,000 full-length LINE-1 elements. Due to the accumulation of random mutations, the sequence of many LINEs has degenerated to the extent that they are no longer transcribed or translated. Comparisons of LINE DNA sequences can be used to date transposon insertion in the genome.
Hello. In data that the professor sent, I see only ##n## and ##\theta##. So I do not know what is d. Can I find ##\lambda## without it?
On other thing he mentioned :
Suppose that the diffraction grating consists of 300 lines per millimeter.
I know that d is the distance between two consecutive...
I am having trouble with the concept that the equation L = {x + tv} is the more general form of the more familiar y = mx + b (In the first equation there should be a vector sign above the x and the v). It's hard for me to see the similarities between these two equations.
1: Even if we are...
Ok in my approach i have the lines,
starting with the inner integral,
$$\int_0^1 xy \cos (x^2y) dx$$
I let ##u =x^2y , u(0)=0, u(1)=y##
...
$$\dfrac{1}{2} \int_0^y \cos u du=\left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin u \right]_0^y= \left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin (x^2y) \right]_0^1=\left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin y...
I was going through this book called "A Course in Mathematics for Students of Physics Volume 1 by Paul Bamberg and Shlomo Sternberg". There in a part they said something like this:
...if we start with a point P and write
##R=P+u##
##Q=P+v##
and
##S=P+(u+v)##
then the four points
##P,Q,S,R##
lie...
Hi, i'm trying to solve this problem.
It's exercise 3 on page 5 from this book:
Challenging mathematical problem with elementary solutions
The solution is on page 41:
I'm OK with the 4 circles in case 1: i can pick (inside/outside):
ABC + D,
ABD + C,
ADC + B,
BCD + A.
What i cannot...
After watching this clip Electric Field Lines Lab I wonder if it is possible to see both electric field lines and magnetic field lines at the same time by swapping the two nails in the video with two bar magnets, as the conductors as we understand bar magnets are metals and metals are good...
For this (ii),
The solution is ##\lambda = \frac{4}{3}##, however when I tried solving the problem I did not get their answer. Dose somebody please guide me to their solution and tell me what I did wrong with my method below:
##\textbf {PR} = -3\hat i + 6\hat j - 2\hat k##
##\textbf {RS} =...
Question:
My answer:
What it looks like for an electric charge:
Am I correct? If you want I can hand out my Latex on how I got to it, it will refer to the book Griffiths a lot.
1- Coordinates of two points are given in x and y plane.
A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2)
Calculate the angle between the two lines passing through each of these points with the origin of linear coordinates.
2- If a line passes between the two points A and B above, does point C lie on this line?
C(x3,y3)
how...
Since there is only one excited electron, it could come from n=3 to n =1directly or n=3 to n =2 and then n=2 to =1.
Hence, there could be one or two lines depending upon the path taken by electron.
Is this right?
For 2D charge distribution ρ(x,y)=Ne PDF(x,y), where PDF is the normalized probability density function with its peak on (0,0) and has standard deviations σ x. and σ y. Are the contours with the equal probability "PDF(x,y)=const" the same as the equipotiential contours?, I tend to think that...
The operation of a transmission line is based on the axial propagation of electromagnetic waves between the two line conductors. However, the study of the transmission lines does not focus on E and B waves but on voltage and current waves.
It is considered that there are resistance...
As stated in the problem, I want to demonstrate mathematically that field line density is directly related to the magnitude of B. How would I be able to do this, other than simply using the flux equation and showing that for a higher flux in the same area, the magnetic field must be rise...
Let's say atom has two energy levels, ##E_1## and ##E_2##. If atom is in the first state ##|E_1\rangle##, then it's able to absorb a photon with energy ##E_2-E_1##, while transitioning to the second state ##|E_2\rangle##. In atom's spectrum we can see an absorption line at the corresponding...
The general idea is that, number of bands=number of lines.
For instance, AlAs primitive cell (one of each atom per cell) has 13 bands; that is outer most shells have 13 distinct energy values. (Al: one 3s + three 3p, As: five 3d + one 4s + three 4p)
But when I calculate Band Structure through...
I just wanted to check to see if this is a known problem, or if my issue is more likely related to something different.
I have an Excel spreadsheet that has a number of lines with comments and other information at the top, and then a matrix of cells below that on several rows. I had some Excel...
Using a hand spectroscope, I looked at the spectrum of two geissler tubes, helium and hydrogen. The helium spectrum is what I expected, dominated by five distinct lines. The hydrogen spectrum, however, is somewhat disappointing. It is dominated by an almost continuous spectrum, it is not evident...
Christoph Schiller, "From maximum force to physics in 9 lines -- and implications for quantum gravity" arXiv:2208.01038 (July 31, 2022).
This paper asserts that nine propositions can be used to derive the Standard Model and GR and can point the way to quantum gravity, although he cheats a bit...
This is for my graduate EM Theory class. My background is physics/optics, so I was able to understand when we solved maxwells eqs. for waves propagating between parallel conducting plates, but that lead into the lumped element circuit model of transmission lines which I don't understand. I've...
I want to improve the magnetic field strength at the surface of a magnet configuration by utilizing diamagnetic materials to guide the magnetic field lines. I have not the proper equipment to measure the effect myself but would this work?
This is the initial configuration with four magnets side...
1)Field Lines is supposed to represent the electric field around a charge ,now we can draw infinite field lines around a charge and sinc Electric flux is No of Field Lines /area ,does it become infinite ,the whole concept of field lines is quite in the Gray Area for me ,I can in theory mark...
I wanted to post my work so far to see if I am on the right path toward the correct answer so far.
I have attached a ss of the actual problem and my work in the attachments
I did it graphically by using GeoGebra.
My question is that what can I do to solve it analytically/algebraically. I used the point-slope formula and obtained $$\frac {y - (a^2-4)} {x - a} = 2a$$, which implies that ##y = (2a)x + (-a^2-4)##.
I am not sure how to proceed from here onwards...
Hello:
I'm confused about transmission lines. According to Faraday's Law, what's induced is an emf that depends on how fast the coils spin, or whatever equivalent to a simple model seen on Physics textbooks.
Power, however, is then assumed constant when talking about the power loss due to...
I've calculated the relationships between the input impedance, line impedance and terminal impedance for a mismatched transmission line (parallel-wire type and of length ##l##). I'm now asked to consider the case where "the source [an oscillator] is in resonance with the line". What exactly does...
Problem: Given the line L: x = (-3, 1) + t(1,-2) find all x on L that lie 2 units from (-3, 1).
I know the answer is (3 ± 2 / √5, -1 ± 4/√5) but I don't know where to start. I found that if t=2, x= (-5, 5) and the normal vector is (2, 1) but I am not sure if this information is useful or how...
A spectral line of wavelength λ = 4,750˚A is actually
a doublet, of separation between the lanes 0, 043˚A . a) which is the smallest
number of lines a diffraction grating needs to have to separate
this doublet in the 2nd order spectrum?
To be honest, i don't know what to do. I first thought...
hi guys
our instructor asked us to try to graph the projection of the electric field intensity at a certain point p(x,y) , for two charges q+-q located
at (-a,0) , (a,0), Now starting with the equation
$$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{E_{y}}{E_{x}}$$
after transforming this equation I got...
I am familiar with Cantor's work on the concept of infinity and his use of the set theory to explain various types of infinities. Having said that my intuition never seems truly grasp/accept it.
Is there a way to train my mind to see this seemingly contradictory situation as a fact? This is...
For a uniform field like this, I imagine the two plates that creates it are made of multiple atoms with charges, which are points sources that create radial fields. We know that radial fields don't have parallel fields lines, so how are parallel fields lines form when the field is made of...
hi guys i have a conceptual question .As you know equipotential surfaces is one on which all point are the same potential there is no work required to move a charge from one point to the other . So my question is how can we change the locotion of a particle without using any force ?
Hey! :giggle:
We consider the function $f:\mathbb{R}^2\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with $$f(x,y)=\frac{x^2-1}{y^2+1}$$
(a) Describe and draw the level lines $N_c$ of $f$ for all $c\in \mathbb{R}$. Determine for each connected component of each non-empty level lines $N_c$ a parametrization...
\documentclass{article}
\newlinechar=`\^^J
\def\first{This is the first sentence.^^J}
\def\second{This is the second sentence.^^J}
\def\third{This is the third sentence.^^J}
\def\nth{You get the idea.^^J}
\def\outfile{outfile.txt}
\newwrite\myout
\begin{document}...
I have just attached a standard depiction of a radial field as one may similarly choose to draw it. So I understand that the gravitational field strength in a field is defined as the force per unit mass at that point. The field lines in a radial field move further apart further away from the...
The last couple of days I’ve been troubled with a specific part of electromagnetism. How will electric field lines be affected by an oscillating charge? More specific, what will happen with the “amplitude” of a wave in an electrical field line as the wave propagate away from the charge?
1. Will...
With regard to Rutherford's atomic model, and Rydberg's discovery in general for the hydrogen distribution lines, what does Rydberg's constant physically mean? Its unit is m ^ -1, as if it were a rate, but it was not clear to me its physical meaning.
And why does it grow with atomic mass...
Summary:: Special relativity - 2 astronauts syncronize their clocks and moves in different paths at different velocities, which clocks is left behind? and why?
Hi everyone, i have the following problem and I'm not understanding if my strategy to solve it is correct:
Two astronauts synchronize...