What is Lines: Definition and 1000 Discussions

Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) (also known as long interspersed nucleotide elements or long interspersed elements) are a group of non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons that are widespread in the genome of many eukaryotes. They make up around 21.1% of the human genome. LINEs make up a family of transposons, where each LINE is about 7,000 base pairs long. LINEs are transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein that acts as a reverse transcriptase. The reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the LINE RNA that can be integrated into the genome at a new site.
The only abundant LINE in humans is LINE1. The human genome contains an estimated 100,000 truncated and 4,000 full-length LINE-1 elements. Due to the accumulation of random mutations, the sequence of many LINEs has degenerated to the extent that they are no longer transcribed or translated. Comparisons of LINE DNA sequences can be used to date transposon insertion in the genome.

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  1. MatinSAR

    Balmer series experiment

    Hello. In data that the professor sent, I see only ##n## and ##\theta##. So I do not know what is d. Can I find ##\lambda## without it? On other thing he mentioned : Suppose that the diffraction grating consists of 300 lines per millimeter. I know that d is the distance between two consecutive...
  2. N

    B Parametric Representation of Lines

    I am having trouble with the concept that the equation L = {x + tv} is the more general form of the more familiar y = mx + b (In the first equation there should be a vector sign above the x and the v). It's hard for me to see the similarities between these two equations. 1: Even if we are...
  3. chwala

    Solve the problem involving the given double integral

    Ok in my approach i have the lines, starting with the inner integral, $$\int_0^1 xy \cos (x^2y) dx$$ I let ##u =x^2y , u(0)=0, u(1)=y## ... $$\dfrac{1}{2} \int_0^y \cos u du=\left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin u \right]_0^y= \left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin (x^2y) \right]_0^1=\left[\dfrac{1}{2} \sin y...

    I Why do the lines m and l coincide in the proof of the parallelogram rule?

    I was going through this book called "A Course in Mathematics for Students of Physics Volume 1 by Paul Bamberg and Shlomo Sternberg". There in a part they said something like this: ...if we start with a point P and write ##R=P+u## ##Q=P+v## and ##S=P+(u+v)## then the four points ##P,Q,S,R## lie...
  5. M

    Number of lines equidistant from four points on a plane

    Hi, i'm trying to solve this problem. It's exercise 3 on page 5 from this book: Challenging mathematical problem with elementary solutions The solution is on page 41: I'm OK with the 4 circles in case 1: i can pick (inside/outside): ABC + D, ABD + C, ADC + B, BCD + A. What i cannot...
  6. R

    B Seeing both B field lines and E field lines at the same time

    After watching this clip Electric Field Lines Lab I wonder if it is possible to see both electric field lines and magnetic field lines at the same time by swapping the two nails in the video with two bar magnets, as the conductors as we understand bar magnets are metals and metals are good...
  7. C

    Finding the value of lambda so that two lines are parallel

    For this (ii), The solution is ##\lambda = \frac{4}{3}##, however when I tried solving the problem I did not get their answer. Dose somebody please guide me to their solution and tell me what I did wrong with my method below: ##\textbf {PR} = -3\hat i + 6\hat j - 2\hat k## ##\textbf {RS} =...
  8. Islam Nabil

    Need a 3d scatter plot with connected lines

    Need a the source file of a 3d scatter plot with connected lines like attached figure
  9. milkism

    Magnetic- and Electric- field lines due to a moving magnetic monopole

    Question: My answer: What it looks like for an electric charge: Am I correct? If you want I can hand out my Latex on how I got to it, it will refer to the book Griffiths a lot.
  10. sHatDowN

    Algorithm problem involving 3 points and 3 lines in the x,y plane

    1- Coordinates of two points are given in x and y plane. A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2) Calculate the angle between the two lines passing through each of these points with the origin of linear coordinates. 2- If a line passes between the two points A and B above, does point C lie on this line? C(x3,y3) how...
  11. Pushoam

    Spectral lines in the emission spectrum for an electron at n= 3

    Since there is only one excited electron, it could come from n=3 to n =1directly or n=3 to n =2 and then n=2 to =1. Hence, there could be one or two lines depending upon the path taken by electron. Is this right?
  12. M

    I Do equipotential lines fall on the equiprobability contours?

    For 2D charge distribution ρ(x,y)=Ne PDF(x,y), where PDF is the normalized probability density function with its peak on (0,0) and has standard deviations σ x. and σ y. Are the contours with the equal probability "PDF(x,y)=const" the same as the equipotiential contours?, I tend to think that...
  13. T

    I Are voltage and current waves in transmission lines an artifice?

    The operation of a transmission line is based on the axial propagation of electromagnetic waves between the two line conductors. However, the study of the transmission lines does not focus on E and B waves but on voltage and current waves. It is considered that there are resistance...
  14. A

    Relationship between magnetic field lines and magnetic field

    As stated in the problem, I want to demonstrate mathematically that field line density is directly related to the magnitude of B. How would I be able to do this, other than simply using the flux equation and showing that for a higher flux in the same area, the magnetic field must be rise...
  15. Einstein44

    Triangle formed by straight lines

    I tried doing this problem, but couldn't find a solution that wouldn't involve a sketch... Finding the vertices was all I've got. Thanks in advance.
  16. Yuras

    B Spectral lines and superposition of states

    Let's say atom has two energy levels, ##E_1## and ##E_2##. If atom is in the first state ##|E_1\rangle##, then it's able to absorb a photon with energy ##E_2-E_1##, while transitioning to the second state ##|E_2\rangle##. In atom's spectrum we can see an absorption line at the corresponding...
  17. C

    I Number of lines in Band Structure

    The general idea is that, number of bands=number of lines. For instance, AlAs primitive cell (one of each atom per cell) has 13 bands; that is outer most shells have 13 distinct energy values. (Al: one 3s + three 3p, As: five 3d + one 4s + three 4p) But when I calculate Band Structure through...
  18. berkeman

    Should Excel macros self-adjust when you delete lines above the affected cells?

    I just wanted to check to see if this is a known problem, or if my issue is more likely related to something different. I have an Excel spreadsheet that has a number of lines with comments and other information at the top, and then a matrix of cells below that on several rows. I had some Excel...
  19. O

    I Why are the spectral lines weak in my hydrogen Geissler tube?

    Using a hand spectroscope, I looked at the spectrum of two geissler tubes, helium and hydrogen. The helium spectrum is what I expected, dominated by five distinct lines. The hydrogen spectrum, however, is somewhat disappointing. It is dominated by an almost continuous spectrum, it is not evident...
  20. ohwilleke

    I Can Core Theory Be Derived From Nine Lines?

    Christoph Schiller, "From maximum force to physics in 9 lines -- and implications for quantum gravity" arXiv:2208.01038 (July 31, 2022). This paper asserts that nine propositions can be used to derive the Standard Model and GR and can point the way to quantum gravity, although he cheats a bit...
  21. stephen8686

    Questions about Circuit Models of Transmission Lines

    This is for my graduate EM Theory class. My background is physics/optics, so I was able to understand when we solved maxwells eqs. for waves propagating between parallel conducting plates, but that lead into the lumped element circuit model of transmission lines which I don't understand. I've...
  22. I

    Directing magnetic field lines by using diamagnetic material

    I want to improve the magnetic field strength at the surface of a magnet configuration by utilizing diamagnetic materials to guide the magnetic field lines. I have not the proper equipment to measure the effect myself but would this work? This is the initial configuration with four magnets side...
  23. Harikesh_33

    I Question regarding the use of Electric flux and Field Lines

    1)Field Lines is supposed to represent the electric field around a charge ,now we can draw infinite field lines around a charge and sinc Electric flux is No of Field Lines /area ,does it become infinite ,the whole concept of field lines is quite in the Gray Area for me ,I can in theory mark...
  24. guyvsdcsniper

    Electric field lines of H2O molecule

    I wanted to post my work so far to see if I am on the right path toward the correct answer so far. I have attached a ss of the actual problem and my work in the attachments
  25. brochesspro

    Solving for Tangent Lines: Analytical and Graphical Approaches

    I did it graphically by using GeoGebra. My question is that what can I do to solve it analytically/algebraically. I used the point-slope formula and obtained $$\frac {y - (a^2-4)} {x - a} = 2a$$, which implies that ##y = (2a)x + (-a^2-4)##. I am not sure how to proceed from here onwards...
  26. A

    How transmission lines deliver (established?) power from generator

    Hello: I'm confused about transmission lines. According to Faraday's Law, what's induced is an emf that depends on how fast the coils spin, or whatever equivalent to a simple model seen on Physics textbooks. Power, however, is then assumed constant when talking about the power loss due to...
  27. ergospherical

    Resonance in transmission lines

    I've calculated the relationships between the input impedance, line impedance and terminal impedance for a mismatched transmission line (parallel-wire type and of length ##l##). I'm now asked to consider the case where "the source [an oscillator] is in resonance with the line". What exactly does...
  28. S

    I Linear Algebra 1 problem, Vector Geometry: Lines

    Problem: Given the line L: x = (-3, 1) + t(1,-2) find all x on L that lie 2 units from (-3, 1). I know the answer is (3 ± 2 / √5, -1 ± 4/√5) but I don't know where to start. I found that if t=2, x= (-5, 5) and the normal vector is (2, 1) but I am not sure if this information is useful or how...
  29. LCSphysicist

    Calculating the Number of Lines for a Diffraction Grating

    A spectral line of wavelength λ = 4,750˚A is actually a doublet, of separation between the lanes 0, 043˚A . a) which is the smallest number of lines a diffraction grating needs to have to separate this doublet in the 2nd order spectrum? To be honest, i don't know what to do. I first thought...
  30. patric44

    A problem in graphing electric field lines

    hi guys our instructor asked us to try to graph the projection of the electric field intensity at a certain point p(x,y) , for two charges q+-q located at (-a,0) , (a,0), Now starting with the equation $$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{E_{y}}{E_{x}}$$ after transforming this equation I got...
  31. M

    I An infinity of points on two unequal lines- an intuitive explanation?

    I am familiar with Cantor's work on the concept of infinity and his use of the set theory to explain various types of infinities. Having said that my intuition never seems truly grasp/accept it. Is there a way to train my mind to see this seemingly contradictory situation as a fact? This is...
  32. R

    B Which lines are the quark-gluon plasma?

    I'm curious what are those lines? Which one are the quark gluon plasma?
  33. jackiepollock

    I Why are field lines parallel in a uniform field?

    For a uniform field like this, I imagine the two plates that creates it are made of multiple atoms with charges, which are points sources that create radial fields. We know that radial fields don't have parallel fields lines, so how are parallel fields lines form when the field is made of...
  34. dlgoff

    Underground transmission power lines

    @anorlunda suggested I start a new thread about this: See: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/grim-day-on-the-texas-power-grid.999764/post-6521013
  35. kuruman

    How to Solve Projectile Motion Problems in One or Two Lines

    [url="https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/how-to-solve-projectile-motion-problems-in-one-or-two-lines/"]Continue reading...
  36. E

    Question about equipotential lines and the work done moving along them

    hi guys i have a conceptual question .As you know equipotential surfaces is one on which all point are the same potential there is no work required to move a charge from one point to the other . So my question is how can we change the locotion of a particle without using any force ?
  37. M

    MHB Exploring Level Lines and Gradient in Multivariable Calculus

    Hey! :giggle: We consider the function $f:\mathbb{R}^2\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with $$f(x,y)=\frac{x^2-1}{y^2+1}$$ (a) Describe and draw the level lines $N_c$ of $f$ for all $c\in \mathbb{R}$. Determine for each connected component of each non-empty level lines $N_c$ a parametrization...
  38. G

    I Frost on roof window melts in lines

    Hi. On a cold morning, I saw frost melting on my roof window. Why did it melt in regular lines? Might the glass be slightly wavy?
  39. Eclair_de_XII

    LaTeX TeX command write is not inserting new lines where expected

    \documentclass{article} \newlinechar=`\^^J \def\first{This is the first sentence.^^J} \def\second{This is the second sentence.^^J} \def\third{This is the third sentence.^^J} \def\nth{You get the idea.^^J} \def\outfile{outfile.txt} \newwrite\myout \begin{document}...
  40. AN630078

    Drawing Radial Field Equipotentials and Field Lines

    I have just attached a standard depiction of a radial field as one may similarly choose to draw it. So I understand that the gravitational field strength in a field is defined as the force per unit mass at that point. The field lines in a radial field move further apart further away from the...
  41. Costweist

    Changes in electric field lines as a result of an oscillating charge

    The last couple of days I’ve been troubled with a specific part of electromagnetism. How will electric field lines be affected by an oscillating charge? More specific, what will happen with the “amplitude” of a wave in an electrical field line as the wave propagate away from the charge? 1. Will...
  42. Gabrielmonteiro

    I On the Rydberg Constant and the Emission Lines

    With regard to Rutherford's atomic model, and Rydberg's discovery in general for the hydrogen distribution lines, what does Rydberg's constant physically mean? Its unit is m ^ -1, as if it were a rate, but it was not clear to me its physical meaning. And why does it grow with atomic mass...
  43. T

    Time dilatation between straight and curved lines in Minkowsi space

    Summary:: Special relativity - 2 astronauts syncronize their clocks and moves in different paths at different velocities, which clocks is left behind? and why? Hi everyone, i have the following problem and I'm not understanding if my strategy to solve it is correct: Two astronauts synchronize...