What is Series convergence: Definition and 111 Discussions
In mathematics, convergence tests are methods of testing for the convergence, conditional convergence, absolute convergence, interval of convergence or divergence of an infinite series
I had a random thought about infinite series the other day while watching a math video. Let's say we have an infinite series where each term in the series is itself another infinite series. How would one go about finding the sum?
For example, let's say we have the series ##a_1+a_2+a_3...##...
Hi everyone!
It's about the following task: show the convergence or divergence of the following series (combine estimates and
criteria).
I am not sure if I have solved the problem correctly. Can you guys help me? Is there anything I need to correct? I look forward to your feedback.
I'm not sure which test is the best to use, so I just start with a divergence test
##\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac {n+3}{\sqrt{5n^2+1}}##
The +3 and +1 are negligible
##\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac {n}{\sqrt{5n^2}}##
So now I have ##\infty / \infty##. So it's not conclusive. Trying ratio test...
Good day
and here is the solution, I have questions about
I don't understand why when in the taylor expansion of exponential when x goes to infinity x^7 is little o of x ? I could undesrtand if -1<x<1 but not if x tends to infinity?
many thanks in advance!
In the contex of ##L^2## space, it is usually stated that any square-integrable function can be expanded as a linear combination of Spherical Harmonics:
$$
f(\theta,\varphi)=\sum_{\ell=0}^\infty \sum_{m=-\ell}^\ell f_\ell^m \, Y_\ell^m(\theta,\varphi)\tag 2
$$
where ##Y_\ell^m( \theta , \varphi...
Hi, as you know infinite sum of taylor series may not converge to its original function which means when we increase the degree of series then we may diverge more. Also you know taylor series is widely used for an approximation to vicinity of relevant point for any function. Let's think about a...
The power series
$$\sum_{n = 2}^\infty \frac{(n-1)(-1)^n}{n!}$$
converges to what number?
So far, I've tried using the Ratio Test and the limit as n approaches infinity equals $0$. Also since $L<1$, the power series converges by the Ratio Test.
Homework Statement
Ultimately, I would like a expression that is the result of an integral with the sin(nx)/x function, with extra terms from the expansion. This expression would then reconstruct the delta function behaviour as n goes to infty, with the extra terms decaying to zero. I...
I'm trying to determine if \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{{n}^{10}}{{2}^{n}} converges or diverges.
I did the ratio test but I'm left with determining \lim_{{n}\to{\infty}}\frac{(n+1)^{10}}{2n^{10}}
Any suggestions??
Hi all,
I have a trigonometric function series
$$f(x)={1 \over 2}{\Lambda _0} + \sum\limits_{l = 1}^\infty {{\Lambda _l}\cos \left( {lx} \right)} $$
with the normalization condition
$$\Lambda_0 + 2\sum\limits_{l = 1}^\infty {{\Lambda _l} = 1} $$
and ##\Lambda_l## being monotonic decrescent...
Homework Statement
Use a comparison test to determine whether this series converges:
\sum_{x=1}^{\infty }\sin ^2(\frac{1}{x}) Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
At small values of x:
\sin x\approx x
a_{x}=\sin \frac{1}{x}
b_{x}=\frac{1}{x}
\lim...
I have
$$\sum_{n = 2}^{\infty} \frac{(lnn)^ {12}}{n^{\frac{9}{8}}}$$
I'm trying the limit comparison test, so I let $$ b = \frac{1}{n^{\frac{9}{8}}}$$ and $a = \sum_{n = 2}^{\infty} \frac{(lnn)^ {12}}{n^{\frac{9}{8}}}$
$\frac{a}{b} = (lnn)^ {12}$ therefore I know the limit of this as n...
Hello! (Wave)
We have a sequence $(y_n)$ with $y_n \geq 0$.
We assume that the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{y_n}{1+y_n}$ converges. How can we show that the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} y_n$ converges?
It holds that $y_n \geq \frac{y_n}{1+y_n}$.
If we would have to prove the converse we...
Hey,
I am working on Calculus III and Analysis, I really need help with this one problem. I am not even sure where to begin with this problem. I have attached my assignment to this thread and the problem I need help with is A. Thank you!
Homework Statement
For which number x does the following series converge:
http://puu.sh/lp50I/3de017ea9f.png
Homework Equations
abs(r) is less than 1 then it is convergent. r is what's inside the brackets to the power of n
The Attempt at a Solution
I did the question by using the stuff in...
Homework Statement
[/B]
Hello, this problem is from a well-known calc text:
Σ(n=1 to ∞) 8/(n(n+2)Homework Equations
[/B]
What I have here is decomposingg the problem into Σ(n=1 to ∞)(8/n -(8/n+2)The Attempt at a Solution
I have the series sum as equaling (8/1-8/3) + (8/2-8/4) + (8/3-8/5) +...
Homework Statement
"Determine whether the following series converge or diverge. If the series is geometric or telescoping, find its sum.":
## \left ( \sum_{k=1}^\infty2^{3k} *3^{1-2k} \right)##
Homework Equations
[/B]
The different tests for convergence?
The Attempt at a Solution
Ok...
Hey everyone,
I'm currently in Calc 2 and the only thing I seem to be having a problem with is a couple of the convergence tests. When I take pretty much any math course, I always use mathematica to help check my answers when I'm doing HW or practicing so I don't waste time. My question is...
Homework Statement
Determine whether the series is converging or diverging
Homework Equations
∞
∑ 1 / (3n +cos2(n))
n=1The Attempt at a Solution
I used The Comparison Test, I'm just not sure I'm right. Here's what I've got:
The dominant term in the denominator is is 3n and
cos2(n)...
Homework Statement
[/B]
This is the question I have (from a worksheet that is a practice for a quiz). Its a conceptual question (I guess). I understand how to solve ratio test problems.
"Is this test only sufficient, or is it an exact criterion for convergence?"
Homework Equations
Recall the...
Homework Statement
For ##|z-a|<r## let ##f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_n (z-a)^n##. Let ##g(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}b_n(z-a)^n##. Assume ##g(z)## is nonzero for ##|z-a|<r##. Then ##b_0## is not zero.
Define ##c_0=a_0/b_0## and, inductively for ##n>0##, define
$$
c_n=(a_n - \sum_{j=0}^{n-1} c_j...
Homework Statement
Does sum from n=1 to n=infinity of 1/[n^(1+1/n)]
converge or diverge.
Homework Equations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The Attempt at a Solution
The general term goes to 0 and its a p-series with p>1, but for large n the series becomes 1/n pretty much so, even tho p>1 is it divergent?
Homework Statement
So my question was Sum- (n=2) ln(n)/n
Homework Equations
I noticed that you can only limit comparison, because so far, I have tried doing all the other test such as the nth term test, p-series, integral(i have no idea how to integrate that).
The Attempt at a Solution
Homework Statement
Show if this sequence (with n=1 to infinity) diverge or converge
Homework Equations
[/B]
The Attempt at a Solution
If I use the Limit Comparison Test:
compare with so you get that equals lim n -> inf => inf.
Can I use the Test like this? What does this...
Homework Statement
Hi, everyone. I'd appreciate it if someone could explain something for me regarding the convergence of series. Thanks in advance![/B]
Homework Equations
In my calculus book, I'm given the following:
(1) - For p > 1, the sum from n=1 to infinity of n^-p converges.
(2) -...
my final is tomorrow and my instructor gave a list of questions that will be similar to the ones on the final exam and i want to see how they should be done properly. I've been working on other problems but i can't get past these ones. thanks
determine convergence/divergence...
I'm currently reading Tolstov's "Fourier Series" and in page 58 he talks about a criterion for the convergence of a Fourier series. Tolstov States:
" If for every continuous function F(x) on [a,b] and any number ε>0 there exists a linear combination
σ_n(x)=γ_0ψ_0+γ_1ψ_1+...+γ_nψ_n for which...
Just a few quick questions this time:
I'm doubting the first one mostly, because when I used the integral test to evaluate it: I ended up getting (-1/x)(lnx +1) from 2 to infinity, which gave me an odd expression: (-1/infinity)(infinity +1 -ln2 -1). I'm assuming this means it is convergent...
Hey guys,
I have a few quick questions for the problem set I'm working on at the moment:
I'm highly doubtful of my answer for c. I used the roots test instead of the ratio test, which gives 1/n, which I took the limit of to get an interval of [-∞ , ∞]
As for a and b, I got [-5,5] and (-∞, ∞)...
Hey guys,
I have a few more questions for the problem set I'm working on at the moment:
I'm unsure about b in particular. I compared the series to 1/(n^3/2), which makes it absolutely convergent by the p-test and comparison test. Do I still have to perform any other tests to confirm absolute...
Hey guys,
I have a few quick questions for the problem set I'm working on at the moment:
I'm mostly unsure of my response for b. For a, I just split the series into two parts and added 6+3 to get 9, and thus the series is convergent. For c, I got 3/5 after taking the limit, which is...
(x-1)-\frac{(x-1)^2}{2!}+\frac{(x-1)^3}{3!}-\frac{(x-1)^4}{4!}+ ∙ ∙ ∙
well this looks like an alternating-series, the question is: at what value(s) of x does this
converge.
one observation is that if x=0 then all terms are 0 so there is no convergence, also I presume you can rewrite this as...
Homework Statement
Does the following series converge or diverge? If it converges, does it converge absolutely or conditionally?
\sum^{\infty}_{1}(-1)^{n+1}*(1-n^{1/n})
Homework Equations
Alternating series test
The Attempt at a Solution
I started out by taking the limit of ##a_n...
Homework Statement
For which integer values of p does the following series converge:
\sum_{n=|p|}^{∞}{2^{pn} (n+p)! \over(n+p)^n}
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I'm trying to apply the generalised ratio test but get down to this stage where I'm not sure what...
Homework Statement
Check if the series below converge.
a) $$\sum_{n = 1}^\infty \frac{n}{2n^2 - 1}$$
b) $$\sum_{n = 2}^\infty (-1)^n \frac{2n}{n^2 - 1}$$
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
For a).
The series converge if the sum comes up to a finite value. If...
I am currently learning series and testing for convergence. For comparison tests especially I am having an issue grasping the concept of picking a proper limit to compare too.
For example the following problem
If someone could please put it in the form where it actually looks like what it...
Homework Statement
Prove that the series \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sqrt{n+1}-\sqrt{n}}{n} converges.
The Attempt at a Solution
I think I'm going to use the comparison test but I'm having trouble coming up with a series to compare it to. Any clues would be great. Thanks!
a) Show that sum_(n=0)^infinity (2^n x^n)/((1+x^2)^n) converges for all x in R\{-1,1}
b) Even though this is not a power series show that sum above = 1 + sum_(n=1)^infinity (2nx^n) for all -1<x<=1.
For part a by the ratio and root test we get |(2x)/(1+x^2)| but this does not have an n in it...
hey pf!
if we have a piecewise-smooth function ##f(x)## and we create a Fourier series ##f_n(x)## for it, will our Fourier series always have the 9% overshoot (gibbs phenomenon), and thus ##\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} f_n(x) \neq f(x)##?
thanks!
Homework Statement
An=Ʃ(k)/[(n^2)+k]
the sum is k=0 to n, the question is, to which value does the this series converge to
Homework Equations
i know for sure that this series converges, but could not figure out the value to whch it converges
The Attempt at a Solution
i did the...
Homework Statement
Determine the values of x for which the following series converges. Remember to test the end points of the interval of convergence.
^{∞}_{n=0}\sum\frac{(1-)^{n+1}(x+4)^{n}}{n}
Homework Equations
I worked it down to
|x+4|<1
∴-5<x<-3
The Attempt at a Solution...
Homework Statement
So I need to determine if the series \Sigmaln(1+e^{-n})/n converges.Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I know it does, but cannot prove it. Wolfram says that the ratio test indicates that the series converges, but when I try to solve the limit I get that it equals...
According to my calculus book two parts to testing an alternating series for convergence. Let s = Ʃ(-1)n bn. The first is that bn + 1 < bn. The second is that the limn\rightarrow∞ bn = 0. However, isn't the first condition unnecessary since bn must be decreasing if the limit is zero. I...
Homework Statement
Let Ʃanx^n and Ʃbnx^n be two power series and let A and B be their converging radii. define dn=max(lanl,lcnl) and consider the series Ʃdnx^n. Show that the convergence radius of this series D, is D=min(A,B)
Homework Equations
My idea is to use that the series...
Homework Statement
Does the series
\Big( \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{(3^n)*(sqrtn)} \Big)
Converge or Diverge? By what test?Homework Equations
1/n^p
If p<1 or p=1, the series diverges.
If p>1, the series converges.
If bn > an and bn converges, then an also converges.
The Attempt at a...
Test these for convergence.
5.
infinity
E...((n!)^2((2n)!)^2)/((n^2 + 2n)!(n + 1)!)
n = 0
6.
infinity
E...(1 - e ^ -((n^2 + 3n))/n)/(n^2)
n = 3
note: for #3: -((n^2 + 3n))/n) is all to the power of e
Btw, E means sum.
Which tests should I use to solve these?
Test these for convergence.
3.
infinity
E...((-1)^n)*(n^3 + 3n)/((n^2) + 7n)
n = 2
4.
infinity
E...ln(n^3)/n^2
n = 2
note: for #3: -((n^2 + 3n))/n) is all to the power of e
Btw, E means sum.
Which tests should I use to solve these?
Test these for convergence.
1.
infinity
E...n!/(n! + 3^n)
n = 0
2.
infinity
E...(n - (1/n))^-n
n = 1
Btw, E means sum.
Which tests should I use to solve these?
I am trying to determine convergence for the series n=1 to infinity for cos(n)*pi / (n^2/3) and I am doing the Ratio Test. I found the limit approaches 1 but is less than 1. Does this mean that the limit = 1 or is < 1? I am somewhat confused since this changes it from inconclusive to convergent.