Hawking radiation is black-body radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes because of quantum effects near the black hole event horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking, who developed a theoretical argument for its existence in 1974.The requirement that black holes lose energy into the wider universe, and therefore can "evaporate" and the radiated spectrum are both a result of analysing black hole thermal equilibrium combined with extreme redshifting effects very close to the event horizon, with some consideration of quantum entanglement effects. A pair of virtual waves/particles arises just outside the event horizon due to ordinary quantum effects. Very close to the event horizon, these always manifest as a pair of photons. It may happen that one of these photons passes beyond the event horizon, while the other escapes into the wider universe ("to infinity"). A close analysis shows that the exponential red-shifting effect of extreme gravity very close to the event horizon almost tears the escaping photon apart, and, in addition, very slightly amplifies it. The amplification gives rise to a "partner wave", which carries negative energy and passes through the event horizon, where it remains trapped, reducing the total energy of the black hole. The escaping photon adds an equal amount of positive energy to the wider universe outside the black hole. In this way, no matter or energy ever actually leaves the black hole itself. A conservation law exists for the partner wave, which in theory shows that the emissions comprise an exact black body spectrum, bearing no information about the interior conditions.Hawking radiation reduces the mass and rotational energy of black holes and is therefore also theorized to cause black hole evaporation. Because of this, black holes that do not gain mass through other means are expected to shrink and ultimately vanish. For all except the smallest black holes, this would happen extremely slowly. The radiation temperature is inversely proportional to the black hole's mass, so micro black holes are predicted to be larger emitters of radiation than larger black holes and should dissipate faster.
First, I was not sure whether this should go into the Relativity or the Quantum Physics rubric, but since the central question is about entanglement, I opted for the Quantum.
I do not have the necessary sophistication to follow string theory arguments, and even most explanations in...
Hello,
So I was reading about Hawking radiation and I read a QFT interpretation of it. It went something like this:
A vacuum contains virtual particles (vacuum energy), which in qft can be described as waves that are out of phase and cancel each other out (matter and antimatter). I a black...
It takes infinite amount of time to cross the event horizon from an outsider's perspective. But black holes eventually decay from Hawking radiation. So if you wait long enough a black hole won't exist anymore, as it would have decayed into nothing.
The in-falling observer witnesses infinite...
Summary: As hawking radiation is based on quantum fluctuations, can they cancel out each other due to equal probabilities of a particle remaining in or drifting away?
I recently learned how hawking radiation actually works. It is based on quantum fluctuations which happen randomly in space...
Here we consider a black hole formed by gravitational collapse classically. We also consider a scalar massless Klein-Gordon field propagating on this background.
To quantize the field we expand it in appropriate modes. The three sets of modes required are:
The incoming modes, appropriate for...
Stephen Hawking theorized the creation of virtual particle pairs at the event horizon of a black hole, with one of the particles escaping the event horizon (Hawking Radiation) and the other particle falling into the black hole.
Sean Carroll states on page 272 of From Eternity to Here that "if...
Hey everyone, is anyone able to check the facts of this speech I wrote?
I have 3 minutes max to say this, I might cut out tiny parts to save seconds.
What do you guys think, is this correct? Should I change anything? Thanks!
How Black Holes work
Stars are massive collections of mostly hydrogen...
we say everytime a couple of matter-antimatter particles get born near the edge of a black hole one of them falls into it and the other one escapes.
And we everytime mention that the antimatter particle kind of eats a bit of black holes mass out...and by time the black hole gets smaller and...
Hello,
I am a bit confused on the relation between the Hawking effect(radiation) and the Unruh effect.
What I understood with my little knowledge is that the Hawking temperature is the temperature that is emitted at the event horizon of a black hole as measured by an observer at infinite spatial...
I was thinking about the title but after searching Arxiv, PF and the internet in general, my confusion has only increased. I have a few questions:
1. Often I see units where ##G=c=\hbar=1##, but what is the charge of an electron in these units? Everyone says M=Q as if it was somehow obvious how...
Homework Statement
For school I'm doing a project on hawking radiaton but I have very big difficulties trying to understand it.
I'm trying to understand the matter about: Unruh effect, particle pair (antimatter - matter) and the theory of relativity regarding vaccuum.
Homework Equations
none...
Although it is definitely not simple, there are many reasons to consider that baryon number can be violated, for example:
- while baryogenesis there was created more matter than antimatter,
- hypothetical Hawking radiation can finally turn any matter (mainly baryons) into massless radiation...
I'm sure that there are limits to the analogy between the event horizon of black holes and the "Rindler horizon" for an accelerated observer, but there are a number of similarities:
For Schwarzschild spacetime as described in Schwarzschild coordinates:
Spacetime is static, and a rocket must...
Hello everyone!
Im a newcomer, a teenager who has countless doubts with respect to relativity, quantum theory etc. But these two questions bother me the most:
1) Hawking radiation states that when the separation of a particle (eg. a photon) into charged particles happens in the event horizon...
Hello, I am rather new to Physics and for a class project on exponential growth and decay in nature and I chose the effects Hawking Radiation on black holes. If anyone could help explain how the mass and temperature change over time and how to calculate them(this one especially) that would be...
Is there a meaningful way to convert the energy of an electromagnetic wave to a temperature? I mean this more along the lines of how the universe has a temperature of 2.7 kelvin due to electromagnetic radiation. I'm honestly just curious to determine the temperature of the universe after nearly...
Hi!
We have a projekt at the university and I have been thinking of creating a tiny tiny black hole after I've read some articles. I know one can create an artificial black hole with polarized laser pulses at a block of glass. And then one can measure a lot of things, usually hawkingradiation...
So hawking radiation is a phenomenon thwt happens when a pair of particle-anti particle are generated from vacuum according to Heisenberg uncertainty principle at the horizon of e event is that right?
And the negative particle "falls" into the black hole while the positive one escapes as hawking...
A black hole evaporates through hawking radiation, what I don't get is the requirement for an energy-negative energy pair production. Since it's the black hole's gravitational energy that's responsible for the pair production, even if one of them escapes, the black hole would lose energy anyway...
Why is it that the smaller the black hole is, the more quickly it supposedly evaporates? It seems like a black hole should radiate energy proportional to the surface area of the event horizon. To me it seems like the evaporation should slow down the more the black hole shrinks because the energy...
I'm very new to the understanding of Hawking Radiation. I don't know much about this theory, but I do know that Hawking radiation works on a Quantum scale. I know that with black holes this theory proposes th idea that over time black hole lose mass because of "Spontaneous appearing positive and...
Dear PF Forum,
I have no background in physics :frown:
In http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/end.html
1. If an Earth size object is left alone (assuming the Sun won't swallow it 2 billions year later). In 101500all of it atoms, oxygen (majority abundant in earth, right), silicon, nitrogen (abundant...
So I realize that I'm probably wrong about this, but it seems to me that Hawking radiation cannot be emitted only at the event horizon. If we make the (albeit almost certainly wrong) assumption that the quantity of emitted particles is directly proportional to the potential for gravitational...
In the view of Hawking radiation and entropy of black holes, the evaporation is continuous and at one point, there will be no singularity for the black hole. By relativity, if we reach a super massive black hole, then time would be relatively slowed down to a point that it stops (maybe?). Now...
I just saw The Theory of Everything, which is a Hollywood biopic about Stephen Hawking. Of course the physics content had to be watered down and made to serve dramatic and thematic purposes, but a couple of historical points seemed interesting and made me wonder whether they were real:
1...