# What is General relaivity: Definition and 150 Discussions

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1. ### I Does potential energy curve spacetime?

Hi there, I looked around on the net but I didn't quite find the answer to my question. I preface that I don't have training in GR, even though I know about the basics (like what tensors are, geodesics, a bit about topology and differential geometry...). So I wasn't sure if to put this question...
2. ### I Is the Black Hole Information Paradox Truly Resolved?

from what I understand it is believed that information is preserved but we are still working out how exactly, is this the case?
3. ### A A question from a paper on perturbation theory

Where ##\delta \phi## is the first-order perturbation of a scalar field, ##\Phi## is the first-order perturbation of the space-time metric, and ##H## is the universe’s scale factor. It’s mentioned that this relation is given in reference: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.0600.pdf But I can't find...
4. ### I Physical meaning of zero time metric

I am reading Wald's General Relativity and just did problem 2.8(b). The result I get is ##\omega^2(x'^2+y'^2)-1## as the coefficient for ##dt^2##, and I am wondering about the physical significance of when ##x'^2+y'^2=\frac{1}{\omega^2}##, what would this mean? Mads

22. ### I Co-Moving Coordinates & Lapse Function N(t) in ADM Decomposition

In the ADM decomposition, like in the construction of the FRW metric, the coordinates are defined to be co-moving, so we know $$d\tau = dt$$ (i.e. the lapse function is normalized away) Starting from a five-dimensional embedded hyperboloid (as in carroll pg. 324) ## -u^2 + x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + w^2...
23. ### I The Units of the Cosmological Constant: eV^2

In natural units, it’s known that the unit of the cosmological constant is ##eV^2##. I don‘t get why in this paper : https://arxiv.org/pdf/2201.09016.pdf page (1), it says the value of ##\Lambda \sim meV^4##, this means ##\Lambda \sim (10^6 ~ eV)^4 \sim 10^{24} eV^4 ##, shoud not the unit ##eV...
24. ### B Travel 7 Light Years at 50000km/s - How Long?

let's say i would like to drop by one of my pals on a certain planet, 7ly away. I got to 42 years but it doesn't really sound correct.
25. ### Normal vector of an embedding surface

I will only care about the ##t## and ##x## coordinates so that ##(t, z, x, x_i) \rightarrow (t,x)##. The normal vector is given by, ##n^\mu = g^{\mu\nu} \partial_\nu S ## How do I calculate ##n^\mu## in terms of ##U## given that the surface is written in terms of ##t## and ##x##? Also, after...
26. ### A Wald's Abstract Index Notation: Explaining T^{acde}_b

In the second paragraph on page 25 of Wald's General Relativity he rewrites T^{acde}_b as g_{bf}g^{dh} g^{ej}T^{afc}_{hj} . Can anyone explain this? I am confused by the explantion given in the book. Especially puzzling is that the inverse of g seems to be applied twice, which I can't make sese...
27. ### B Energy Conservation w/ Charged Battery Time Travel

Hi! I want to start with saying that I'm not an expert on these type of problems, but I will be gratefull for some calarifications. I've heard that there's nothing in psysics that says that time travel is impossible. I want to make a case with the time traveling battery. Could be any mass with...
28. ### A Does Spacetime Absorb Energy in General Relativity?

Some physicists prefer to explain the problem of conservation of energy in General Relativity by considering the gravitational potential energy of the universe that would cancel all the other energies and therefore the energy in the universe would be conserved this way. However, many other...
29. ### I Computing Volume in General Relativity: Use of Tensor & Friedmann Eqns

When we compute the stress energy momentum tensor ## T_{\mu\nu} ##, it has units of energy density. If, therefore, we know the total energy ##E## of the system described by ## T_{\mu\nu} ##, can we compute the volume of the system from ## V = E/T_{00}##? If it holds, I would assume this would...
30. ### I Klein Gordon Invariance in General Relativity

Hello! I'm starting to study curved QFT and am slightly confused about the invariance of the Klein Gordon Lagrangian under a linear diffeomorphism. This is $$L=\sqrt{-g}\left(g^{\mu\nu}\partial_\mu \phi \partial_\nu \phi-\frac{m^2}{2}\phi^2\right),$$ I don't see how ##g^{\mu\nu}\to...
31. ### Finding Event Horizon & Ergosphere: Derivations & Formulas

Homework Statement:: See below. Relevant Equations:: See below. I am trying to calculate the event horizon and ergosphere of the Kerr metric. However, I could not seem to find a proper derivation or formula to calculate the event horizon and ergosphere. Could someone point me to the...
32. ### I Gravitational force equation derived from GR

Hello everyone, I know that GR equations are complicated and beyond my scope. But does GR give a simple gravitational equation: Force (as we know it) as a function of distance? (without any complicated tensors). - If yes. What is the equation? Does it give us something similar to Newtons...
33. ### I Calculate Ricci Scalar & Cosm. Const of AdS-Schwarzschild Metric in d-Dimensions

I know some basic GR and encountered the Schwarzschild metric as well as the Riemann tensor. It is known that for maximally symmetric spaces there is a corresponding Riemann tensor and thus Ricci scalar. Question. How do you calculate the Ricci scalar ##R## and cosmological constant ##\Lambda##...
34. ### How to prove ##V_{ai;j}=V_{aj;i}## in curved space using the given equation?

Question ##1##. Consider the following identity $$\epsilon^{ij}_{\phantom{ij}k}\epsilon_{i}^{\phantom{i}lm}=h^{jl}h^{m}_{\phantom{m}k}-h^{jm}h^{l}_{\phantom{l}k}$$ which we know holds in flat space. Does this identity still hold in curved space? and if so, how...

46. ### I If gravity is not a force, what is holding us down?

OK. Gravity is not a force it is a contraction or curvature of space. I was free-falling and now I hit the ground. Why don't I float through the universe, or go upward instead of still trying to go downward. Because I hit the ground, and now there is no force(like gravity) and my free-falling...
47. ### Proving ##C## is constant in 4-dim ##R_{\mu\nu}=Cg_{\mu\nu}##

This question wasn't particularly hard, so I assume metric compatibility and input Ricci tensor to the left side of Einstein's equation. $$R_{\mu\nu}-\frac{1}{2} Rg_{\mu\nu}=Cg_{\mu\nu}-\frac{1}{2} (4C)g_{\mu\nu}=-Cg_{\mu\nu}$$ Then apply covariant derivative on both side...
48. ### I Why is Scalar Massless Wave Equation Conformally Invariant?

It can be shown mathematically that the scalar massless wave equation is conformally invariant. However, doing so is rather tedious and muted in terms of physical understanding. As such, is there a physically intuitive explanation as to why the scalar massless wave equation is conformally invariant?
49. ### B Exploring Energy-Mass Equivalence: Converting Energy to Matter in Everyday Life?

a) Can we convert energy to mass (matter) in every day life? b) When we charge a phone battery, its mass (weight) increases according to E=mc2 . Does it mean we convert energy to matter? If not, how its mass increases?
50. ### I Computing Ricci Tensor Coefficients w/ Tetrad Formalism

I'm reading "Differentiable manifolds: A Theoretical Physics Approach" by Castillo and on page 170 of the book a calculation of the Ricci tensor coefficients for a metric is illustrated. In the book the starting point for this method is the equation given by: d\theta^i = \Gamma^i_{[jk]}...