What is Replication: Definition and 39 Discussions

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. DNA replication occurs in all living organisms acting as the most essential part for biological inheritance. This is essential for cell division during growth and repair of damaged tissues, while it also ensures that each of the new cells receives its own copy of the DNA. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential.
DNA is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. The double helix describes the appearance of a double-stranded DNA which is thus composed of two linear strands that run opposite to each other and twist together to form. During replication, these strands are separated. Each strand of the original DNA molecule then serves as a template for the production of its counterpart, a process referred to as semiconservative replication. As a result of semi-conservative replication, the new helix will be composed of an original DNA strand as well as a newly synthesized strand. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of replication, in the genome which contains the genetic material of an organism. Unwinding of DNA at the origin and synthesis of new strands, accommodated by an enzyme known as helicase, results in replication forks growing bi-directionally from the origin. A number of proteins are associated with the replication fork to help in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands by adding nucleotides that complement each (template) strand. DNA replication occurs during the S-stage of interphase.
DNA replication (DNA amplification) can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can be used to start DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA molecule. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase chain reaction (LCR), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) are examples. In March 2021, researchers reported evidence suggesting that a preliminary form of transfer RNA, a necessary component of translation, the biological synthesis of new proteins in accordance with the genetic code, could have been a replicator molecule itself in the very early development of life, or abiogenesis.

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  1. BillTre

    Replication in an Entity vs. Replication of an Entity

    Complex biological entities (like cells) can replicate while things (like molecules or organelles) can replicate within their internal environment. Here is a nice schematic picture of what is going on in these situations: From the article: Nobuto Takeuchi, Namiko Mitarai, Kunihiko Kaneko...
  2. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue

    Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in adipose tissue determines organ and systemic lipid metabolism in hamsters and humans Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413121006215?via%3Dihub Source (original German, quote via Google translate)...
  3. BWV

    Help end the replication crisis in the social sciences

    Here is one you can try at home:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352409X19305371Experimental replication shows knives manufactured from frozen human feces do not work Author links open overlay panelMetin I.ErenabMary AnnRaghantia Show more Outline Share Cite...
  4. Jarvis323

    A Shinichi Mochizuki's ABC Conjecture and Replication Crisis in Maths

    There is a fascinating story that I'm sure a lot of you have followed. In 2012, a top mathematician, Shinichi Mochizuki[1], has claimed to have solved the ABC conjecture[2] (an important longstanding problem in number theory), using his own very unique, complex, and abstract Inter-universal...
  5. H

    Biology Prokaryote DNA replication subunits

    Why (A) and (B) need to break phosphoanhydride bonds? Thanks
  6. TytoAlba95

    How does autoradiography detect replication?

    I'm aware that in autoradiography a film is produced which display the exact location of radioactive substances (for e.g. labeled probe in southern blotting ) as dark bands by passing X-ray through the sample (southern blot). But I do not understand, how does autoradiography detects replication?
  7. D

    Genetics, replication of heterozygous diploids – conceptual

    So you have two alleles for every one gene, and the chromosome is composed of 2 homologous chromatids that have one of the 2 alleles for the specified gene on each chromatid. when you have to replicate that chromosome the way I understand DNA replication is is that you have a serious of...
  8. J

    Can the Leading and Lagging Strand Roles be Reversed in DNA Replication?

    Hello! I am a medical student with an upcoming biochemistry exam, and I'm struggling with the concept of leading and lagging strands. My question is: Can the leading and lagging strand role be switched depending on the direction we look at the dsDNA? Or is the leading and lagging strand...
  9. jim mcnamara

    Medical Cancer causes: circa 67% are Replication error

    New article, abstract: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6331/1330 abstract:
  10. Ontophobe

    B Publication Bias and Replication Crisis

    I've heard tell of a science journal like Science or Nature that a) only publishes studies with null results, and/or b) only publishes heavily replicated studies. Is this true? and if so, what's it called?
  11. C

    How intimately can we observe DNA replication?

    I found this interesting computer animation representing DNA functions in cells. My questions: 1) How precisely can we actually magnify cell functions, and what is preventing us from peering in as closely as depicted in the video (keeping in mind that I know it's probably technologically...
  12. I

    Can gene structure determine its "strength"?

    Are certain DNA (genetic) strands structurally better build for survival than others? If yes, is there a term for this? For example, is there a specific order of nucleotides that is harder to destroy than another? Or if there is a specific order/combination of nucleotides that would have...
  13. I

    What gives DNA replicating ability?

    I am wondering about the actual preconditions that give rise to DNA replication. Basically, what are the actual environmental conditions/factors that created the process of replication in the first place. I gather before replication, there was random atom and molecule sorting, and at some...
  14. V

    Do we need quantum mechanics to explain biological stuff?

    While I have to admit the question in its summarized version seems to be not very well defined (and naive, of an easy answer), so that I desire to at least make it sound less stupid. Or at least I hope. After reading all of this it might sound even worse though (no promises).I like reading about...
  15. gfd43tg

    DNA replication and transcription

    Hello, I notice that when DNA is replicated, it is split apart. This is the same as the start of transcription, however I suppose the difference is that DNA is replicated with DNA polymerase, and RNA with RNA polymerase. Do these two polymerases compete for a strand of DNA in order to do their...
  16. Fall 4 U

    DNA Replication ~ 5' to 3' direction?

    Hello All! I have a Bio Test on DNA Replication tomorrow and I had a quick question. (I'm in 8th grade) When the textbook states that DNA can only be replicated from the 5' to 3' direction, I don't get it. If it's like this PT. B -> 5' ---------- 3' 3' ---------- 5' <-...
  17. M

    Investigating Bacterial Invasion and Replication in A. polyphaga

    Ok, this is a "stupid" question that I probably should really know the answer to. I am researching bacterial invasion and replication within host cells, A. polyphaga to be exact. I grow the amoeba into a monolayer, add a certain number of bacteria to each sample, and allow them to incubate for...
  18. J

    Medical Semi-conservative DNA replication

    In semi-conservative DNA replication why does it happen that one of the new strands formed is discontinuous while other is continuous?
  19. E

    How Does Cis-Platin Affect DNA Replication?

    Before I ask my question, I would like to state that I am not a Biology student. I am actually a Chemistry student who has a small section on Biochemistry in his syllabus. Now, my problem lies with part (ii). Mechloroethamine obviously hold the DNA strands together and prevents the DNA...
  20. J

    Possible Uses of Bacterial DNA Replication

    Homework Statement Not exactly homework... "What are the uses of bacterial DNA replication in molecular biology?" The Attempt at a Solution Am I correct to say that 'the bacterial DNA replication process can be used to artificially create DNA that we desire and then use it for some...
  21. P

    Replication forks and functionality

    Hi! Was hoping I could get someone to explain this question to me..having some trouble with it... "At each origin of replication, DNA synthesis proceeds bidirectionally from two replication forks. Which of the following would happen if a mutant arose having only one functional fork per...
  22. A

    Can matter and anti matter manipulation be used for replication of

    can matter and anti matter manipulation be used for replication of cells
  23. K

    Why does meiosis appear to require DNA replication?

    The purpose of meiosis is to create genetic variation unattainable through mitosis by, in effect, randomly replacing one homolog from each homologous chromosome pair with another one from a different individual. There is also an exchange of genes between homologs before this replacement occurs...
  24. Z

    Replication Method for Survey Estimation

    Hi all, What is a good way to use replication methods for estimation? For a dataset with no design information, only weighting remain. I know the basic principles of replication. Are there any considerations to use replication effectively? There is a public data of 15,000 people from the...
  25. N

    Microbiology Quiz Question (transcription/DNA replication)

    This was a quiz question recently in my microbiology class: In what way are transcription and DNA replication compartmentalized in eukaryotes? a. they occur in the same compartment b. they occur in separate compartments c. one must be finsished before the others start d. they are...
  26. F

    Blacklight Power Announces Independent Replication

    http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/12/blacklight-power-announces-independient.html Can any physics buffs here make heads or tails of this? I really don't know what to think about this technology anymore :confused:...
  27. R

    Which chemical process causes RNA or DNA replication?

    hi, DNA and RNA seem to be very peculiar molecular structures that are able to replicate themselves, and they are unique regarding this point, right?. But which chemical "magical" phenomena is responsible for this ability to reproduce?
  28. T

    How did RNA and complex enzymes emerge for DNA/RNA replication?

    I recently saw some rather neat real-time replications of DNA being replicated in my Chemistry class (Still in High School). The intersting thing is that this requires some astoundingly complex enzymes to work. I would take a wild guess and say that an RNA-based organism would have a...
  29. A

    Do Operons Interfere with DNA Replication?

    How do operons interfere with DNA replication, if at all? I know, for example, that repressors can stop RNA polymerase, keeping a segment from being transcribed, but it's still replicated. How is this? My guesses are: A. The enzymes involved in DNA replication can run right over them. or...
  30. P

    Robotics and motion replication

    Hey all I'm working with a simple 'robot' that consists of a sensor (rotary encoder) and a DC motor. Both are coupled through a computer. My goal is to simply replicate any rotation the sensor undergoes using the motor. For example if the sensor turns one revolution in a second, I want the...
  31. L

    Sampling and spectrum replication

    Why is the frequency spectrum of a sampled signal replicated? We have a Low pass filtered signal sampled well above nyquist rate. I can't understand why the spectrum is replicated.
  32. S

    Purpose of Chromosome replication before meiosis?

    During meiosis the cell duplicates all its chromosomes, then divides twice to ultimately end up with 4 haploid cells. What is the logic behind duplicating the chromosomes first? Couldn't the organism get all the genetic recombination benefits of meiosis (independant assortment, crossing over...
  33. F

    Replication of Photosynthesis Through Chemisty?

    I am an electrical engineer currently studying alternative energy, and I realize this would be a very difficult task but I would like some feedback on whether this study has been attempted or if people are afraid to attack it. When trying to think of how to purify the air i first turned to...
  34. C

    Calculating Proportion of Radioactive DNA After Replication

    Hi, I was doing this question & I just want to make sure I've got it correct: A quantity of DNA was labelled with radioactive nitrogen. It was then allowed to replicate three times using non radioactive to synthesise the new DNA strands. What proportion of the final mass of DNA would you...
  35. S

    DNA Polymerase Directionality and Independence in Eukaryotic Replication

    In eukaryotes, DNA polymerase works in one direction only. Does that mean that one enzyme works simulteneously on both new strands, or is there on polymerase working on each strand. If the latter is true, then the two strands are independent of each other in a sense. If so, which polymerase...
  36. agro

    The Mechanism of DNA Replication

    I once read a 1997 physics book. At the end of the 'static electricity' chapter, it explains the mechanism of DNA replication and protein synthesis (in which static electrical force plays a critical role). However, it says something like 'this model has not been seen in action. It is consistent...
  37. L

    Gene Transcription/DNA Replication

    Hey In what respects is the process of gene transcription similar to the process of DNA replication? Thanks Lindsay
  38. P

    Philosophy: The Replication Of The Thought Virus Among The Human Society

    [?] What is a thought virus? You can call it a meme or an idea that replicates by symbiotically infecting human minds and altering their behavior, causing them to propagate the meme. Our society have always been buzing with these meme around through communication. You might be...
  39. STAii

    How do enzymes locate missing nucleotides during DNA replication correction?

    Greetings. I just have a small question about DNA replication correction. My textbook states (might contain errors of translation): Now my question is about locating the place of the DNA error. Locating the place of a wrong nucleotide might seem logical, but how can the enzyme locate the...