What is Phenol: Definition and 21 Discussions

Phenol (also called carbolic acid) is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxy group (−OH). Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns.
Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum-derived feedstocks. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds. It is primarily used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, epoxies, Bakelite, nylon, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.

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  1. A

    Finding the Reaction Scheme for Photocatalytic Oxidation of Phenol

    I researched the solar collectors implemented in practice for water detoxification and I found out that the preferred design is the Compound Parabolic Concentrator. Knowing that I have no information regarding radiation beyond what's taught generally in heat transfer courses in chemical...
  2. R

    How will the addition of phenol to a solution affect the O2

    I asked a question regarding oxygen meters recently in another section of the forum but unfortunately no one seems to have used them before. So I thought I would break the problem down and ask a direct chemistry question... If I introduce phenol to a water solution will there be any reaction...
  3. Hithesh

    What is the Classification of Phenol?

    Does phenol belong to alcohols?
  4. P

    What is the Mechanism of Trinitration of Phenol?

    What is the mechanism of trinitration of phenol ? Is it one by one substitution of nitro groups ? For which wouldn't the nitro groups stop the reaction as they are deactivating groups Or is it the simulataneous activation of ortho and para positions of phenol and the nitro groups add on...
  5. T

    Synthesizing Diphenyl Oxalate: Esterification of Phenol and Oxalic Acid

    How do I esterify phenol and oxalic acid to make diphenyl oxalate. P.S. My initial researches using google have yielded no results.
  6. M

    Phenol Removal with an equilibrium stage

    Homework Statement Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution The problem here is that it looks like having 2 equilibrium stages requires the same flow ratio as one equilibrium stage, according to my calculations. This seems strange to me, so I am wondering if I am wrong. I also am not sure...
  7. C

    Spectroscopy: Determining Phenol Concentration using Calibration curve

    Hello, My problem is as follows: The lab I am working on requires the construction of a calibration curve from the measured absorbance of samples of known phenol concentration to intrapolate the phenol concentration of two unknown samples. I have constructed the calibration curve and...
  8. J

    Phenol to Benzene: The Role of Zinc and Divalent Metals in Conversion

    How does zinc convert phenol to benzene? Its a metal and why metals react with alcohols they displace the hydrogen right? However zinc converts phenol to benzene. Why is it so? Will all divalent metals convert it to benzene?
  9. J

    Question - phenol and sodium hydroxide

    Question -- phenol and sodium hydroxide Hallo, I am searching the kinetic rate constant and the reaction enthalpy for reaction between phenol and sodium hydroxide. Does sbdy has those two values or knows where to find them? I tried google science directc etc... Thanks j
  10. S

    How to differentiate phenol, acetic acid, aniline & nitrobenzene

    Homework Statement The question actually contains a diagram but i don't understand how to draw it, so i'll try to describe it in words. A solution contains phenol, acetic acid, aniline and nitrobenzene. Na2CO3 is added into the solution and two layers are formed: aqueous layer A and ethereal...
  11. C

    Phenol Dissociation: O-H Bond Weaker?

    Hi, my teacher told me that the oxygen in phenol would be delocalized into the benzene ring's electron and thus, making the O-H bond weaker, thus easing the release of the H proton. But i would like to know, since a benzene consist of 3 double bonds, shouldn't the electrons from the benzene...
  12. M

    Identifying Phenol with FeCl3: Color Change with Acid

    in identification of phenol with fecl3 if we add an acid (e.g:HCl) color of complex will disappear >why?
  13. S

    Explaining Acidities of Ortho, Meta, & Para Fluorophenols

    Homework Statement How do you explain the difference in acidity of the ortho, meta, and para- fluorophenols. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I know that EWG enhance the acidity of phenols because they stabilize the delocalized negative charge. I also drew out the...
  14. K

    Alkaline phenol + chloroethanoic acid

    Homework Statement chloroethanoic acid is added to an alkaline solution of phenol. Give the structural formula of the organic product formed and state what type of reaction takes place. it is from a past exam paper and i got no one to check my answer, which I'm a bit unsure of...
  15. D

    Chemistry Name the given Phenol organic molecule

    Hi. In my chemistry book, one of the questions was to name the given organic molecule. What was given was a benzene ring with a single -OH functional group attached. Immediately, i recognized it as phenol, but i also said its conventional name was benzenol. When i turned to the answers...
  16. T

    The molar heat of combustion for phenol

    You burn 103.4 mg of phenol in a calorimeter of heat capacity 1,483 J K-1 and the temperature rises by 1.83 oC. Determine the molar heat of combustion for phenol in kJ mol-1. The molar mass of phenol is 94.12 g mol-1 Ccal=deltaH/ deltaT This is what I did. n=.1034/94.12 =1.09859E-3mol...
  17. J

    Help with PKa of Phenol Lab: Q&A for 1,2,3

    Homework Statement I am working on a lab about pKa of phenol, and I don't understand how to do the following questions. Can someone please kindly help me?? 1) Why was the rinsing of glassware with acetone not allowed in this experiment? T/F Acetone has a UV absorption itself and causes...
  18. J

    Factors Affecting Energy Gap in Aromatic Compounds

    please help! questions on pKa of Phenol Hi, I have some questions regarding the pKa of Phenol lab that I am working on right now. 1) What would cause the absorbance curves to not go through the isosbestic point? For this one, I know that isosbestic point is not pH dependent so pH won't...
  19. G

    Max Yield Phenolate Formation with Phenol

    under what circumstances phenol forms phenolate with max yield
  20. C

    Phenol + FeCl3 Reaction: Distinguish 4-Methylbenzoic Acid

    phenol + FeCl3..help! :confused: :confused: please help me... :frown: phenol gives a violet coloration when we add FeCl3, but will 4-methylphenol gives a violet coloration?!? :confused: n is it possible to distinguish 4-methylbenzoic acid from 4-methylphenol by adding FeCl3? :confused...
  21. K

    Phenol and FeCl3 Reaction: Formation of Violet Complex

    When phenol reacts with FeCl3, a violet complex will be formed. What is the name of the violet complex and what is the chemical equation for this reaction? I've tried to search it from the internet but I couldn't find the equation.