What is Organic chemistry: Definition and 259 Discussions

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical composition and formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) as well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (included in many biochemicals) and the halogens. Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–metal bonds.
In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides, but especially the transition metals zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium.

Organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute the majority of known chemicals. The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous. They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; petrochemicals and agrichemicals, and products made from them including lubricants, solvents; plastics; fuels and explosives. The study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science.

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  1. J

    Chemistry Compounds undergoing Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    The answer is that the 2nd, 3rd and 6th compounds can undergo Friedel-Crafts alkylation. I don't understand why the 4th compound cannot undergo a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, but the 2nd compound can. It has an activating NH2 group and a weakly deactivating Br group, and it's similar to...
  2. J

    Chemistry Ester to acid chloride transformation

    Here are 2 options: A) B) For both syntheses, a protecting group is added to the alcohol, the ester is hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid, then it is turned into an acid chloride using SOCl2. The difference is that A is base-catalyzed and B is acid-catalyzed. The correct answer is A, but I...
  3. A

    Chemistry Choosing principal chain in the nomenclature of organic compounds

    In this question, I am not sure as to which of the following two chains should be considered as the principal chain. Approach 1 (7 carbon chain, 2 substituents): 4-methyl-4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)heptane Approach 2 (6 carbon chain, 4 substituents): 2,2,3-trimethyl-3-propylhexane Clearly, the...
  4. P

    Chemistry How do I solve these steps for this question about non-bonding valence electrons?

    This question has me puzzled, I can't seem to solve it. Or where to start?
  5. S

    Chemistry Determination of the molecular structure of two organic compounds

    I've figured out that both compounds have 4 unsaturations. The fact that they are insoluble in water makes me think they might have a benzene ring. When bromine water is added (I found out online that it's Br2 in water), perhaps some hydrogens from the benzene ring might be replaced. However...
  6. K

    Preparing for Grad School: A Organic Chemistry Review

    I’m starting my PhD in Organic Chemistry this Fall. I want to review all of undergraduate Organic Chemistry and I’m trying to develop a plan of attack. I did alright in lectures but not perfectly and did quite well in labs. I don’t want to be bombarded in grad school and want to have a proper...
  7. MichaelBack12

    Studying Preparing for Organic Chemistry: Tips for Reviewing Inorganic Chemistry Concepts

    Summary: What’s the best way to review inorganic chem in preparation for OC. Assume zero recall on basic college chem. Are there study guides, online courses, etc. for this specific purpose?
  8. E

    Chemistry Conformation Stability of Ethane-1,2-Diol

    Hello there, My attempted explanation/solution is : “Torsional strain is caused by the tendency of the electron clouds in the interacting groups to repel each other, making it relatively difficult to rotate a group towards and through another group, as the repulsive force provides resistance to...
  9. samy4408

    Lipid Formation: Fatty Acids, Glycerol, and Sphingosine

    Hello , I am studying lipids and a point got me confused . it is said that beside the fatty acid we have glycerol and sphingosine that forms the backbone of the lipid . is the lipid formed by those 3 components at the same time (fatty acid +glycerol +sphingosine ) or it is formed by the fatty...
  10. A

    What are the Potential Results of Mixing Different Alkanes?

    Alkanes list Can the Alkanes list be further compiled after decane with formulas ? Is it advisable to mix Alkanes ? Examples : Propane + Nonane = ? Butane + Pentane = ? Decane + Methane = ? Propane + Hexane + Decane = ?
  11. samy4408

    About oxidation and reduction in organic Chemistry

    We studied in chemistry that the concept of oxidation and reduction is the exchange of electrons between two chemical substance ,but when i started to study organic chemistry i saw that when we talk about for example the oxidation of a compound it can loss atoms and change his constitution...
  12. SpectraPhy09

    Chemistry Libermann's Nitroso test (of Amines)

    My answer is coming a & c but given ans is a, b & c in my textbook. Plz can someone give mechanism for this reaction? Because my teacher only told that 2° and 1° Amines give the test. So answer should be a & c na but it's wrong :(
  13. SpectraPhy09

    Chemistry React Aniline w/ Br2: Mechanism & Desired Product

    I was thinking to react Aniline with Br2 in presence of Ch3ch2-Oh But I don't know the mechanism also I'm confuse will this really give the desired product In my textbook, they reacted aniline first with an aldehyde and then with bromine water, and then with H+ to get Desired product .. I want...
  14. SpectraPhy09

    Chemistry Can the trend of basicity be followed in amines in general cases?

    My ans is coming b) because it has 9 hyper conjugative structures so it would be more basic But given ans is a) I think they only considered the basic strength in the aqueous medium ...But I wanted to ask can we follow that trend in the general case also?
  15. S

    Chemistry Naming ethers: priority of alkyl substituent and ethoxy subsitutent

    When there is both alkyl substituent and ethoxy substituent in a single molecule, which one should be prioritized when numbering your base carbon chains? I am confused because the first structure below seems to have numbered the carbon attached to ethyl as the first carbon, while the second...
  16. S

    Chemistry Drawing 1-bromo-6-chlorodispiro [2.1.2^5.1^3] octane

    I tried drawing the structure, and I do not know which one of the two is the correct compound for the nomenclature. Which one would be the correct one, and why? Thank you!
  17. S

    Chemistry Why is Understanding Wedge-Dash Diagrams Important for Visualizing Molecules?

    I can only view each carbon individually so I don't see why the representations under incorrect is incorrect.
  18. S

    Nomenclature questions -- Naming structures when given compounds

    How would I name the following two compounds? My guess is that the first one would be 3-bromophenyl 1-chloro ketone and the second one (4Z)-3-sec butyl-hex-4-en-1-yne. Am I correct? Thank you
  19. S

    Chemistry IUPAC Naming of 3-Bromo Phenyl Chloro Ketone

    The following structure was given, and I have to name the compound. My guess is that the compound is called 3-bromo phenyl chloro ketone, but I am not sure. Can you tell me if my answer is correct, and also tell me how to tackle the IUPAC naming for this compound? Thank you!
  20. S

    Chemistry Deciding Carbon Numbering for (Z)-1-bromo-2-chloro-2-fluoro-1-iodoethene

    The following structure was given, and the answer was (z)-1-bromo-2-chloro-2-fluoro-1-iodoethene. But how do you decide which carbon is numbered 1 and the other 2? Thank you.
  21. Mayhem

    Studying Advice for success in organic chemistry ....

    ... with the intention of going into novel drug synthesis. It might be a bit of a reach to ask this on a physics forum, but I see chemists among us, so I guess this is as good as any. To those of you with experience in the field, what makes a good organic chemist? What makes a good medicinal...
  22. S

    Chemistry Naming BrCH2CH2CH2OH: Excluding Carbon # for OH Group

    I thought that the compound would be named 2-bromo-propan-1-ol, but the answer sheet says that it is 3-bromopropanol. But don't you have to indicate the position of the OH group with carbon numbers? My textbook says that CH3CH2CH2OH would be named 1-propanol. Here, it seems like the position of...
  23. S

    Naming the pentane with phenyl group (or benzene with aryl group)

    I understand the first one, which indicates that there is a phenyl group in the second carbon of pentane. But where did the 2 in 2-pentylbenzene come from? Shouldn't if it be just pentylbenzene, since there is only one subtitute(pentane) on the benzene? If not, would you explain why? Thank you.
  24. S

    Chemistry Drawing the structure of 1,3,5 - trimethylphenol

    The picture above is the correct answer, but I do not understand why. I thought that the OH group on the top has to be prioritized and be numbered 1. But then, the structure would have to be named 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, not 1,3,5-trimethylphenol. For example, 4-chloroaniline structure looks...
  25. I

    Memorizing Organic Chemistry: Structures, Reactions & Tips

    For organic chemistry, what is important to memorize when I am reading a textbook? Should I memorize the structures and names of different organic compounds when they are described as examples? Or is it more important to memorize the organic reactions? Also, does anyone have any tips on how to...
  26. G

    Chemistry How should I proceed with the reactions?

    The question: How will the first reaction take place for instance? Is CH3S- the nucleophile? Will it be added to the oxygen and the other hydrogen(H+) get attached to the other oxygen, with the double bond shifting to the center(C2-C3)? If this is right then where will CN- will attack?
  27. Adesh

    What will be the product of this organic reaction?

    Summary:: I'm always unable to find the products of a chemical reaction. No Matter how much concept I study I can't ever get products from reasoning. Here is the question: What is the major product of this reaction? . OPTIONS : MY ATTEMPT : First of all I can see that in...
  28. cookiemnstr510510

    Most acidic proton: first semester organic chemistry

    Hello All, I have attached my questions with pictures in attached photos. Look at screen shot 46 first then screen shot 47. I am having trouble ranking acidic protons. In my Organic book it has the order of: 1)Charge 2)Atom Type 3)Hybridization 4)Resonance 5)Induction Things I know: S is able...
  29. K

    Decomposition reaction for theophylline, hexobarbital natrium

    Hello! There is a problem to write chemical reactions that goes with substances if they are not stored properly. For example theophylline should be saved from light and though I am trying to find its’ reaction with hv(light) but failed. Please help with some good reference Many thanks in advance
  30. KristinaMr

    What Happens to Bromines in a Double Bond in Organic Chemistry?

    I think that the double bond would be broken in some way but what happens to the two bromines? do they remain in the ring? (or does HBr forms? is it possible?)
  31. H

    What is the connection between organic chemistry, trigonometry, and astronomy?

    Hi, I am a retired Organic Chemist. I was looking around for the answer to a trig question and found this site. It looks interesting so I signed up. I am also an amateur astronomer, and have an interest in arduinos and raspberry pis as well as other computers. I mainly use linux and my...
  32. Logic hunter

    What is acet in organic chemistry?

    What does it mean and why do acetophenone and acetic acid have it in their name ?
  33. G

    Should I retake Organic Chemistry 2? Got a C-

    I was wondering if I should retake this course for a better grade. I got numerous responses from the colleges I am interested in for grad school. Probably will be taking Advanced Organic Chemistry as an advanced elective. If they have other courses that are offered like instrumental analysis I...
  34. jishnu

    Organic chemistry -- What is the best possible way to learn all the reactions?

    What is the best possible way to learn all the reactions in organic chemistry, where should one start, what are the fundamental topics to be covered and remembered all throughout for building up a great strong base in this part of chemistry?
  35. Jordan M

    Theoretical ξr of a molecule from the absolute configuration

    I am wondering if anybody knows how to calculate the theoretical relative permittivity of a molecule (1) using the theoretical configuration and values that are easily accessible (2). I am also wondering what the technique would be. In my pharmaceutical reaction class and also O-chem 2 we have...
  36. Muhammad Danish

    Organic Chemistry, Hydrocarbons

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution C=C double bonds means that it is not an Alkane because an Alkane is saturated hydrocarbon. So the answer should be from A, B or C.
  37. D

    Why does the melting point of aspirin increase

    I used sailcylic acid and acetic anhydride to produce aspirin and preformed recrystalisation to purify the aspirin. I need to evaluate why I have a higher/lower melting point. In this case, the melting point was 143°C whereas the true meling point is 135°C. I thought one of the reasons my...
  38. D

    Effect of impurities on the boiling point of ethyl ethanoate

    After carrying out reflux and distillation to produce ethyl ethanoate (ethyl acetate) I measured the boiling point and I got 71 degrees Celsius whereas the true value is 77.1 degrees Celsius. Impurities increase the Boiling point (BP) as well as concentration. However my calculates BP is lower...
  39. shihab-kol

    Glycolic acid functional group(s)

    Hey guys, should the -OH group in glycolic acid be considered a functional group or a substituent due to the presence of the carboxylic acid group?
  40. F

    Help Naming Hydrocarbons | Explanation & Examples | Attached File

    Homework Statement See attached file Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution a) 1,1,2-tribromo-1-propene Now this one I'm not sure about. Is the CH3 a methyl group attached to ethene? How can I consistently tell the main hydrocarbon chain in a diagram like this? b)...
  41. C

    Understanding the Arrow Notation in Organic Chemistry Elimination

    Can anyone help me with this ? What does the arrow mean ? Is it cis or trans,the base is small so it should be an E2 elimination with zaitsev product.Though I think it may be due to the beta hydrogen being unavailable,but I do not know whether the arrow means from the upper or lower /cis trans...
  42. Natalie456

    Organic Chemistry: Alkenes and Diazomethane

    I'm having difficulties figuring out where the new carbon-carbon bond would form. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thank you!
  43. I

    Organic Chemistry Reaction Question

    Homework Statement What product(s) does this reaction produce: Acetone + diethylamine Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution That is what I got, but the answer is N,N-dimethylethanamide. Can someone please explain why?
  44. C

    Organic chemistry - Diels Alder reaction

    Homework Statement What is the product of this reaction: p-methylbenzyn + 1,3-butadien? Homework Equations C6H4CH3 + C4H6 The Attempt at a Solution a bicyclic ring is formed?
  45. J

    Electrophilic and Nucleophilic

    I would like to clarify this particular question. According to the answer key, the answer is D. However, I argued to my friend that there may be an error in this question. The arrow is pointing toward a carbon atom so the question might have been " The indicated carbon atom is:". But if...
  46. baldbrain

    Is Crossed Aldol Condensation of Acetone and Ethyl Methyl Ketone Possible?

    Is the crossed aldol condensation of acetone and ethyl methyl ketone possible?
  47. I

    Organic chemistry acetal reaction help

    <Moderator's note: Moved from a technical forum and thus no template.> OChem Question: My Answer: Not sure if this is correct. Anyone?
  48. alphaj

    Organic chem: draw this in line angle structure

    Homework Statement Draw this formula in line angle structure. CH3CH2OC(O)CH2CC(CH2)3CH(CN)CHO. Homework Equations None. The Attempt at a Solution I'm confused with the CC(CH2)3 part of the condensed formula. I knew I got it wrong the first time I drew it because I couldn't just tag three...