What is Benzene: Definition and 58 Discussions

Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is partially responsible for the aroma around petrol (gasoline) stations. It is used primarily as a precursor to the manufacture of chemicals with more complex structure, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, of which billions of kilograms are produced annually. Although a major industrial chemical, benzene finds limited use in consumer items because of its toxicity.

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  1. J

    Chemistry Why is ethanol considered the parent chain in naming this benzene derivative?

    The name of this molecule is 1‐(3‐nitrophenyl)ethanol. I'm confused why ethanol is treated as the parent chain in this case, not the phenyl group. If the ring is composed of more atoms, should it be the parent chain? Thank you.
  2. SpectraPhy09

    Chemistry The reaction of Benzene Diazonium chloride

    I think that since the -Oh group is attached it would be activating the ring so either ortho product will be formed or the para product. So I'm confused between option b & c (Given and in my textbook is C). Plz can someone help me with this
  3. russ_watters

    Benzene in Sunscreen - Big Risk?

    So, I'm a little surprised this didn't get posted sooner (maybe that's my answer?), but a recent study found Benzene in a lot of sunscreens: https://www.valisure.com/blog/valisure-news/valisure-detects-benzene-in-sunscreen/ And the organization started a petition to recall them...
  4. S

    Naming the pentane with phenyl group (or benzene with aryl group)

    I understand the first one, which indicates that there is a phenyl group in the second carbon of pentane. But where did the 2 in 2-pentylbenzene come from? Shouldn't if it be just pentylbenzene, since there is only one subtitute(pentane) on the benzene? If not, would you explain why? Thank you.
  5. Mcp

    -R effect in benzene causes anti-aromaticity?

    Consider any -R effect showing group like NO2 in place of anyone of the hydrogen of the benzene ring, here we get nitrobenzene. We know that after showing -R effect a double bond will be formed between N and C and one of the π bond will no longer be present in the ring and it's place will be...
  6. thebosonbreaker

    What temperature should be used for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene?

    Hello, My sources seem to contradict here - one claims that it should be carried out at room temperature, while the other suggests that heating under reflux is necessary. Could someone please clarify this for me? Many thanks.
  7. Krushnaraj Pandya

    Resonance energy per ring in benzene, napthalene, anthracene

    Homework Statement Compare resonance energy per ring in benzene, napthalene and anthracene Homework Equations -- The Attempt at a Solution I know Resonance energy of benzene is 36 KCal/mol, I also know anthracene is the most stable followed by napthalene so their resonance energy is in the...
  8. R

    Sodium hypochlorite and alkyl benzene sulfonic acid

    Hello, wondering if anyone can confirm if 7% Sodium Hypochlorite and alkyl benzene sulfonic acid are compatible to mix together? Any concerns or reactions to be aware of?
  9. J

    Remove aldehyde moiety (wrong word?) from aryl compound

    Presuming I have 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitro-benzaldehyde, and what I want is 2,6-methyl-nitrobenzene (same molecule, minus the -COH) is there a straightfortward way to do this conversion? Oxidizing it away seems risky: I don't want the -CH3 groups to go all -COOH on me, but I'm not an experienced...
  10. C

    Product of the reaction of benzene with acetone in sulfuric acid?

    Homework Statement What will result in the reaction of benzene with acetone in sulfuric acid? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Is bisphenyl correct?
  11. J

    Actually new subject: Mesitylene/Trimesic Acid -> Benzene

    I have been trying to come up with a way to get from some small carbon molecules (C2,C3) to benzene, or its singly substituted friends like phenol, aniline, or benzoic acid. I stumbled upon a trimerization of acetone to mesitylene (3 C3H7O --> C6H3(CH3)3 + 3H2O) which can be oxidized (via...
  12. A

    Organic chemistry- adding amine group to benzene

    Is it possible to do a Friedel-Crafts reaction on a benzene and get a substituent on the benzene ring from that, and then afterwards add an NH2 group ortho? I know you can't add NH2 first and then do Friedel-Crafts because anilines cannot undergo Friedel-Crafts. Please advice. Thanks in advance.
  13. Tony Stark

    Acidity due to ortho effect in benzene

    Acidity increases with resonance, but why under the presence of bulky group attached to benzene in ortho position increase acidity ? Under such cases, the planarity is broken and resonance is no longer possible between attached group and benzene hence the charges have to maintain their original...
  14. Tony Stark

    Aromaticity of ortho substituted benzene

    Are ortho substituted benzene rings aromatic in nature as the planarity in such compounds breaks due to steric hindrance ?
  15. F

    NMR Signals & Peaks of Di-Substituted Benzene Rings

    How many NMR signals and peaks will there be for a di-substituted benzene ring and why? The ring has one CH3 and and a Cl ortho to the CH3. (This isn't a homework problem but I am running into same issue whenever I encounter rings wrt NMR) i am specifically confused as to how to apply...
  16. A

    Why should resonance occur in benzene?

    the carbon in benzene is sp2 hybridized and the p orbital is involved in double bond.sp2 orbitals and p orbitals are perpendicular to each other,for any electronic transition between orbitals,the orbitals should not be perpendicular.so how does pi electron go to carbon's orbital?
  17. R

    Benzene in water adsorption test and GC without extraction?

    Hi all, I want to measure the concentration of benzene or toluene, in water with a GC, FID detectors. I put benzene in water with an adsorbent and after hours I've to test the concentration of benzene. In the lab we've already methanol and toluene, so I'm thinking to use toluene as pollutant...
  18. aditya ver.2.0

    General Formula of benzene and diacetylene

    Is the General Formula of benzene and diacetylene the same?:nb):nb):nb)
  19. M

    Question about halogenation of benzene

    Hey, I didn't understand too much ( when reading my textbook) why benzene undergoes polyhalogenation when it contains a strong activator ( i.e: NH2) and reacted with bromine and FeBr3 as a catalyst. I was thinking because of the fact that there is a carbocation in every resonance structure...
  20. M

    Why does a hydroquinone has a non zero dipole moment?

    Why does hydroquinone possesses non zero dipole moment? The OH groups present at para positions on the benzene ring should cancel the effect of each other...if there is a plane change then exactly in which cases molecules do change planes?
  21. gracy

    Understanding Benzene: Visible Light and Excited Electrons

    know benzene is colourless...but i can't seem to get my head around it at the moment! As benzene has delocalised electrons, it should require less energy to excite the electrons. And Visible light is a lower frequency to UV? So according to the equation: E=hv Benzene should be coloured as it...
  22. D

    Role of HNO3 in nitration of benzene

    Homework Statement in this case, the HNO3 can be dissociated into NO2+ and OH- ion. what makes it a proton donor. p/s : the ans is HNO3 is a proton donor for this question. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution since the HNO3 can be dissociated into NO2+ and OH- ion...
  23. D

    Naming Benzene Compounds: 1-Chloro-2-Nitrobenzene and 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene

    Homework Statement can i name the compound in the first photo as 1-chloro, 2nitro benzene can I name the second compound as 1-chloro-3-nitrobenzene? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution the ans from my book is inside the photo
  24. M

    Benzene Stability: Bond Dissociation vs. Aromaticity

    Might be a stupid question but got to ask. The bonds of benzene have a bond dissociation energy in between that of a single C-C bond and an alkene yet its stability is much higher that expected due to aromaticity/e- delocalization. Is stability not necessarily reflected in bond dissociation...
  25. S

    Mechanism of benzene nucleophilicity activation

    I have some questions how various substituents are transfering benzene conjugated (π) electrons (i.e. activating/deactivating). As usual, no chemist provides an explanation. 1)As I see, the first important thing when forming a carbocation during electrophilic aromatic substitution is to find...
  26. I

    Hydrostatics - Benzene poured into uniform U shaped tube with water

    Homework Statement A uniform glass tube is bent into a U shape. Water is poured into the tube till it stands 10cm in each tube. Benzene (sp gr = 0.879) is then slowly added to the tube on the left side until the water rises 4cm on the right. What length is the column of benzene when the...
  27. F

    Is it possible to get benzene from sodium benzoate?

    I want a small amount of benzene. Obviously it is not easily purchasable, but sodium benzoate is. I have heard one way is to dry distil sodium benzoate and sodium hydroxide, but the though of dealing with molten sodium hydroxide at such high temperatures sounds too dangerous. Is there any other...
  28. F

    Adsorption of Benzene using Activated Carbon - Increase in concentration?

    Adsorption of Benzene using Activated Carbon - Increase in concentration!? I'm not quite sure where to post but here it goes. I'm performing an adsorption experiment of benzene from solution using commercial activated carbon. It is expected that the concentration of benzene would decrease...
  29. S

    HELP Calculating contact angle of benzene.

    Homework Statement In an experiment to determine how well benzene wets glass, benzene was found to rise to 1.71 mm in a certain capillary tube at 20.0 C. In the same tube, water rose 4.90 mm at 20.0 C. Calculate the contact angle for benzene, give that at 20.0 C, benzene = 0.879 gcm^-3...
  30. J

    Synthesize 1-Butyl-3-Propylbenzene from 1-Chloropropane & 1-Butyne

    Given 3 molescules: 1-chloropropane, 1-butyne, and a benzene ring, how do I synthesize 1-butyl-3-propylbenzene? my question is, how do I get 1-chloropropane or 1-butyne on the ring without having branching? these 2 must be the starting material. I don't see how F&C alkcylation would work.
  31. C

    Acidity of a benzene derivative

    Homework Statement Can NaOH deprotonate compound II? The Attempt at a Solution The solution says that it cannot, but I don't see why not! The benzene should not make it so basic such that it won't react with NaOH anymore, will it?
  32. J

    Phenol to Benzene: The Role of Zinc and Divalent Metals in Conversion

    How does zinc convert phenol to benzene? Its a metal and why metals react with alcohols they displace the hydrogen right? However zinc converts phenol to benzene. Why is it so? Will all divalent metals convert it to benzene?
  33. P

    Chemistry Molecular formula of S in benzene

    The molal freezing point depression constant of benzene is 5.07 K kg/mol. A .45% solution of monoclinic sulfur in benzene freezes .088K below the freezing point of pure benzene. Find the molecular formula of sulfur in benzene. Can someone tell me if the answer is S2 ? I guess I'm not...
  34. C

    Naming the following benzene structure

    Homework Statement Homework Equations - The Attempt at a Solution i understand that benzoate is derived from carboxylic acid (COOH) to which isopropyl has replaced the H, forming a benzoate substituent to which we derive the parent name of the structure. I understand that Chloro...
  35. K

    How to Synthesize C6H5D from Benzene: A Creative Approach

    Homework Statement Hey guys, Our prof gave us a random question for our lab report: how do you get C6H5D from benzene? We've never gone over this rxn, and I can't find it in the text or online. I can't think of a way for benzene to substitute like that. Thanks, I appreciate the help...
  36. D

    Benzene forms the electron shell configuration of two rings of

    Benzene forms the electron shell configuration of two rings of electrons, parallel to the molecule, shown here http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Benzene_Orbitals.svg/750px-Benzene_Orbitals.svg.png so my question is, if an electron beam is run through the center of the...
  37. C

    Bond Lengths in Benzene: Exploring the Consistency of Carbon-Carbon Bonds

    Homework Statement Why are all the carbon-carbon bonds are the same length rather than alternating lengths? all help appreciated :) Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I researched it and all i discovered is that each bond length is the same in Benzene, but i never found...
  38. P

    Delocalised pi electrons in benzene

    Why do pi electrons in a benzene move?
  39. S

    Reducing Ketones on Benzene Rings with H2, Pd/C, 45 psi

    Is there anyway that a Ketone on a benzene ring could be reduced to a hydrocarbon with the use of H2, Pd/C, 45 psi ? I know that carbonyls on aromatic rings are able to be reduced to alcohols via this method but would be interested in if it is possible (more so then practical) to fully reduce to...
  40. E

    London forces between benzene molecules

    How easily do benzene molecules interact with london forces? I imagine that the relatively large surface area of the aromatic ring coupled with the pi-ring, which is a pretty large orbital makes london forces of a pretty large magnitude possible, but I am not certain. Does anyone have any...
  41. S

    One-Constant Margules To Represent Benzene - 2,2,4 - Trimethyl pentane

    In the book, "Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics", 4th Edition - Stanley I. Sandler, Univ. of Delaware On Pg. 435,the diagram (Fig 9.5-4) has been provided, which has been attached as a file. This represents the experimental activity coefficient data for the "benzene-2,2,4...
  42. L

    Mass Spec- breaking the benzene ring

    Homework Statement the molecular formula of the compound under analysis is C8H8O2 = Mr of 136 the mass spectrum shows the peak at 91 to be the most stable. I'm supposed to obtain structures representing the peak at 91 as well as at 118 and 65 The Attempt at a Solution I represented 91...
  43. P

    Does the Bond Type Affect the Dipole Strength in Ortho Disubstituted Benzene?

    I had a question on a chem exam about which difluorobenzene isomer will have the highest boiling point. Obviously it is the ortho isomer, since the dipole will be stronger than the meta or para isomers. The question I have is more for my own curiosity than anything else really. Does it matter...
  44. K

    Can you consider a benzene ring to also be an alkene?

    Can you consider a benzene ring to also be an alkene? As in, there are double bonds within the benzene ring.
  45. A

    Calculating the Dipole Moment of Benzene Rings

    Hi , How to calculate the diploe vector of benzene ring?. what is the formula for calculating the diploe moment?. Thanks in advance Aneesh
  46. R

    Apparent depth involving benzene on water

    Homework Statement In a vessel, a layer of benzene (n=1.50) 6 cm deep floats on water (n=1.33) 4 cm deep. Determine the apparent distance of the bottom of the vessel below the upper surface of the benzene when viewed vertically through air. Ans 7 cm Homework Equations Snell's law n sin...
  47. P

    Chemistry Question - Benzene

    Hi all! I have a question regarding benzene and the pi-MOs for benzene. Basically, when you're forming the MO model but manipulating the equations (ie: MO = sum Ci=phi-subi = 1Cs!s1 + C21S2 for H-H sigmna bond) in this equation, how many terms would go in for benzne? Would it be 6? I know...
  48. E

    Symmetry, absorbtion and benzene

    Hey Is it right that high symmetry molecules does not absorb light as good as low symmetry molecules? let's take an example like benzene versus benzene+hydroxyl?
  49. K

    Would benzene be able to conduct electricity?

    Because of the delocalized bonding in graphite, graphite is able to conduct electricity. I'd figure benzene, which has a similar structure, would be able to conduct electricity. Is this so?
  50. P

    Calculating the triple point of benzene

    Homework Statement We're given various temperature and pressure values for benzene as well as its melting point and densities for when it's a solid and when it's a liquid. We're asked to construct a phase diagram based on the given data and locate the triple point - graphically and...