What is Differentiate: Definition and 226 Discussions

Cellular differentiation is the process in which a cell changes from one cell type to another. Usually, the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Although metabolic composition does get altered quite dramatically where stem cells are characterized by abundant metabolites with highly unsaturated structures whose levels decrease upon differentiation. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.
A specialized type of differentiation, known as 'terminal differentiation', is of importance in some tissues, for example vertebrate nervous system, striated muscle, epidermis and gut. During terminal differentiation, a precursor cell formerly capable of cell division, permanently leaves the cell cycle, dismantles the cell cycle machinery and often expresses a range of genes characteristic of the cell's final function (e.g. myosin and actin for a muscle cell). Differentiation may continue to occur after terminal differentiation if the capacity and functions of the cell undergo further changes.
Among dividing cells, there are multiple levels of cell potency, the cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. A greater potency indicates a larger number of cell types that can be derived. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and subsequent blastomeres are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called meristematic cells in higher plants and embryonic stem cells in animals, though some groups report the presence of adult pluripotent cells. Virally induced expression of four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 (Yamanaka factors) is sufficient to create pluripotent (iPS) cells from adult fibroblasts. A multipotent cell is one that can differentiate into multiple different, but closely related cell types. Oligopotent cells are more restricted than multipotent, but can still differentiate into a few closely related cell types. Finally, unipotent cells can differentiate into only one cell type, but are capable of self-renewal. In cytopathology, the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. "Grade" is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.

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  1. Haorong Wu

    I Differentiate w/ Respect to Affine Parameter: A Guide

    Hi, there. I am doing differentiation with respect to an affine parameter ##s##, I am not sure whether my idea is right or wrong. Let ##C## be a geodesic for light and the path length ##s## on it be the affine parameter. Now I need to calculate ##\frac {\partial f}{\partial s}##, with ##f##...
  2. H

    How can I differentiate between monsoon rains and cyclonic rain?

    In my country, we get yearly rainfall from South-West Monsoon. But from time to time, there is something called cylonic (or western) disturbances which bring rain in my country. I have myself observed that though disturbances are cylconic, yet we (at my particular location and about 50km radius)...
  3. S

    Differentiate an equation to find the minimum peak of a variable

    Summary:: Differentiate an equation to get the minimum peak I have this equation: 6.3504 = 23.04 ( 1-141978.24XY)^2 + 141978.24X^2 I want to differentiate it with respect to X to get the minimum peak of Y . dy/dx =0 . See attached file Thanks for help [Moderator's note: moved from a...
  4. R

    B How to differentiate b/w two collapsed values in Bell States

    Given the Bell State in Z basis ##\psi = (a\uparrow \downarrow - b\downarrow \uparrow )## where ##a^2+b^2=1##. Now Alice has one particle and sends the other to Bob. Suppose Alice decides to measure her particle in Z direction. Thus entanglement collapses. Query: 1. How do we know which...
  5. Jehannum

    Differentiate between iron and copper sulphide

    I have a quantity of black, lustrous powder taken from inside a gas pipe. I want to know whether it's from copper pipe or from steel pipe. Is there a very simple test I can do? I'm not a chemist and have no specialist equipment.
  6. H

    Finding the Maximum Value of f(x)=x(1-x)^n in [0,1]: A Calculus Problem

    Hello, good afternoon guys. I need a little help from you: D 1)n a positive integer. f(x)=x(1-x)^n Solve the equation f'(x)=0 in 0<x<1 this question I asked and found x = 1 / (x + 1) ok 2)An be the maximum value of f(x)=x(1-x)^n in [0,1] Calculate lim (n+1)an n tending to infinity the...
  7. ttpp1124

    Differentiate (answers not to be simplified)

    Thank you in advance :)
  8. ttpp1124

    Differentiate x^2-(3x+1)/(x+2)

    Is this correct?
  9. J

    Statistics: How to differentiate Type A and B uncertainty?

    I tried to find examples on the internet but I am still confused.
  10. Jozefina Gramatikova

    I How to differentiate with respect to a derivative

    Hi guys, I am reading my lecture notes for Mechanics and Variations and I am trying to understand the maths here. From what I can see there we differentiated with respect to a derivative. Could you tell me how do we do that? Thanks
  11. Z

    I How do you know when to partially differentiate?

    The equation of flow acceleration is where du/dt is the global acceleration, and ∂u/∂t and u ∂u/∂x are local and convective acceleration respectively. And the heat conduction equation is which is heat stored = net heat flux + heat generated. My question is: why does the ∂T/∂t part in the...
  12. S

    I How to differentiate Doppler shift from star emission

    I have seen people talking about measuring Doppler shift of stars to know how fast they are receding from us. But if I measured say a particular frequency f, how do I know whether this is shifted frequency or just the emission?
  13. talk2dream

    I You cannot differentiate a geometric figure?

    I was reading a different post, https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/differntiating-a-circle.279719/#post-2003287 and was doing great... guys, thanks so much for this forum! HallsofIvy posted "1: You titled this "differentiation of a circle" which makes no sense. You cannot differentiate a...
  14. T

    Differentiate between rectangular beam and flange beam

    Homework Statement How to differentiate between rectangular beam and flange beam ? In the question below , the answer provided is flange beam , I'm wondering can i design it as rectangular beam Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Since there's no clue whether the flange beam or...
  15. B

    Can we differentiate Equation 9 and get Expression 10?

    Homework Statement Homework Equations [/B] I came over these Equations when I was Reading an article. I tried to replicate the results by differentiating Equation 9 w.r.t time. However I could not do it. Just to be sure. The growth of a variable is Equal to the time derivative of the same...
  16. C

    I Differentiate two variables functions

    Hi, I am dealing with an equality of the form: f(x)=g(y,z) and I need to compute ##dx##. Is the following relation correct? dx={(\frac{\partial f}{\partial x})}^{-1}( \frac{\partial g}{\partial y}dy + \frac{\partial g}{\partial z}dz ) Thank you in advance.
  17. SciencyBoi

    How to differentiate b/w a conservative/non-conservative force?

    Homework Statement How do we determine a specific force mentioned in a question to be conservative or non-conservative? 2. Relevant data Conservative force is a force whose work done does not depend on the path that is taken while doing it. Examples include electrostatic force, gravitational...
  18. C

    Differentiate the following. How do i solve y''(x) = -y ?

    Is y''(x) same as d2y/dx2. As it's y''(x) so how do we find out y(x) and if it can be taken as a double derivative, i was having doubts in this. Double differentiation of y is equal to -y... e^ something maybe ? and sign should change ?
  19. B

    Tools to differentiate silver from molybdenum

    I remember reading on a blog or a news article on the internet once that sometimes counterfeiters have made fake silver coins and silver bars out of molybdenum. Silver is worth far more than molybdenum. Counterfeiters made fake silver out of molybdenum because they could acquire the molybdenum...
  20. SamRoss

    B Differentiating by two different variables -- when is it okay?

    I'm working through the problems in Mary Boas's Mathematical Methods text. Here's how she began solving one problem... "We take differentials of the equation 1/i + 1/o = 1/f (f=constant) to get -di/i2 - do/o2 = 0." So on the left side the first term was differentiated with respect to i and...
  21. S

    Differentiate Infinity: What Is It?

    What is the differential of infinity?
  22. J

    Differentiate: r=r cos(theta)i+r sin(theta)j

    Homework Statement This is a problem from Dynamics but I'm mostly having trouble with the calculus. Derive an expression for the position, velocity, and acceleration of a machine in terms of: r, \dot {r}, θ, \dot{θ}, \ddot{r}, \ddot{θ}, . r = length of the arm θ = angle of the arm to the...
  23. munirah

    How to differentiate GHZ state and W state?

    Good day, I try to differentiate GHZ-state and W-state using three tangle. Suppose The value three tangle for GHZ-state equal to 1 while W-state equal to 0. I used three tangle formula, $$\tau_{ABC}=\tau_{A(BC)}-\tau_{AB}-\tau_{AC}=2(\lambda^{AB}.\lambda^{AB}+\lambda^{AC}.\lambda^{AC})$$...
  24. M

    I A-level differentiation/derivative dilemma

    Hello, and thank you for your time. I just started my A-levels derivatives/differentiation , and I would be more than happy if you could help me clarify it. For example I know that y is a function in terms of x right? y=f(x) The derivative of it is f'(x)=dy/dx . This means it is the rate of...
  25. 9

    Differentiate trigonometric equation

    Homework Statement a) Differentiate the following equation with respect to: 1) θ 2) Φ 3) ψ (Ua - Ub)' * C * r where: C is a 3 x 3 rotation matrix: [ cos θ cos ψ, -cos Φ sin ψ + sin Φ sin θ cos ψ, sin Φ sin ψ + cos Φ sin θ cos ψ] [ cos θ sin ψ, cos Φ cos ψ + sin Φ sin θ sin...
  26. F

    How to differentiate power series starting from 2 for e^x?

    Homework Statement for d/dx(e^x) , the series should be start from 2 rather than 1 , right ? because when k = 1 , the circled part would become 0 , the series for (e^x) is 1 + x + ... Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
  27. L

    Understanding the Chain Rule in Calculus Differentiation

    I cannot understand the first part (second line) where it says dw/dk Can someone explain in a more step by step method
  28. Kiarash

    Why is the logarithm of the number of all possible states of

    Temperature of a system is defined as $$\left( \frac{\partial \ln(\Omega)}{ \partial E} \right)_{N, X_i} = \frac{1}{kT}$$Where Ω is the number of all accessible states (ways) for the system. Ω can only take discrete values. What does this mean from a mathematical perspective? Many people say we...
  29. MAKK

    How we differentiate between bosons and fermions?

    if we have two particle then how we differentiate between boson and fermion ,any experiment that differentiate them?
  30. C

    How Does the Jacobian Process Work in Kinematics?

    Hey guys, Im studying for an exam and don't fully understand the jacobian process. Speciffically how you can differential the middle colum with respect to theta_3. Please view attached. So from step 1 to 2. Thanks.
  31. D

    How to differentiate this potential energy function?

    Homework Statement Given the potential energy function V(x,y)=V(ax-by) where a,b is an arbitrary constants differentiate with respect to x and y. Homework Equations Multivariavle differentiation The Attempt at a Solution The answer yields (d/dt)p1=-aV'(ax-by) (d/dt)p2=+bV'(ax-by). The right...
  32. B

    How to Differentiate Cos^2 x?

    Homework Statement What is ##\frac{d}{dx}(cos^2 x)##? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution u = cos x ##\frac{du}{dx} = -\sin x## ##\frac{d}{dx}(cos^2 x) = \frac{d}{du}(u^2) \ \frac{du}{dx}## ##= 2u \ \frac{du}{dx}## ##= 2 \cos x (-\sin x)## ##= -2 \cos x \sin x## Is it correct?
  33. C

    Differentiate Velocity and pythagaros problem.

    Homework Statement A ball is dropped from a height of 100 ft, at which time its shadow is 500 ft from the ball. How fast is the shadow moving when the ball hits the ground? The ball falls with velocity 32 ft/sec, and the shadow is cast by the sun.If i draw this in a cartesian cordinate...
  34. RadPhi

    How do speed laser guns differentiate between two cars?

    If two cars are traveling either in parallel or in close succession to one another how can a laser determine which car it is gauging the speed of?
  35. evinda

    MHB How can the polynomial $L_n(x)$ be used to solve the equation Laguerre?

    Hello! (Wave) The differential equation $xy''+(1-x)y'+ay=0, a \in \mathbb{R}$, that is called equation Laguerre, is given. Let $L_n$ be the polynomial $L_n(x)=e^x \frac{d^n}{dx^n} (x^n \cdot e^{-x})$ (show that it is a polynomial), $n=1,2,3, \dots$. Show that $L_n$ satisfies the equation...
  36. B

    Differentiate time derivative w/ respect to generalized var.

    Homework Statement Solve ∂v/∂θ and ∂v/∂r. (refer to attached image for equations) Homework Equations Refer to attached image. note that the velocity is expressed in cylindrical coordinates and attention must be paid to the directional unit vectors eθ and eρ.[/B] The Attempt at a Solution...
  37. T

    How to differentiate a term with respect to metric

    Homework Statement for example: ##\frac{\partial(F^{ab}F_{ab})}{ \partial g^{ab}} ## where F_{ab} is electromagnetic tensor. or ##\frac{\partial N_{a}}{\partial g^{ab}}## where ##N_{a}(x^{b}) ## is a vector field. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution i saw people write ##F^{ab}F_{ab}##...
  38. U

    How do I differentiate this Scalar Field?

    Homework Statement (a) Find the christoffel symbols (Done). (b) Show that ##\phi## is a solution and find the relation between A and B.[/B] Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Part(b) \nabla_\mu \nabla^\mu \phi = 0 I suppose for a scalar field, this is simply the normal derivative...
  39. L

    MHB Can someone help me find the derivative of y=$\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x}}}$?

    Hi, this is my online homework exercise. I think I did it right, but the system gives me wrong answer... Can someone please check what I did y=$\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x}}}$...