Cosmology Articles

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dark energy supernova

Dark Energy Part 3: Fitting the SCP Union 2.1 Supernova Data

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In Part 1 of this 3-part series, I explained kinematics in Einstien-deSitter (EdS) cosmology and in Part 2, I explained kinematics in ##\Lambda##CDM cosmology…
dark energy cosmology lcdm

Dark Energy Part 2: LCDM Cosmology

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This is Part 2 of a 3-part series explaining evidence for so-called “dark energy” leading to a current positive cosmological acceleration. The evidence…
Dark Energy Cosmology Part 1

Dark Energy Part 1: Einstein-deSitter Cosmology

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In this 3-part series, I want to motivate the (re)introduction of the cosmological constant ##\Lambda## into Einstein's equations of general relativity…
Evidence for Big Bang

Universe FAQ ‘Is there Evidence for the Big Bang?’

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Evidence for the big bang can be provided from observational astronomy using Hubble’s law (redshift of galaxies) also known as the ‘Doppler effect’…
Cosmic Web Connections

The Evolution of the Universe, Cosmic Web and Connections

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The universe was not perfectly uniform when it started, some areas had higher density than others. During the evolution of the universe, these areas of…
Gaia search for black holes

Gaia and the Race to Detect More Gravitational Waves

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Gravitational waves (GW’s) are disturbances in spacetime produced by any massive object moving asymmetrically. However, only the most massive and most…

3 Possible Models For Why Uranus Spins on Its Side

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Uranus spins on its side. Uranus has an obliquity (tilt) of 98º, making its axis of rotation closer to the ecliptic plane than any other planet. It is…

Black Holes Are Not Empty Voids. A Black Hole at the Heart!

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Black Holes (BH’s) are curious because of their mysterious nature and unknown properties. BH’s are not empty voids. They are astronomical objects…
What is Mass Inflation

What is Mass Inflation? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition/Summary Abstract from Poisson and Israel's 1990 paper, 'Internal structure of black holes'-'The gravitational effects associated with the…
Star Equations

Equations of State for Photon Gas and Relativistic Electron Gas

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This Insight develops equations of state that are useful in calculations about cosmology and about the insides of stars. The first calculation is for a…
isotropy definition

A Formal Definition of Large-Scale Isotropy

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This Insight is part of my attempt to develop a formal definition of 'large-scale isotropy', a concept that is fundamental to most cosmology, but that…
universestart

Where Did the Big Bang Happen?

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According to standard cosmological models, which are based on general relativity and are found to agree well with observations, time and space did not…
steadystate

What Is the Steady-state Model and Why It's No Longer Viable

[Back in 2011, I wrote a FAQ entry for physicsforums on the steady state model and why it is no longer viable. I've learned more about the theory since…
CosmologicalHorizons

Inflationary Misconceptions and the Basics of Cosmological Horizons

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Introduction It is a common saying that during inflation "space expanded faster than the speed of light."  This statement is meant to articulate the…
neutrino

Neutrino Masses and Speed

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It was hard to miss the 2011 OPERA neutrino speed measurement that indicated superluminal neutrino speeds (and turned out to be a measurement error), but…