# Mathematics Articles

Mathematics as the study of “relationships” rather than “patterns” but they are obviously closely related(!). There is a field of mathematics called “category theory” that is just about as abstract as you can get (the textbook, in the preface, said category theory is often called “abstract nonsense” with no sense of that being derogatory at all).

A category has “objects” and “relations”. The collection of all sets is a category with sets as objects and functions between them as “relations”. The collection of topological spaces is a category with the topological spaces being the objects and continuous functions from one topological space to another being the relations.

## Articles for: mathematics ### Epsilontic – Limits and Continuity

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Abstract I remember that I had some difficulties moving from school mathematics to university mathematics. From what I read on PF through the years, I… ### Differential Equation Systems and Nature

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Abstract "Mathematics is the native language of nature." is a phrase that is often used when it comes to explaining why mathematics is all around in natural… ### Beginners Guide to Precalculus, Calculus and Infinitesimals

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Introduction I am convinced students learn Calculus far too late.   In my view, there has never been a good reason for this.In the US, they go through… ### What Are Numbers?

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Introduction When doing mathematics,  we usually take for granted what natural numbers, integers, and rationals are. They are pretty intuitive.   Going… ### Classification of Mathematics by 42 Branches

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I often read questions about our classification scheme that we use on physicsforums.com to sort posts by science fields and subjects, what has… ### Évariste Galois and His Theory

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* Oct. 25th, 1811  † May 31st, 1832 ... or why squaring the circle is doomed. Galois died in a duel at the age of twenty. Yet, he gave… ### The History and Importance of the Riemann Hypothesis

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Riemann Hypothesis History The Riemann Hypothesis is one of the most famous and long-standing unsolved problems in mathematics, specifically in the field… ### The Extended Riemann Hypothesis and Ramanujan’s Sum

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Riemann Hypothesis and Ramanujan's Sum ExplanationRH: All non-trivial zeros of the Riemannian zeta-function lie on the critical line. ERH: All… ### The Amazing Relationship Between Integration And Euler’s Number

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We use integration to measure lengths, areas, or volumes. This is a geometrical interpretation, but we want to examine an analytical interpretation that… ### The Analytic Continuation of the Lerch and the Zeta Functions

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Introduction In this brief Insight article the analytic continuations of the Lerch Transcendent and Riemann Zeta Functions are achieved via the Euler's… /
Introduction This bit is what new thing you can learn reading this:) As for original content, I only have hope that the method of using the sets $$C_N^n:… ### SOHCAHTOA: Seemingly Simple, Conceivably Complex 7 Comments / What is SOHCAHTOA SOHCAHTOA is a mnemonic acronym used in trigonometry to remember the relationships between the sides and angles of right triangles.… ### How to Find Potential Functions? A 10 Minute Introduction 0 Comments / Definition/Summary Given a vector field ##\vec F(x,y,z)## that has a potential function, how do you find it? Equations$$\nabla \phi(x,y,z) = \vec F(x,y,z)… ### What is a Linear Equation? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition/Summary A first-order polynomial equation in one variable, its general form is $Mx+B=0$ where x is the variable. The quantities… ### What are Significant Figures? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition/Summary Significant figures (commonly called "sig figs") are the number of figures (digits) included when rounding-off a number.For example,… ### How to Write a Math Proof and Their Structure

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Proofs in mathematics are what mathematics is all about. They are subject to entire books, created entire theories like Fermat's last theorem, are hard… ### What is a Fibre Bundle? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition/Summary Intuitively speaking, a fibre bundle is space E which 'locally looks like' a product space B×F, but globally may have a different… ### What is a Real Number? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition of real numbers Real numbers are a comprehensive set of numbers that encompasses all possible values on the number line. They include both… ### What is a Parabola? A 5 Minute Introduction

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What is a Parabola? A parabola is a U-shaped curve in mathematics that is defined by a specific set of points. It is a fundamental geometric shape that… ### What Is a Limit of a Function? A 5 Minute Introduction

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What is a limit? In mathematics, a limit is a fundamental concept used to describe the behavior of a function or sequence as it approaches a particular… ### What is a Tangent Line? A 5 Minute Introduction

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Definition/Summary The tangent to a curve in a plane at a particular point has the same Gradient as the curve has at that point.More generally, the… ### Lie Algebras: A Walkthrough The Representations

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Part III: Representations  10. Sums and Products. Frobenius began in ##1896## to generalize Weber's group characters and soon investigated… ### Learn Lie Algebras: A Walkthrough The Structures

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Part II: Structures5. Decompositions.Lie algebra theory is to a large extend the classification of the semisimple Lie algebras… ### Learn Lie Algebras: A Walkthrough The Basics

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Financial options (the right to purchase ("call") or sell ("put") stock (or other assets)) at a fixed price at a future date have been around for a long… ### How to Self Study Abstract Algebra

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There are three big parts of mathematics: geometry, analysis, and algebra. In this insight, I will try to give a roadmap towards learning basic abstract… ### An Interesting Ramsey Theory Riddle

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Ramsey theory has its origins in a very nice riddle Consider a party of 6 people. Any two of these 6 will either be meeting each other for the first time… ### How to Self Study Intermediate Analysis Math

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If you wish to follow this guide, then you should know how to do analysis on ##\mathbb{R}## and ##\mathbb{R}^n##. See my previous insight if you wish to… ### Intro to the Millennium Prize Problems

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IntroductionIn this Insight, I will go over the background information for the Millennium Prize problems and briefly describe three of them. A future… ### An Intro on Real Numbers and Real Analysis

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It is important to realize that in standard mathematics, we attempt to characterize everything in terms of sets. This means that notions such as natural… ### Learn About Matrix Representations of Linear Transformations

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Let X and Y be finite-dimensional vector spaces. Let ##T:X\to Y## be a linear transformation. Let ##A=(e_1,\dots,e_n)## and ##B=(f_1,\dots,f_m)## be ordered… ### Why Do People Say That 1 And .999 Are Equal?

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Why do people say 1 and 0.999... are equal? Aren't they two different numbers?No, they really are the same number, though this is often very counterintuitive… ### Is There a Rigorous Proof Of 1 = 0.999…?

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Yes.First, we have not addressed what 0.999... actually means. So it's best first to describe what on earth the notation $$b_0.b_1b_2b_3...$$… ### The History and Concept of the Number 0 