What is Maxwell 3d: Definition and 30 Discussions

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
It was first defined and used for describing particle speeds in idealized gases, where the particles move freely inside a stationary container without interacting with one another, except for very brief collisions in which they exchange energy and momentum with each other or with their thermal environment. The term "particle" in this context refers to gaseous particles only (atoms or molecules), and the system of particles is assumed to have reached thermodynamic equilibrium. The energies of such particles follow what is known as Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, and the statistical distribution of speeds is derived by equating particle energies with kinetic energy.
Mathematically, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is the chi distribution with three degrees of freedom (the components of the velocity vector in Euclidean space), with a scale parameter measuring speeds in units proportional to the square root of




{\displaystyle T/m}
(the ratio of temperature and particle mass).The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a result of the kinetic theory of gases, which provides a simplified explanation of many fundamental gaseous properties, including pressure and diffusion. The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution applies fundamentally to particle velocities in three dimensions, but turns out to depend only on the speed (the magnitude of the velocity) of the particles. A particle speed probability distribution indicates which speeds are more likely: a particle will have a speed selected randomly from the distribution, and is more likely to be within one range of speeds than another. The kinetic theory of gases applies to the classical ideal gas, which is an idealization of real gases. In real gases, there are various effects (e.g., van der Waals interactions, vortical flow, relativistic speed limits, and quantum exchange interactions) that can make their speed distribution different from the Maxwell–Boltzmann form. However, rarefied gases at ordinary temperatures behave very nearly like an ideal gas and the Maxwell speed distribution is an excellent approximation for such gases. Ideal plasmas, which are ionized gases of sufficiently low density, frequently also have particle distributions that are partially or entirely Maxwellian.The distribution was first derived by Maxwell in 1860 on heuristic grounds. Boltzmann later, in the 1870s, carried out significant investigations into the physical origins of this distribution. The distribution can be derived on the ground that it maximizes the entropy of the system. A list of derivations are:

Maximum entropy probability distribution in the phase space, with the constraint of conservation of average energy



{\displaystyle \langle H\rangle =E}
Canonical ensemble.

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  1. jdiab11

    Problem with Ansys Maxwell "current leak to the air"

    Hi everyone, I am currently trying to simulate an electric plasma arc (tip to tip configuration), same as the one shown in the picture here, I made the vacuum region such as it is 50% from the sides, and touches the current in and out region However when I run the analysis, I am getting the...
  2. Melon

    Maxwell 3D number of conductors question

    Hi guys, I wonder when I have defined the strand number of litz wire in copper material properities in Maxwell 3D, should I keep number of conductors in coil terminal added in a winding the same as number of of litz strand? For example, 2 for strands litz wire and then 2 for number of...
  3. Melon

    Maxwell 3D & Icepak thermal simulation for a air coil

    Hi Guys, I am doing a Maxwell 3D&Icepak thermal simulation for a air coil. I want to get its temperature when loading 1.6A current. So I use Eddy Current type in Maxwell 3D and Temperature and Flow type in Icepak. Then I load 1.6A solid current and adaptive frequency of 800 MHz for the coil...
  4. A

    Time dependent current input in Ansys Maxwell 3D

    Hi guys, I am new to this phorum and Ansys Maxwell as well. I am trying to pass as an input a time dependent current, but I really do not know how to do it. Does anyone know how to fix this issue? Cheers, Alessio
  5. ajbroadbent

    Curved Mesh on Symmetry Boundary in ANSYS Maxwell 3D

    I figured this would be the best place to ask as there doesn't seem to be a FEM/Simulation specific sub-forum here, but I am looking for some help regarding mesh generation in ANSYS Maxwell. I have an array of "micro-needles" that I am applying a voltage to in order to determine the electric...
  6. R

    How to Connect Coils in Series in Ansys Maxwell 3D?

    Hello everyone, wondering if you can give some help with ansys Maxwell 3D modelling. I'm working on the design of a new type of transformer and according my drawings and calculations I need to physical connect (not mutually-inducted) three coils in the secondary side of the transformer, they...
  7. M

    Maxwell 3D. error: The solved region is not connected

    Hello all, I am working on a simple induction system consisting of 2 coils (separated by a distance) and the ferrite cores modeled with Maxwell 3D I want to run the optimization tool to define the best distance between the coils in order to have a high coupling factor between them. I am...
  8. GauravU

    Open circuit test of 3 phase transformer in Ansys Maxwell

    Hi all, I am designing a three phase 11000/433 Volts Delta/Star 50 Hertz transformer in Ansys Maxwell. It has 792 turns in 6 layers on HV side (132 turns per layer) and 18 turns in 2 layers (9 turns per layer). The resistance as I have calculated is 0.1325 ohms per phase of HV winding and 5.57...
  9. C

    Get core loss in Maxwell 3D eddy current solution type

    Hi. I use maxwell 3D eddy current solution type. i want to find out core loss. please help me.
  10. Ahsan Elahi

    Maxwel 3D Wireless Power Transfer setup simulation errors

    Dear All, i am new to Maxwell 3D software. i want to simulate my Wireless Power transmission Project in Maxwell, for this purpose i took help from different toturials whic abled me to draw the Tx and RX coils...i want to simulate these coils to calculate the values of L, M, K and etc. but i am...
  11. E

    Torque Analysis for Electromagnetic Retarder on MAXWELL 3D

    Hello everyone! I have a thesis about electromagnetic retarders. I need to do torque analysis for retarder; but I don't know how to do it on Maxwell 3D. I've tried Eddy Current solition; but analysis results didn't comply to electromagnetic retarder's torque charasteristic. Could anyone help me...
  12. A

    Can I draw a helical coil in MAXWELL 3D using PF and ANSYS?

    I'm a new user to both PF & Maxwell 3D. I've been having a lot of problems trying to draw a helical coil in Maxwell 3D v11. the problem is how to connect the two tub in 3D here is the image imported MAXWELL...
  13. M

    Help with ANSOFT MAXWELL 3D Magnetic material

    Hi I'm having an issue ANSOFT MAXWELL : Assigning a permanent magnetic material to a body (for ex NDFE35) provides me a means of setting the magnetization direction (through x,y,z unit vectors ) inside the material settings so if i have multiple PM bodies rotated :- 1- do i need to create a...
  14. P

    Maxwell 3D Analysis error -- please somebody help with the error

    hi dear friends i face with this error in Maxwell 3d analysis please help me Surface recovery failure. Possible reasons: (1). Model has multiple objects with thin layers. (2). Complex model with object overlapping. (3). True surfaces are skewed what should i do?
  15. M

    How can I successfully simulate a Transient 3D solver using ANSOFT MAXWELL?

    Hi All, I'm starting using ANSOFT MAXWELL and stuck in simulating a Transient 3D solver i'm simulating a simple permanent magnet setup (attached an image) to examine fields/forces/motion M1 is rotating around Z-Axis while M2 is fixed out of the motion setup I'm seeking some guidance to get...
  16. P

    How to simulate a coil in Ansoft Maxwell 3d?

    Hello, I want to simulate a coil of a transformer in Maxwell (3D), but my problem is: the coil design is not a closed path. Imagine that you draw a ring and then you cut part of it. You get something like a "letter C". In these two terminals I`m going to put an excitation (100A, for...
  17. S

    Ansys maxwell 3d material library

    hi everybody. i just wonder. can we add new material library in ansys maxwell 3d(v.16) manually. especially magnets?
  18. S

    Learn How to Create a Linear Motor Project in Maxwell 3D - Beginner's Guide

    hi. I am new at maxwell. i have work on some examples but i want to learn how can i do a linear motor project. i didnt find any examples ( pdfs ). where can i find some pdfs?
  19. S

    Maxwell 3D Fatal Error: Solve Your Issue Now

    hi. I am new at maxwell 2D and 3D. i found some pdfs and examples. I am working on the rotational actuator example which in that pdf 1. and i got an error: Fatal internal error (2:14:49 Eyl 09, 2013) Simulation completed with execution error on server: Local Machine. (2:14:49 Eyl 09, 2013)...
  20. J

    Maxwell 3D - DC analysis on Human Body

    Hi, I am using a Human body model which I built for some simulation studies. I was trying to pass DC current through the Human body and though my Project completed the simulation successfully I got the below warning message. Can anyone please help me interpret it? The error log is as...
  21. A

    Tutorials for coil design in Maxwell 3D

    Hello people, I am interested in tutorials about coil design for Maxwell 3D. If anyone have good material or knows where to find it, let me know. Regards,
  22. J

    How to include a capacitor to an Ansoft Maxwell 3D eddy current design

    Hi experts, I wonder anyone of you have an idea on whether we can include a discrete component (specifically a capacitor) into an "Ansoft Maxwell 3D" eddy current design. Little more description: I do have a specific eddy current design with a coils. I need to add a series capacitor and...
  23. J

    Ansoft Maxwell 3d Closely coupled inductor

    Hello! I am having an issue with getting any graphs on inductance or induced voltage. In the attached circuit: What I have is a 28Vac source w/ 400hz and 2 coils (R=18.6ohm each) that are connected with a common. In the model: I have a core in the center that will be able to move up...
  24. L

    How to measure power in Ansoft Maxwell 3D ?

    Hi, I would like to measure the power give from a source to a transformer and measure the power consume by a RL component. I see only voltmeter and amperemeter in circuit editor, it's not possible de put wattmeter ? Or maybe there's another solution for find the power ? Thanks in advance ;)
  25. M

    Maxwell 3D eddy current simulation for a cylindrical wire

    Hi, I am trying to do a simulation for the current distribution in a cylindrical conductor wire using MAXWELL 3D. I used eddy current solver and assigned excitation of current 1A at both ends of the round wire. (I set length L=2mm, radius R=1mm) The field plot seems ok, having highest current...
  26. K

    How Can I Solve the Ansoft Maxwell 3D Error for Larger Simulation Regions?

    Hi, I'm tring to explore magnetic field of the contact system, but when I set the current on a face, i have the next error: "An external terminal must border the edge of the problem region and coincides with the surface of a 3D object" I solve this problem when I set region overlap with this...
  27. F

    A question about ansoft maxwell 3D 11.1 design

    hi all, i need some help about modeling a coil on maxwell 3D(transient analysys.).my problem is defining coil terminals.i have 6 coils(star connected) and 3 current source(star connected).i attached my work.coils are solenoid style winded.(ring style winding) and each coil has 130 turn.i...
  28. S

    How can I draw a helical coil in Maxwell 3D v11 without getting an error?

    Hello Everyone, I'm a new user to both PF & Maxwell 3D. I've been having a lot of problems trying to draw a helical coil in Maxwell 3D v11. There is a 'CreateHelix' function in Maxwell 3D & when I use this function (which has to be drawn on a 2D object), I get this error: [error] Body...
  29. G

    Getting Started with Maxwell 3D (ANSOFT)

    Dear all, I'm a new user and I like to exchange information about the use of this tool. From my point of view tool using should be done by suitable tutorial or guide but for this type of software I was unable to find anything useful in that sense. I'm a electronic engineer and like to know...
  30. J

    Maxwell 3D: Magnetic Torque Analysis and Tutorials

    Hello All, I have Maxwell 3D on my computer and I want to use it to do some 3D magnetic torqure analysis on some magnet designs that I am working on. I have created a model that I would like to simulate in AutoCAD and I want to transfer it to Maxewell to do the analysis. But I am not sure how...