1. ### A Water phase diagram

I notice that water phase diagrams provided online always seem to show a rather linear behaviour for the solid-liquid boundary (and an extremely steep slope). How is this modelled mathematically? Say we use the Clapeyron equation with ΔH and ΔV_m being constant, as online example problems...
2. ### Thermodynamic Phases

#Can somebody please explain what is the difference between single phase and homogeneous phase in context with thermodynamics? #Also in the fundamental relations in thermodynamics like dg=vdp-sdT , it says this is applicable to homogeneous phase of constant composition. Isn't this equation...
3. ### I Randomizing phases of harmonics

Suppose I decompose a discrete audio signal in a set of frequency components. Now, if I would add the harmonics I got, I would get the original discrete signal. My question is: if I would randomize the phases of the harmonics first, and then add them, I would get a different signal, but would it...
4. ### How to calculate the transition temperature in this problem?

Summary: The transition Sn(s, gray) ⇌ Sn(s, white) is in equilibrium at 18°C and 1 atm pressure. If ΔS = 8.811K mol for the transition at 18°C and if the densities are 5.75 g/cm3 for gray tin and 7.28 g/cm3 for white tin, calculate the transition temperature under 100 atm pressure The...
5. ### How does the phase noise of the LO effect IF accuracy?

Hi, I have a roughly 1.1 GHz signal to be downconverted to 100 MHz by mixing it with a 1 GHz local oscillator. I am not sure how to choose the performance of the LO. In particular: let's assume the LO has a jitter of 100 fs rms. At 1 GHz this corresponds to a frequency error of 100 kHz. Does...
6. ### Double slit intensity question

Homework Statement Homework Equations (1) Φ = 2π*(dsinθ/λ) (2) Itotal = I0 cos2(Φ/2) (3) Itotal = I0 cos2(πdy/λR) λ = 585 * 10-9 m R = 0.700 m d = 0.320 * 10-3 m y = ? The Attempt at a Solution a) I used eqn (1) and divided the total oscillations by a complete oscillation to find the...
7. ### I Phase shift and circular polarization

What is the phase difference between the right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized light of the same amplitude? And how do you calculate it?
8. ### B Phase angle and Phase in Simple harmonic motion

I'm a teacher at a Senior High School in Indonesia. I have two Senior High School physics books (Indonesian book) written about simple harmonic motion formula: y = A sin θ = A sin (ωt + θ0) = A sin 2πφ = A sin 2π (t/T + θ0/2π) phase angle = θ = ωt + θ0 phase of wave = φ = t/T + θ0/2π But I...
9. ### I Electromagnetic wave equation - phase and amplitude

There are some things that confuse me about electromagnetic waves, and I haven't found good answers anywhere. Consider the following equation: E=E0 e i(wt-kx) (here E and E0 are vectors, I couldn't find the right symbols). The things that confuse me are the following: 1° We say that the power...
10. ### I Frequency spectrum of phase shift

What does a 180 degree phase shift of a sinusoidal in a signal do to the frequency spectrum of the signal?
11. ### I Phase, Bloch sphere versus Feynman path

I am pretty sure that I would be comparing apples and oranges in this question, but as I usually learn something from the responses telling me in detail that my question is silly, here goes: Does the phase used as a weight in Feynman's path integral formulation (i.e., the quantum action S in...
12. ### I Phases of hydrocarbons in a compressed gas cylinder

I'm currently in the process of selecting gas mixtures to calibrate a gas chromatograph. One of the gas mixtures I'm interested in has the following composition by percent volume: methane (CH4): 95% carbon dioxide (CO2): 1% butane (C4H10): 1% acetylene (C2H2): 1% nitrogen (N2): 2% The gas...
13. A

### B Inverse phase sound wave where does energy go?

2 sound waves that are mathematical polarities cancel each other out according to my audio engineering book. I thought energy cannot be destroyed, just changed. Am I wrong? What happens to the energy? Same question could be applied to matter and anti matter right?
14. ### I Mixed states vs pure states - physical POV

Hey guys, I am having issues with understanding the physical nature of pure and mixed states. Maybe you can help me out? 1) A pure state - superposition is a state that consists of different states at the same time. It's like having several waves, each one belonging to an Eigenstate of the...
15. ### Voltage and current phase shifting/Current without voltage?

Hello, I've recently been learning about capacitance and inductance causing the current to lead or lag. But how can the current possibly maintain the same waveform? Shouldn't the zeros of voltage and current always align? How can there be current without voltage?
16. ### I Derivation of phase change parameter in dispersive medium

Hi, I'm trying to evaluate the derivates of first, second and third order of the phase change parameter in a dispersive medium. In such medium the refractive index is a function of the wavelength. In my case it depends on the wavelength in vacuum. \begin{equation*} n(\lambda_0 )\end{equation*}...
17. ### I Out of phase light/photons, would it be measurable?

With sound you can create out of phase signals and they cancel out, this is not possible with light as it does not interact like sound does. If it was possible to create two light sources in that were exactly 180 degrees out of phase with each other and aim them at a common point (eg an...
18. ### B For oscillations, why do we use angles in waves and oscillat

For example, the term angular frequency, it units is radian per second. For phase, it is also measured in radians or degrees, why is that? Why is the math the same when you use angles to describe oscillations?
19. ### I Is it possible to build a phase shifter from RLC components?

Say you have a circuit component with impedence Z(\omega). Is it possible combine it in some way to resistors, capacitors, and inductors, so as to shift the phase of the impedance by a constant?
20. ### Phase speed of the wave

Homework Statement transverse wave is traveling through a wire in a positive direction of the x-axes. Distance od the wire particles in the motion of the wave can be described as ##y(x,t)=53*10^{-6}sin(188t-3.14x)## Find the ratio of the phase wave speed and maximal speed of the wire particles...
21. ### Find TX turns ratio and 'class' questions?

Hi, Just made a small thought experiment on the train, haven't really thought about it in depth. I was just wondering, if I created the above scenario (open circuit secondary and a voltmeter), would I get a voltage (assuming there is a difference in turns for primary and secondary)? Neglecting...
22. ### A Reducing standing waves with phase randomization

Will constantly randomizing the phase of an audio signal, say a speaker in the corner of a square room, reduce standing waves (i.e. room modes) in the room? For example if you wanted to create a diffuse field in a small (i.e. no standing wave interference patterns) at low frequencies.
23. ### Efficacy of Balanced XLR Cables for Noise Reduction

When attempting to find an answer to the "quality" of sound one attains from various audio cables, most of the research leads to the very subjective answers of audio/sound engineers. I was hoping to gain some insight from a physics/engineering perspective. I'm curious if an expensive or...
24. ### I Rotational Inertia Gas vs Liquid

I am conducting an experiment that rotates a sealed donut cylinder to investigate amongst other things the inertia of the contained fluid. Process I rotate the cylinder to a set speed (assuming that the viscosity of the internal fluid will end up rotating the fluid to solid body rotation)...
25. ### A Is Phase Relevant for Uncharged Particles?

Global phase invariance has been identified with the conservation of electric charge. Local phase invariance via the coupling of the wave function/field with the EM four-vector has been identified with charged particles interacting with the EM field. Am I correct in assuming that, except for...
26. ### EM Wave: Phase of the electric and magnetic waves?

In a vacuum, the plane wave solutions to Maxwell's Equations are... E=E0*cos(wt-kr) B=B0*cos(wt-kr) ie they are in phase. (See for example https://www.physics.wisc.edu/undergrads/courses/spring08/208/Lectures/lect20.pdf http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/waves/emwv.html ) I don't...
27. ### Origin of latent heat

Hello, We often hear about latent heat of vaporisation for a liquid, which basically corresponds to the energy required to break the hydrogen inter-molecular bonds in the liquid phase to form the gas. I was wondering, what is the equivalent physical explanation for the latent heat of a...
28. ### Effect of Phase Lead Compensator on Phase and Gain margins

Homework Statement I was just wondering what was the general effect on phase and gain margins when a phase lead compensator was is added to a system. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
29. ### Phase Difference Help

Homework Statement There is a spring with 2 masses with a combined mass of 0.69kg. The vertical oscillation has a frequency of 1.5Hz. The amplitude of the oscillation is 30mm. Now this spring is attached to a horizontal support rod that can be made to oscillate vertically. how do i work out...
30. ### Crystal phase transition, Diffraction peak splitting problem

Homework Statement [/B] Hi there! This is a question from a practice problem sheet I got from the lecturer of my Condensed Matter 1 course. Below are the normal vectors to the {111} and {112} lattice planes: Homework Equations [/B] Bragg Condition: \begin{equation} n \lambda = d \sin...