# What is Spectrocopy: Definition and 69 Discussions

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1. ### A Question about detector and lens

Light from the sample is collimated light. For imaging, does the spectrometer requires a lens to focus the collimated light on the entrance slits of the detector. Using the beam splitter, the collimated light from the sample is directed toward the spectrometer. Previously, we used a lens to...
2. ### I'm trying to detect PFAS molecules in air samples...

Hi there, I'm working on a project where my aim is to detect the presence of PFAS (Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances) in air samples gathered by a system. I've done a ton of research, but most solutions are unachievable due to price and the available space (the system should be relatively...
3. ### A Coefficient correlation between 2 cosmological probes

Hello, I have the demonstration below. A population represents the spectroscopic proble and B the photometric probe. I would like to know if, from the equation (13), the correlation coeffcient is closed to 0 or to 1 since I don't know if ##\mathcal{N}_{\ell}^{A}## Poisson noise of spectroscopic...
4. ### I Coude Spectrograph vs Cassegrain?

What is Flux Throughput? Explain how there can be a flux throughput advantage in using a coude spectrograph compared to a Cassegrain spectrograph? I'm confused on what this actually means when comparing the two. Is it asking what are the seeing advantages in terms of resolving powers of a...
5. ### How much does the equivalent width of a line change by the introduction of 5% scattered light?

How much does the equivalent width of a line change by the introduction of 5% scattered light? We know the equivalent width is defined as We know the equivalent width is defined as $$W = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \bigg(\frac{1-F_{\nu}}{F_c}\bigg) \, d\nu$$ where ##F_{\nu}## represents the flux in...
6. ### ARPES calculations on graphene

Consider the attached screenshot. The work function of graphene is assumed to be 4.5 eV. 1. Does the work function correspond to the binding energy ##E_B## as given on Wikipedia? What is ##E## in ##E−E_F## in the graph on the right? 2. "...the Fermi level at the K-point..."; is this the point...
7. ### I How do Limb-Darkening curves differ at two different wavelengths?

Does the limb-darkening curve fall off faster at shorter wavelengths or at longer wavelengths?
8. ### I Why does a hydrogen gas tube produce a hydrogen atomic spectrum?

To measure the atomic hydrogen spectrum people often uses hydrogen gas tubes as light source. Since the gas in the tube is the molecule ##H_2## , why we obtain the spectrum of atomic hydrogen? My guess is that because the voltage is so high, so that the molecules are totally dissociated. If...
9. ### MATLAB Numerical approximation of the area under curve

I am very new too Matlab and how it all works but I am having trouble understanding at what axis the numerical integration is occurring from on the graph that I plotted. So I am currently doing an experiment in gamma ray spectroscopy and due to issue with the software we found it hard to...
10. ### What is the Role of Spectroscopic Monitoring in Fusion Reactors?

Research interests the spectroscopic monitoring of the scrape off plasma layer of fusion reactors.
11. ### Spectrum of hot gas uniformly mixed with dust

hey! EDIT: I didn’t post this in homework help because there aren’t any computational questions, it’s just conceptual My assignment scenario consists of a star (blackbody) surrounded by an expanding shell of hot gas. I’m given its spectrum and it is a continuous emission spectrum. Emission...
12. ### Stimulated emission per second per atom?

Homework Statement We are investigating hydrogen in a plasma with the temperature 4500 ºC. Calculate the probability per atom and second for stimulated emission from 2p to 1s if the lifetime of 2p is 1.6 ns Homework Equations Planks radiation law: ##\rho (f) = \frac{8* \pi...
13. ### Calculating Quantum Defect for Na I 3p-nd, n=4-7 Terms

Homework Statement The spectrum shows the series 3p - nd, n = 4 - 7 in Na as well as the resonance line 3s - 3p, with the experimental vacuum wavelengths in Å.Calculate the quantum defect for the nd ##^2D## n = 4-7 terms. Estimate, as accurately as possible, the wavelength for 3p - 8d. The...
14. ### Probability per atom and per second for stimulated emission to occur

Homework Statement We are investigating hydrogen in a plasma with the temperature 4500 ºC. Calculate the probability per atom and second for stimulated emission from 2p to 1s if the lifetime of 2p is 1.6 ns Homework Equations ##A=\frac{1}{\Sigma \tau}## A_{2,1} = \frac{8*\pi *h *...
15. ### Solving for Hyperfine Constants in the 6s-8p Transition of 115In

Okey so I think this question or a similar one was here recently but I can't find it so creating a new. Homework Statement The figure below shows the hyperfine structure in the transition 6s ##^2S_{1/2} - 8p ^2P_{3/2}## in 115In (I = 9/2). The measurement is made using a narrow-band tunable...
16. ### How Do You Identify Spectral Lines and Calculate Fine Structure Constants?

Homework Statement The Ca spectrum below, recorded using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), shows the resolved ##3d4s ^3D - 3d4p ^3D## multiplet. The wavenumbers and their relative intensities are given in the table. Identify all the lines and determine the fine structure constants in the...
17. ### Intensity characterization of laser pulses

754/5000 I am using the fluroescence spectroscopy technique to obtain the fluorescence spectrum of exposed neuroblasts to uv radiation (355 nm) from a Nd:YAG source and I need to characterize the radiation pulses of the laser. Specifically, I use a spectrometer (Avantes brand) with integration...
18. ### A Surface states of 3D topological insulators

I have a question (more like a curiosity) related to three-dimensional topological insulators, which support Dirac-like states at their surfaces. From the theory, it is well known that these states are immune to scattering from non-magnetic impurities, i.e. impurities that do not break...
19. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 1: Introduction to NMR spectroscopy

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
20. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 2: The alignment of nuclear spins in presence of magnetic field

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
21. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 3: Introduction to rotating frame

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
22. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 4: Introduction to rotating frame

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
23. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 5: NMR Hardware

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
24. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 6: The concept of chemical shift

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
25. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 7: Factors that affect chemical shifts

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
26. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 8: Chemical shift referencing

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
27. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 9: J- coupling

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
28. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 10: Recap of basics

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
29. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 11: Introduction to general one dimensional NMR experiment

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
30. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 12: Practical aspects of recording a 1D NMR experiment I

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
31. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 13: Practical aspects of recording a 1D NMR experiment II

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
32. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 14: Practical aspects of recording a 1D NMR experiment III

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
33. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 15: NMR Data processing

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
34. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 16: Basic aspects of 1D proton NMR analysis

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
35. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 17: Analysis of an example 1D proton spectrum

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
36. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 18: Analysis of 1D 1H NMR spectra of molecules I

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
37. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 19: Analysis of 1D 1H NMR spectra of molecules II

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
38. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 20: 1D 13C NMR

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
39. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 21: Why do we need 2D NMR

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
40. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 22: A qualitative explanation of how 2D NMR experiment works

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
41. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 23: Principles of 2D COSY and Total correlation spectroscopy (2D TOCSY)

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
42. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 24: 2D NOE-spectroscopy

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
43. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 25: 2D NOESY and 2D ROESY

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
44. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 26: What is heteronuclear correlation NMR spectroscopy

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
45. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 27: Sensitivity enhancement of heternuclei via polarization transfer

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
46. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 28: Heteronucler multiple(2D HMQC) and single quantum NMR spectroscopy (2D HSQC)

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
47. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 29: Practical aspects of recording and processing 2D HMQC or HSQC

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
48. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture :30 HMBC and its utility

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10
49. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 31: 2D HSQC TOCSY and its analysis with examples

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50. ### NMR Spectroscopy by Prof. Hanudatta S. Atreya (NPTEL):- Lecture 32: Structure determination of molecules by NMR

All copyright strictly reserved to Prof. Atreya and NPTEL, Govt. of India. COURSE WEBSITE: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?redir_token=J3W-BvVF9P_QSjr1ljVg8I2O_Bl8MTUyNDU4NDYyMEAxNTI0NDk4MjIw&event=playlist_description&q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F104108078%2F10