What is Stress: Definition and 1000 Discussions

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is the relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence. That emphasis is typically caused by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length, full articulation of the vowel, and changes in tone. The terms stress and accent are often used synonymously in that context but are sometimes distinguished. For example, when emphasis is produced through pitch alone, it is called pitch accent, and when produced through length alone, it is called quantitative accent. When caused by a combination of various intensified properties, it is called stress accent or dynamic accent; English uses what is called variable stress accent.
Since stress can be realised through a wide range of phonetic properties, such as loudness, vowel length, and pitch (which are also used for other linguistic functions), it is difficult to define stress solely phonetically.
The stress placed on syllables within words is called word stress. Some languages have fixed stress, meaning that the stress on virtually any multisyllable word falls on a particular syllable, such as the penultimate (e.g. Polish) or the first (e.g. Finnish). Other languages, like English and Russian, have lexical stress, where the position of stress in a word is not predictable in that way but lexically encoded. Sometimes more than one level of stress, such as primary stress and secondary stress, may be identified.
Stress is not necessarily a feature of all languages: some, such as French and Mandarin, are sometimes analyzed as lacking lexical stress entirely.
The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress or prosodic stress. That is one of the three components of prosody, along with rhythm and intonation. It includes phrasal stress (the default emphasis of certain words within phrases or clauses), and contrastive stress (used to highlight an item, a word or part of a word, that is given particular focus).

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  1. Fractal matter

    I Move Stress-Energy tensor to the left side of EFE?

    Is it possible to move Stress-Energy tensor to the left side of EFE? R=T => R-T=0. Relativists move cosmological constant Λ to the right side of EFE. Can we move SE tensor to make a vacuum?
  2. Mohmmad Maaitah

    How Does Stress Affect a Hollow Pipe When Force Is Uniformly Applied?

    Hi, I've problem thinking about this problem isn't the force acting on "nothing"? how can there be any stress, I'm lost!
  3. ATT55

    Stress in cylinders due to thermal expansion

    I have two concentric thick cylinders in close tolerance (currently 50 micron gap), with a thin layer of glue between them. Internal cylinder is made from steel and external cylinder is made from ceramic (so the thermal expansion coefficient is not the same) The assembly is headed form inside...
  4. P

    Longitudinal Stress of a body

    Stress = F(restoring)/ Cross sectional area Stress = 2F/A
  5. A

    Engineering Maximizing Thread Strength: Stress Analysis on M10 Bolt with 100 kg Load

    A load of 100 kg acting in the axial direction is applied to a nut coupled with a standard M10 bolt. The nominal thread diameter is 10 mm; pitch is 1.5 mm. Thus, the stress acting on a single thread in the bolt is: 1000 N / (0.25 * pi * (10 mm - 0.93194 * 1.5 mm)^2) ≈ 17.21 MPa 17 MPa seems...
  6. B

    Engineering Calculating stress and strain in complex loading scenario

    A bar is 100mm long and has a 20mm by 10mm cross section. It is subject the following complex loading a tensile load of 10,000N along its length a compressive load of 100,000N on its 100mm by 20mm faces a tensile load of 100,000N on its 100mm by 10mm faces Calculate the stress and strain on...
  7. morpheus343

    Engineering Combined loading, where is the neutral axis?

    Left side is fixed and right side is held together by a non deformable plate. There are two members with space inbetween. My question is when i want to calculate the stress due to bending moment at point A, which is shown in the crossection, where is the neutral axis? Is it at the middle of the...
  8. D

    Understanding von Mises stress

    The formula for von Mises stress for a plane stress (2d) condition with no shear stress is: So if S1 = 1000, S2 = 0 , then Svm = 1000. If the S2 is now increased from 0 to 500. The von Mises stress will go from 1000 to 866 I understand this is how the equation works, but can someone give me...
  9. T

    A The field equations of elasticity

    First, my ignorance... I know there are classes of equations: Laplace, Poisson, Wave, Diffusion, etc. (I suppose Laplace is a subset of Poisson, but that is not the issue). Into what category of mathematical equations would you place the field equations of elasticity (stress/strain/displacement)?
  10. milkism

    Maxwell Stress components of the energy-stress-momentum tensor

    Question: Solution: I need help with the last part. I think my numerical factors are incorrect, even if I add the last term it will get worse. What have I done wrong, or is there a better way to deal with this?
  11. salamikorv

    Engineering Shear stress problem: What decides the sign of Tau_V?

    Im so confused on these solutions here for the shear stresses. Why is Tau_V sometimes negative and sometimes positive? Can someone please explain this and maybe illustrate? Here for example. Heres the solution for problem b): Here Tau_V (talking about F_xQ/(Ir) ) is negative, so how im...
  12. StenEdeback

    I do not understand stress energy tensor for fluids

    I do private studies on my own for fun and right now I read about relativistic field theory as a preparation for later studies of quantum field theory. I simply do not understand where equation 13.78 in Goldstein's "Classical Mechanics" third edition comes from. Please explain. Please also...
  13. Hamiltonian

    Basic Stress and Strain question -- Rock on top of a vertical column

    a) I can find the compressive strain on the aluminium column using the formula ##\sigma = E\epsilon## as we know ##\sigma = F/A##. The area of the column is ##A = \pi r^2 = 0.126m^2## and the force on the column is ##F = 300*(9.8)N = 2940N##. The stress therefore is ##\sigma =...
  14. E

    Engineering Normal and Shearing Stress - Combined Loading

    Here is my combined loading: The book solution for normal and shear stresses respectively are: a) ##20.4~\text{MPa}, 14.34 ~\text{MPa} ## - I find both b) ##-21.5~\text{MPa}, \boxed{19.98~\text{MPa}}## - I find the normal stress, but I'm not getting the book answer for the shear stress...
  15. S

    Engineering Understanding stress analysis of truss bridges

    Hi im trying to understand truss bridges. Where would max stress be in single span truss bridge if it was evenly loaded across the bridge? I thought single span truss bridge, max stress would be in the ends of the bridge. it would act like a simple supported beam with max bending motion being...
  16. J

    Box Beam stress problem with welding

    Hello All, I'm trying to figure out how to strengthen a box beam that's been welded to another box beam. In the photo on the left is 2 beams welded to each other, they are 2x1" Aluminum 6061-T6, with a 1/8" wall thickness. The yellow lines indicate the location of the weld. A force of 216 lbs is...
  17. S

    Engineering FEA question (stuck): Stress analysis on this Connecting Rod

    Hey Im doing FEA and got stuck on question. The diagram go me stuck, because looking through the workbook it says high stresses are in red and low in blue, whereas they included both different kind of stresses on the same diagram and no data. Note: High Compressive strains are noted by blue...
  18. L

    A Going from Cauchy Stress Tensor to GR's Energy Momentum Tensor

    Why do the Cauchy Stress Tensor & the Energy Momentum Tensor have the same SI units? Shouldn't adding time as a dimension changes the Energy Momentum Tensor's units? Did Einstein start with the Cauchy Tensor when he started working on the right hand side of the field equations of GR? If so, What...
  19. M

    Engineering Calculating the safe load of a glued structure with given shear stress

    I have tried to calculate the safe load with the equation of maximum shear stress, A = 4*6*10^-4, and the given shear stress 5MPa, but I couldn't seem to get the right answer which is 18kN.
  20. F

    How does the glottis affect stress and unstress sounds in English?

    Is that correct: in stress sound the glostis is more open and in unstress sound the glostis more narrow?
  21. N

    Engineering An issue with these two curved beam homework problems

    Hi, good evening/morning/night! I have a problem with this 2 homework problems about curved beams. In both I must calculate the stress at points A and B. My procedure is correct, but for some reason in: First problem - the effort in A is very close to that of the teacher, but the effort in B...
  22. T

    A Contravariance, Covariance, stress and position vector

    Good Morning! I understand that a vector is a physical object I understand that it is the underlying basis that determines how the components transform. However, I encounter this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covariance_and_contravariance_of_vectors The fifth paragraph has this statement A...
  23. kyrosboi

    Stress in a spinning flywheel

    I'm wonder how one could calculate the total mega pascals total mega pascals that can be applied to a spinning flywheel before it exceeds its tensile strength example: a cast iron flywheel is spinning at 10,000rpm(Tangential velocity = 104.72) it has a radius of 100mm and a weight of 500g...
  24. A

    Load and Stress; 3 angles with different shapes corners

    Summary: Each angle has a different type of corner, rectangular, circular, and triangular. Which one is the strongest? All three angles are mounted in the ground and made of the same material. The same force ‘w’ towards the ground is acting on all angles, which one is the strongest? Please...
  25. S

    Ultimate tensile stress of material

    My answer is A but the answer key is B. I don't understand why B. I would think B is the breaking point. Thanks
  26. D

    How Do Multiple Wires Affect Stress Distribution in Steel Brackets?

    Hi, I have developed a catenary software that calculates the tension force resulting from the wire and now I am working on suitable fixing methods and including the option for this within the software. Has anyone got any guidance on working out the stresses applied on the attached...
  27. FEAnalyst

    Stress in rectangular vessel subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    Hi, it's not easy to find formulas for stress in rectangular pressure vessels. However, I've found some in a Polish book titled "Podstawy konstrukcji aparatury chemicznej" (Fundamentals of the design of chemical process equipment) by J. Pikon. The problem is that the book provides equations for...
  28. lavalite

    Searching for compressive stress of silica aerogels

    I have no formal training in any type of engineering, so if my request is confusing, I apologize. I believe I am seeking data on the ultimate internal stress of various silica aerogels in compression mode. I found a paper published by Dylan J. Boday where CVD of cyanoacrylates was used to...
  29. N

    Does bolt preload reduce the bearing stress on positioning pins?

    Hi all, I have some detailed design work coming up designing bolted/pinned interfaces, so I’m doing some examples trying to remember what I learned at uni. I would like to calculate the stresses in bolts and pins of a hypothetical mechanical assembly, but I have a question before I get started...
  30. C

    A Perturbation of Maxwell stress from voltage distribution

    I have a voltage distribution ##V(x,y) = V_{dc}(x,y)+ V_{ac}(x,y) \cos(\omega t)##, I have derived the Matrix e. But I do not know how to extract it from the voltage, meaning I do not know how to find ##E_{x0} , E_{y0}, \delta E_{x}, \delta E_{y}## in terms of ##V_{dc}(x,y), V_{ac}(x,y)##...
  31. FEAnalyst

    Corrugated tube (bellow) under axial load

    Hi, I'm trying to verify the results of a finite element analysis of a corrugated tube (bellow) subjected to axial load. Here are my analytical calculations based on Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain (originally the formulas are from the article "On the Theory of Thin Elastic Toroidal...
  32. M

    Mechanics of Materials — Torsional Stress on a Spinning Shaft

    Summary:: Torsional stress on freely spinning shaft? Hey guys, I’m having some confusion with a certain section of the “Torsion” chapter in my mechanics of materials book: “power transmission”. Please see the problem below. This is very easy to SOLVE (basically plug and chug with the...
  33. greg_rack

    Engineering Transverse shear stress calculation in non-slender built up members

    Hi guys, this is an exercise I have been tasked to solve for an assignment. First of explaining you what I have done to solve it using the shear equation, in order to find the maximum shear stress and the shear flow in the juncture, one big question: how is it legal to utilize the shear formula...
  34. A

    Engineering Why are the radial and the axial stress in a rotating thin ring null?

    Greetings, while studying the stress in the rotating thing ring and find out the last equation that says I would like to understand why? Thank you!
  35. D

    I Cauchy Stress Tensor in Applied Strength of Materials

    I am in a course in applied strength of materials and we often use the 3D stress tensor for stress analysis of materials i.e. Mohr's circles, bending, torsion, etc. Is the stress-energy tensor in relativity basically a 4-d extension to the Cauchy stress tensor commonly used in mechanical...
  36. curiousPep

    Hertzian contact pressure & shear stress

    Hello, I am trying to get some intuition about the direction of the shear stress caused by the Hertz contact pressure. Once I exert some pressure downwards on a spherical object the direction of the Hertz pressure will be upwards. However, this case some shear stress to exist, but I can't see...
  37. jim mcnamara

    Does oxidative stress play a role in Covid and its severity?

    If you already kind of understand anti-oxidant effects on inflammation jump past the "background" paragraphs Background anti-oxidant: Mitochondria produce energy in the cell, primarily from Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle is another name). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like H2O2 Hydrogen...
  38. U

    COMSOL: Newton's Iteration reached - Stress testing sensor

    It is a sensor with a fixed surface and a prescribed displacement on the opposite To remove this message error, I have tried to Increase iterations Refined mesh Applied parametric studies And some other ideas from forums However it still cannot be solved It also has a warning of MUMPS out...
  39. T

    A Covariant Derivative of Stress Energy Tensor of Scalar Field on Shell

    Hi all, I am currently trying to prove formula 21 from the attached paper. My work is as follows: If anyone can point out where I went wrong I would greatly appreciate it! Thanks.
  40. ergospherical

    Studying How can I manage my anxiety and meet work deadlines during a stressful week?

    Two questions, but one thread will suffice. 1) Feeling very tired/foggy and haven't felt naturally motivated to work much at physics in the last couple of weeks, instead opting for distractions and a fair bit of idling. Is this a sign of burnout, or does this sound normal? 2) Due to some...
  41. B

    Big Robot- Lattice boom crane - calculating maximum stress

    Hello brilliant engineers. How to calculate the bending stress of a lattice boom crane design? It’s clear how to calculate a single chord in a lattice box, at least as a cantilevered tube. However, when placed in a box lattice what is the proper approach? I’m constructing this crane in...
  42. D

    Prandtl stress function for circular bar in torsion

    For a Prandtl stress function to be valid, it must be zero on the boundary. For a circular bar, both of these work: $$\phi_1 = C\left(\frac{x^2}{r^2}+ \frac{y^2}{r^2} - 1\right)$$ $$\phi_2 = C \left(x^2+ y^2- r^2\right)$$ But performing the integration for the internal torque M gives...
  43. D

    Lewis Bending Stress: Why Does Lewis Factor Depend on x?

    How come in the lewis bending equation for spur gear tooth does the lewis form factor depend on x? x being the vertical distance measured from the triangle that is formed from the base t and fillet a. I know that you can express the height h and width t in terms of x such that x= t^2/4h, but why?
  44. A

    Dependence of the stress vector on surface orientation

    According to Cauchy's stress theorem, the stress vector ##\mathbf{T}^{(\mathbf{n})}## at any point P in a continuum medium associated with a plane with normal unit vector n can be expressed as a function of the stress vectors on the planes perpendicular to the coordinate axes, i.e., in terms of...
  45. U

    COMSOL: stress on a sensor, how to use infinite element domain?

    At the risk of waiting hours on simulations of a sensor, I was wondering if I could use infinite element domain on COMSOL to simplify it. The first image consists of what I would like to simulate but found out that the simulation time is a huge factor as I have a lot to simulations to conduct...
  46. paulsterx

    Question on hoop stress tension in rotating objects

    Hi, I have a question about hoop stress or tangential force acting within a spinning object such as a solid flywheel. As described in a textbook I’ve seen, the hoop stress tension force acting as if across the diameter of the object, trying to pull it apart, is a resultant of forces acting...
  47. FEAnalyst

    Hyperelasticity - Mooney-Rivlin stress equation

    Hi, as I've mentioned in this thread, I am looking for analytical solutions for simple loading cases involving hyperelastic materials. It turned out that the literature on rubber part design might actually be a good lead. In a rather old (written in 1989) Polish book "Gumowe elementy sprężyste"...
  48. Moara

    Engineering Maximum normal stress and shear stress

    First, I am trying to find the external reactions in A and B, but I have only one equation relating ##V_A## and ##V_B##, what other relation could I use ? Once I find the reactions, I can find the external moment as well. Then, I may draw the diagram of moments in each cross section and then...