In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is the relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence. That emphasis is typically caused by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length, full articulation of the vowel, and changes in tone. The terms stress and accent are often used synonymously in that context but are sometimes distinguished. For example, when emphasis is produced through pitch alone, it is called pitch accent, and when produced through length alone, it is called quantitative accent. When caused by a combination of various intensified properties, it is called stress accent or dynamic accent; English uses what is called variable stress accent.
Since stress can be realised through a wide range of phonetic properties, such as loudness, vowel length, and pitch (which are also used for other linguistic functions), it is difficult to define stress solely phonetically.
The stress placed on syllables within words is called word stress. Some languages have fixed stress, meaning that the stress on virtually any multisyllable word falls on a particular syllable, such as the penultimate (e.g. Polish) or the first (e.g. Finnish). Other languages, like English and Russian, have lexical stress, where the position of stress in a word is not predictable in that way but lexically encoded. Sometimes more than one level of stress, such as primary stress and secondary stress, may be identified.
Stress is not necessarily a feature of all languages: some, such as French and Mandarin, are sometimes analyzed as lacking lexical stress entirely.
The stress placed on words within sentences is called sentence stress or prosodic stress. That is one of the three components of prosody, along with rhythm and intonation. It includes phrasal stress (the default emphasis of certain words within phrases or clauses), and contrastive stress (used to highlight an item, a word or part of a word, that is given particular focus).
Hi,
I am interested in the topic of hand calculations of chain link's strength. I am talking about a regular industrial chain with hanging weight. From what I've read, there are 3 potentially possible approaches:
- Lame's problem (circular cross-section has to be replaced with equivalent...
Hi,
one can easily find formulas for Hertz contact stress in various cases (two spheres, two cylinders and so on) when force is applied to one of the bodies. But how to get the equivalents of those formulas when prescribed displacement is used instead of stress ?
For example, I’ve found this...
I have a weight of 30,000 lbs distributed across a span of 100' and supported at the ends. If I have 3 beams to support this load, each beam would then need to hold 10,000 lbs, and with a F.S of 1.6 each beam would need to hold 16,000 lbs. If I assume my max deflection at 1", then I can find the...
During lecture today, we were given the constitutive equation for the Newtonian fluids, i.e. ##T= - \pi I + 2 \mu D## where ##D=\frac{L + L^T}{2}## is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient ##L##. Dimensionally speaking, this makes sense to me: indeed the units are the one of a pressure...
I have a solid cylinder of diameter 40mm and length 14mm and I have used plane stress approximations in my calculations so far. I know for to assume a thin walled cylinder/tube the wall thickness needs to be less than 1/20 of tube or cylinder diameter. However, what I have found so far is that...
Force lines method is used in Solid Mechanics for visualization of internal forces in a deformed body. A force line represents graphically the internal force acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. The force lines show the maximal internal forces and their directions.
But...
While introducing tensile stress, we're shown a bar fixed at a support being subjected to a force in the axial direction at the opposite end. Then, since the bar is in translational equilibrium, we say that internal forces must balance it out, and this internal resistance per unit area is known...
Hi. I'm a physician trying to understand the micromechanics of lung injury due to overdistension. The basic idea is that overstretching of the plasma membrane of the lung epithelial cell causes "stress failure" --> i.e. plasma membrane rupture --> cell death. The concepts of stress, strain, and...
Hi,
some time ago I wondered if it's possible to calculate fatigue life (number of cycles to failure) for complex models analytically, based on static FEA results: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/fatigue-life-hand-calculations-based-on-static-fea-results.994264/
Unfortunately, it seems...
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in mechanics of materials books one may easily find fomulas for stress and strain in thin- and thick-walled cylindrical pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure. However, it is assumed that they are open. So what are the formulas for stress and strain in capped vessels (with flat or...
Consider a pipe. The pipe is not crushed by the air pressure because the same air pressure is acting from inside the pipe. But this means that the material of the pipe is being compressed on both sides by some air pressure. So is it correct to say that the through-thickness stress in the pipe...
Hi. Say you apply a moment on a beam and bend it into an arch. If you take a free body diagram of a section of the beam you would need normal stresses in the radial direction to balance the forces:
I have never seen this brought up before though -- is it correct logic? Also, is this sort of...
I have few conceptual doubts in fluid mechanics. Here is the one I will ask first.
I want to understand the force direction acting on the solid liq interface during fluid flow, Lets say a fluid is flowing in a pipe. Now the fluid applies a shear stress at the walls of pipe in the direction of...
A simply-supported steel beam with a vertical point force P is shown in
Fig. 2(a). A cross-section of the beam, which is composed of two identical C-shaped
members bolted back-to-back, is shown in Fig. 2(b). Both C-shaped members have a
uniform thickness of 1 cm. Pairs of bolts are located at a...
I was initially curious by the fact that streamlines around a circle appear the same as the lines of stress around a hole:
I understand that streamlines are the contour lines of the stream function ##\psi## which satisfies the Laplace equation. I was wondering there is a related function for...
A chimney has a rectangular cross-section with external dimensions 800 × 600 mm and wall thickness 150 mm. It is 5 m high. The density of the material is 2000 kg/m3. Assuming that the material is elastic, calculate the maximum uniform wind-pressure loading (N/m2) that...
What's really the difference between pressure and normal stress? Also I know pressure acts normal to a surface from the outside
Do normal stress acts from inside?
I'm reading bird transport phenomena and this is confusing
Summary: In terms of stress, strain & deformation, what is better for a given component. 1) low stress or high stress 2) less strain or large strain 3) less deformation or large deformation?
Some dimensional changes were made in an existing component to study how these changes effect the...
what does it mean that fluid cannot sustain a force that is tangential to its surface.which surface fluids's surface or container?
and what does it mean it cannot withstand shearing stress.what's shearing stress and what does it mean here.and why exert force only in direction perpendicular to...
If I can determine the weight of that heavy object placed on the plank, I will be able to determine the stretch of that wire. But, when using the second condition for static equilibrium (torques of the system equal to 0), I always end up with two unknowns, no matter what point of rotation I...
Hi! This is my first post on here. I need to purchase an air cylinder, most likely hydraulic. The cylinder will have a forming die attached on the end and will be used to crimp two small stainless steel tubes together. The crimp will occur at an offset of .004 inches from each end of the tubes...
1)In a flowing fluid in laminar fashion we know that it flows in planes which slides over each other, Lets take a fluid element (cylindrical) in a pipe(Radius=R) the resistive force is (stress)(cross section area of cylinder with radius 'r') acting in backward direction, now if I take Flow...
How to find the angular speed, on which a spinning hollow cylindrical body breaks due to inertial stress(force)?
I found 2 sources(http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Cams_Springs/Flywheels.html (last 2 equations) ...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
ΔL=LαΔT
σ=EΔL/L
The Attempt at a Solution
For part a, I used the coefficient of linear expansion for copper and the change in temperature to find the change in length (0.068%). I thought part b had the same answer. The two are attached, and I would...
Homework Statement
A titanium disk (with ##E=107 ~GPa##, Poisson's ratio, ##v=0.34##) precisely ##l_0=8~mm## thick by ##d_0=30~mm## diameter is used as a cover plate in a mechanical loading device. If a ##P=20~kN## load is applied to the disk, calculate the resulting dimensions, ##l_{01}## and...
Homework Statement
I am following a textbook "Seismic Wave Propagation in Stratiﬁed Media" by Kennet, I was greeted by the fact that he decided to use cylindrical coordinates to compute the Stress and Strain tensor, so given these two relations, that I believed to be constitutive given an...
Hello there,
I am having a problem to solve in exams. I think it's because am freezing but that's just a speculation. I am a physics-math junior and I study really well, solve without looking at solutions and focus and understand the material.
Yet whenever I enter an exam I can always solve the...
Homework Statement
See attached photo
Homework Equations
Stress = F/A
Area = pi d^3 / 4
Sum F h = 0, Sum F v = 0, Sum M = 0
The Attempt at a Solution
Hey everyone, after reading the question a number of times and not knowing for certain where to start, I figured because the stress and area...
Hi folks,
I'm currently working on a final year project on the design of a plunger pump. The most recent area I have been studying is the loading on different joints in the pump. For a simplified example I have determined the maximum torque load on the crankshaft from the plungers for the...
A plate is riveted with a rivet having small rod like projection over the head and the point as shown in drawing.Considering we fix the plate to a vise,and then giving torque to the Rivet Rod;What will be the Maximum Torque the rivet can withstand without getting loosened and how to calculate...