What is Gut: Definition and 59 Discussions

Gut microbiota, gut flora, or microbiome are the microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and fungi that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals including insects. The gastrointestinal metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is the main location of human microbiota.

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  1. ohwilleke

    I Can Core Theory Be Derived From Nine Lines?

    Christoph Schiller, "From maximum force to physics in 9 lines -- and implications for quantum gravity" arXiv:2208.01038 (July 31, 2022). This paper asserts that nine propositions can be used to derive the Standard Model and GR and can point the way to quantum gravity, although he cheats a bit...
  2. jim mcnamara

    Long Covid and gut microbiotic changes

    https://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2022/01/05/gutjnl-2021-325989 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/gut-bacteria-may-play-a-role-in-the-development-of-long-covid The immune system is disrupted by Covid - e.g., cytokine storm. This disruption appears in the genetic "makeup" of fecal...
  3. enorbet

    Medical DNA of Gut Bacteria Scores Hits in Autism?

    Greetings Since genome sequencing is apparently having a major impact on medical science, just to name one field, I am interested in hearing/reading more about this recent event regarding autism. It seems to me this could have far-reaching implications and possibly major impact on how we view...
  4. jim mcnamara

    Could Gut Bacteria Exist in the Brain Tissue of Mammals?

    This article discusses some findings. The findings show a possibility: gut bacteria may coexist in the brain tissue of mammals. Humans are mammals. There is room for skepticism in the endeavor so far. Example: contamination of cadaver brain tissue samples. The reason for this position on...
  5. C

    B What was matter like during the GUT and Electroweak Epochs?

    Hi all, I was reading about the history of the early universe today, and there were some things that I did not understand. In particular, I do not understand the concept of "spontaneous symmetry breaking." After reading the Mexican Hat analogy many times, here is my best understanding of it...
  6. Ranku

    I Grand Unified Theory and proton decay

    How far ahead are we in Grand Unified Theory? Are we still searching for proton decay?
  7. ohwilleke

    I Do these equations have a non-trivial solution?

    I was reading the following article that tries to use some equations originally proposed by Pauli in 1951 to reason from one of two reasonably plausible axions that there are tight constraints on the fundamental particle content and mass spectrum of the Standard Model together with BSM...
  8. DoobleD

    I Why the GUT epoch ended at ~10^-36 s ?

    I read that the GUT epoch is estimated to have ended at around 10-36 s, but I can't find any proof or derivation for this. Anyone knows ?
  9. N

    B Understanding the GUT Scale: Merging Fundamental Forces at High Energies

    So I've heard it talked about how how at high energies all the strength of all fundamental forces are expected to merge together to single force, but don't quite get how you get from "all the forces have the same strength at high energies" to "all the forces are really the same force."...
  10. K

    I Implications of no proton decay, simplest GUT ruled out

    Search for Proton Decay via p→e+π0 and p→μ+π0 in 0.31 megaton⋅years exposure of the Super-Kamiokande Water Cherenkov Detector M. Miura (The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration) (Submitted on 12 Oct 2016) We have searched for proton decay via p→e+π0 and p→μ+π0 using Super-Kamiokande data from April...
  11. wolram

    Gut feelings: How the microbiome may affect mental illness

    I suffer with bipolar , how would this help me? https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161207093019.htm All of us who have experienced a 'nervous stomach' under periods of stress suspect that there is a link between our gut and our mood. Now researchers have received strong scientific...
  12. W

    Replenish Gut Flora: Options Beyond Fecal Transplant

    Antibiotics often killed off good bacteria species in our guts. Are there any ways to replenish them, other than the unpleasant fecal transplant procedure? A search on this topic mostly return recommendations on healthy diet and probiotics. I reckon these can only help surviving species, and...
  13. AJPsi

    A Has This Mysterious Mathematical Group Been Identified in Physics Research?

    While investigating various aspects of generalised least action principles over the last several years I have come across an algebraic mathematical group that I am finding hard to classify but whose root vectors should relate to the standard model (no it is not E8 ! nor any exceptional group I...
  14. P

    Time in a Hot Big Bang - No GUT

    I was thinking about the concept of Unification at extreme energies, and how the symmetry breaking / condensation as a result of universal expansion resolves the necessary fields for our universe. As such, it stands to reason to consider a Hot Big Bang as candidate for the arena to allow for the...
  15. Buzz Bloom

    Question about time and/or temperature of GUT symmetry breaking

    I understand there are quite a few GUT candidates. I also understand that among these candidates some are considered by the theoretical physics community to be more likely to be correct than others. I am curious about what each of the various GUT candidates predicts as the time (relative to...
  16. Spinnor

    Gut biome of old, productive, healthy people, things in common?

    If we looked the gut biome of old, productive, relatively healthy people, would their biomes likely have things in common? Similarities in their diets? If we looked at the biome makeup of top athletes would there likely be some similarities? If we feed ten rats the same meals for long periods...
  17. ohwilleke

    Theory of Everything (TOE) Without a Grand Unified Theory (GUT)

    Normally, we think about a grand unified theory (GUT) that unifies the standard model forces and particles into an overarching unified framework, as a pre-requisite to a theory of everything (TOE) which adds quantum gravity to a GUT. But, developments of both beyond the Standard Model physics...
  18. S

    Why are leptons antibaryons in gut?

    Why does gut preserve B-L, not B+L? Also, does weak interaction see both baryons and leptons as particles? Is the helicity required for weak interaction the same (left) for both baryons and leptons and the opposite (right) for both antibaryons and antileptons?
  19. N

    How many scalars are needed in GUT theories?

    Hello, I don't know much about GUT physics, but I've been wondering whether these models usually breaks the grand unified symmetry to the standard model all at once, or multiple times at different energies. And in the case of multiple breakings, how many Higgs-like scalars are needed...
  20. K

    Alternatives to GUT and GUT Epoch

    I went to a science museum last weekend and saw timeline of the big bang. There is a "GUT Epoch" mentioned at the beginning but then how can this be when GUT (Grand Unified Theories) was not proven due to lack of proton decay, etc. What other alternatives beyond the standard model if the strong...
  21. F

    GUT vs Quantum gravity unification

    So why the hot pursuit of QG while GUT unification does not look even attainable. None(AFAIK) of the QG theories seem to address this question (GUT), or am I wrong.
  22. K

    Can Feynman rules be adapted for Grand Unified Theory?

    Hi all, Having learned much about technicalities in Grand Unified Theory, I have known that it's basically pursuing the belief that coupling constants of all interactions converge to the same value. My question is, do Feynman rules still hold in this theory (b/c each type of interaction...
  23. H

    Medical Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases

    This is looking to fit quite well with the hygiene hypothesis of autoimmunity, and the implications are ridiculously enormous. What do you think...
  24. retro10x

    Exploring GUT Research: Choosing Courses and Fields for Post-Graduate Study

    So I'm interested in doing research regarding a GUT after I graduate, but I don't know the best way to go about this. In regards to choosing my senior level courses, which courses should I be taking? Should I start thinking experimental or theoretical? I know this is a pretty wide subject...
  25. S

    Geometrical GUT: Einstein's Unfinished Quest

    Hi PF! When Einstein was done with his General theory of Relativity, he was trying to build upon this theory, through different approaches, like the Kaluza-Klein theory, to try to build a classical theory of everything, which was purely geometrical. Since this wasn't successful throughout the...
  26. A

    Programs Following your gut feeling when making deciding on a major?

    Hey, I'm having trouble deciding on my major. I wonder how you guys knew that the major you chose was the one for you. Did you rely on your "gut feeling"? Is it reliable? Or is logic better, in terms of knowing that you are good in that particular subject, there are good job prospects with that...
  27. T

    What Should I Study Next: SUSY, LQG, String Theory, or GUT?

    I've been studying, just for pleasure, but studying in the end, a lot about QFT and its prerrequisites reaching some not so bad understanding of the Standard Model. I know that I still have to fill a lot of gaps, but nevertheless, I am looking for some new topic to start reading (while I fill...
  28. J

    GUT Unifying Underlying Fields: Is It Beyond the Standard Model?

    i understand GUT to be an effort to unify the 3 (4) basic forces - gravity, EM and electro-weak, and strong. however, i also read that the standard model is not actually a theory of particles - it is a field theory, in that particles are accepted as manifestations of fields, rather than actual...
  29. J

    Will a GUT or TOE be mathematical

    Most if not all laws of physics are not mathematical, rather statements that define the way mathematical models must follow. They have been laid down by intuition and observation. So how can something like string theory based on maths be expected to achieve a GUT or TOE if it does not know...
  30. D

    Godel's theorem, Hawking and GUT

    Hi all, :smile: Stephen Hawking extended the Godel's Theorem to physics and hence expressed that single TOE does not exist. So, :shy: does that mean that single GUT cannot exist as well? I guess not, in a sense that GUT might not necessarily mean TOE. I just want opinions. Sincerely DPA
  31. L

    Inflation and electroweak and GUT vacuum

    Before Higgs symmetry breaking of SU(2)xU(1) electroweak unified force or even before that, when strong and electroweak were unified as GUT theories propose, the vacuum was different from today's universe. What effects had these different vacua on the evolution of the universe? thanks
  32. G

    Medical Can Kissing Affect Your Gut Bacteria and Digestion?

    Basically the question is: Can your gut flora change slightly by kissing a lot? Will it have an effect on your digestion? Can you change weight because of this? It kind of works in lab experiments with mice and it exists for babies.
  33. S

    Understanding SO(10) GUT Representations

    Hi, all! I am about to learn how GUTs (specifically SO(10)) work, but I am stuck already at the different representations. In SO(10) models all particles are in a \overline{16}. Since \overline{16} x \overline{16} = 10 + \overline{126} + 120, one can couple Higgs fields transforming as...
  34. lpetrich

    What are the proposed gauge-symmetry groups for Grand Unified Theories?

    I first thought of posting on cataloguing various Grand Unified Theory proposals, but that would be an enormous task, so I decided on something simpler: cataloguing proposed GUT gauge-symmetry groups. The unbroken Standard-Model symmetry is SU(3)C * SU(2)L * U(1)Y QCD: SU(3)C -- color...
  35. L

    Is a Grand Unifying Theory Possible? Exploring the Evolution of Physical Laws

    Hi, New member, first post. Is a Grand Unifying Theory even possible? If there is evolution on our planet, why would there not be an evolution of the laws of the universe? What we theorize, test and measure may be true of our universe at this time point, but could it not be that at...
  36. R

    Does a GUT have to have gravity involved?

    To make a grand unified theory "complete", does it have to involve gravity? If gravity is more of a warp of space-time, and less of an actual force, then do we already have a grand unified theory (since we have combined the other 3 forces), or do we NEED gravity to be a force to have a GUT.
  37. lpetrich

    GUT Mass Unification Predictions

    I'm trying to see how well I understand the issue of GUT mass unification, since I have trouble finding references that collect mass-unification predictions. The first problem is renormalizing from accelerator-accessible energies to GUT energies. That's sensitive to the particle spectrum in...
  38. E

    GUT viable w/o SUSY? Could GUT be physically wrong?

    One argument in favor of SUSY is that without SUSY, the running gauge coupling unification do not meet for the three forces, but with SUSY they meet around 10^15 GEV. This implies that gauge coupling most meet for GUT to be viable. So without SUSY, the running gauge couplings do not meet. If...
  39. R

    What Does the Kinetic Term of the SO(10) GUT Lagrangian Look Like?

    Can you please tell me some resource or link that has the lagrangian for SO(10) GUT written explicitely term by term? Any version of SO(10) GUT is fine(I mean based on the way the symmetry is broken)
  40. E

    Has proton decay falsified SO(10) GUT?

    I know that proton decay has falsified SU(5) based around 10e30 years. What proton decay of SO(10)? Are SUSY SU(5) and SUSY SO(10) still viable? If the experiment continues with a null result, what models are next in line to be falsified? Could protons last forever and thus falsfy...
  41. marcus

    Grav. + GUT (Gravity from a Particle Physicist's perspective)

    http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.5167 Gravity from a Particle Physicist's perspective R. Percacci Lectures given at the Fifth International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, Cuiaba, Brazil April 20-24 2009. To appear in Proceedings of Science (Submitted on 27 Oct 2009) "In these lectures I review...
  42. E

    If GUT are false, are string-based unification also false?

    Are all string theory based unification of 4 forces predicated on GUT? If GUTs (whether SU(5) to SO(10)) are all false, and not the way nature works, does this mean that string theory unification is also false?
  43. E

    Could GUT be wrong (i.e unrealized in nature)?

    I understand the logic for GUT, proton decay, SU(5), SO(10) manifest at extremely high energies, as well as SUSY-extensions, has it been ever seriously considered that GUT is unrealized in nature? Fundamentally new physics takes over at higher energy, and therefore SM 200 Gev level energy...
  44. MTd2

    U(1)XSU(2-N): The Silliest GUT Ever?

    So, I was thinking, SM symmetry group is U(1)XSU(2)XSU(3), so, why not going on, that is: U(1)XSU(2)XSU(3)XSU(4)XSU(5)X...XSU(N), N-> infinity Did anyone ever try that?
  45. M

    Question about Higgs fields in SU(5) GUT.

    [[Mod. note -- I have "repaired" various non-ASCII characters as best as I can, but it's *much* safer if postings are submitted in 7-bit-ASCII only. In particular, Microsoft Windows "smart quotes" tend to get quite mangled before they arrive at s.p.r moderstors' mailboxes... :( -- jt]] In the...
  46. S

    GUT Model Rank 4: Georgi-Glashaw SU(5) & Lie Algebras

    I hope this is the right place to ask this question: Why does GUT Model has to have a rank of at least 4 (Such as Georgi-Glashaw Model of SU(5) )? In Georgi's Lie Algebras book it vaguely states that they correspond to the generators S, R, T3 and T8, where S and R are generators of U(1) and...
  47. M

    Why Do GUT Theories Only Use Left Spinors?

    Why in every single text about GUT theories only the left spinors are used? Why use the conjugate of the spinor instead of the spinor itself? Is it just a another historic definition? Thanks
  48. N

    Why Are Force Unification Scales Different in Physics?

    Since the coupling strengths of strong force,weak force and electromagnetic force meet at the scale of 10^16 GeV,then why weak force and electromagnetic force are unified at the scale of 10^2 GeV? We may see the two coupling strengths' curves are not intersect at this scale... And further,why...
  49. mjsd

    What Are the Best Introductory Resources for SU(5) GUTs?

    Can anyone suggest a textbook/paper or two that serves as a good intro/reference to reps of SU(5), SU(5) GUTs and embedding the SM? I am looking for something that is beginner-ish to medium technicality. A reference of some sort that summaries all basic results and properties. thanks in...
  50. arivero

    Moon and GUT scale coincidences

    A couple years ago it was typical to see in articles, and to hear in conferences, specially when discussing about the hierarchy or about meeting of the coupling constants at GUT scale, of some other examples of misleading coincidences. The most prolific example was the coincidence between the...