What is Deuteron: Definition and 31 Discussions

Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol 2H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1). The nucleus of a deuterium atom, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutrons in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (0.0312% by mass) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water).
The name deuterium is derived from the Greek deuteros, meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934 "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen". Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated.
Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of the stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter. The analysis of deuterium–protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium–protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of Earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet.Deuterium–protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.

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  1. J

    Expectation of Kinetic Energy for Deuteron

    Dear Forum, I am solving for the expectation value of the kinetic energy for the deuteron (Krane problem 4.3). I must be missing something since this has become far more complicated than I remember. The problem is as follows: ## <T> = \frac{\hbar^{2}}{2m} \int_{0}^{\infty}...
  2. J

    Deuteron Transcendental Equation

    Dear Forum, I am trying to solve a problem (4.6) from the introductory nuclear physics textbook by Krane. The problem is as follows: Solving the deuteron using the radial equations gives the transcendental function, ##k_{1} \cot{k_{1}R} = -k_{2}## Were ##k_{1} =...
  3. TopologyisGeometry

    Plotting the radial wave function of Deuteron in a finite well

    To plot ##u(r)## we need to find the solutions for each region. Which is in the relevant equations part. Now, I have to do this numerically. Using python 3.7 I made an ##u## which is filled with zeros and a for loop with if/elseif statement, basically telling it to plot values for whenever...
  4. K

    I Asymptotic normalization coefficient of a deuteron

    Hello, I have been having trouble finding the ANC for the deuteron in the ground state and am wondering if someone knows where to find it? Thank you.
  5. M

    Why do 2 d not decay into alpha particle and neutral pion?

    Homework Statement The reaction dd → απ0 (where α is the Helium-4 nucleus and d denotes the deuteron) has never been observed. Why? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution [/B] So I checked first the masses to make sure energy/momentum are conserved and found out that mass of 2d is...
  6. Jasiu

    I Fusion reaction deuteron + tritium

    Hello. Where is come from the heat (about 17,59MeV) from reaction deuteron + tritium -> Alfa + netron + Q although sum of substrates's mass is greater than sum of products's mass?
  7. I

    How Often Are Proton and Neutron in a Deuteron Outside the Strong Force Range?

    Homework Statement How much of the time are the proton and neutron in a deuteron outside the range of the strong force? Suppose the strong force can be described by a spherical potential with parameters ##V_0 = 35 MeV##, ##R = 2.1fm##. The binding energy for deuteron is ##E_b = 2.22 MeV## and...
  8. Estartha

    Computing the Isospin of the Deuteron

    Homework Statement The deuteron is mostly a bound state of a proton and neutron with orbital angular momentum L=0 and spin S=1. To a good approximation we can neglect the proton-neutron mass difference and electromagnetic interactions, and treat the proton and neutron as two isospin components...
  9. ScepticAmatuer

    H2O, HDO, D2O equilibrium concentrations

    I have seen something to this effect stated dozens of times on the internet : "..because the deuterons and the protons are exchanging so quickly, you will end up with a statistical distribution: 25% H2O, 25% D2O, and 50% HDO." They are referring to a sample of water which is 50 atom %...
  10. ognik

    MHB Putting it all together: The Deuteron

    I would like to take a 'real' ODE where I have some intuition of what it represents, and take it through to eigenvalues and vectors. I chose a highly simplified model of Deuteron from earlier in the text. (later I might try the real thing) Given $ -\frac{\bar{h}^2}{2M}\nabla^2\psi...
  11. D

    Excited States of The Deuteron

    All textbooks and material that I've read on the topic state that the deuteron being a weakly bound system, has no excited state. They also go on to state that the deuteron exists as a mixture of ##^3 S_1## and ##^3D_1## states. So, are these states degenerate in energy? That is, are both of...
  12. S

    Why does the operator S_p - S_n in deuteron result in a zero expectation value?

    Hi, apologies if this is simple. I'm a bit confused with a piece of text from Introductory Nuclear Physics by Wong. It's talking about finding the expectation value of the magnetic moment of the deuteron. In the deuteron it is known the total spin quantum number is S = 1. In deriving the total...
  13. L

    4-momentum conservation (Deuteron + Photon)

    Homework Statement See attachment. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution So, \gamma + D \rightarrow p + n (E_1,\underline{k}_1) + (E_2,\underline{0}) = 2(E_3,\underline{k}_3) where I have assumed E3 ≈ E4 and k3 ≈ k4 as mn≈ mp and vp = vn then splitting E and K components up and...
  14. S

    Deuterium vs Deuteron and Pauli Exclusion

    Deuterium atom is an isotope of hydrogen [NP]e- that is a fermion. Would it be correct the model the deuteron [NP] nucleus as a boson, given that it has even number of particles ? That is, would it be correct to say that two deuteron [NP], as bosons, could occupy the same particle state...
  15. P

    Why does a deuteron nucleus have spin 1? Hydrogen spin 1/2?

    I'm learning about NMR and it's been stated that deuteron has a spin 1 nucleus and so should exhibit different behavior. Why? I've heard of electrons having spin, and now protons, but I don't see why the spin of a neutron should matter since it's uncharged. I'm thinking a spin of 1 means...
  16. E

    Deuteron Ground State / Perturbation Theory

    Homework Statement The deuteron ground state is made up of l = 0 and l = 2 states; a)Show this mixture cannot be an eigenstate of a central potential Hamiltonian b)Using first-order time independent perturbation theory, argue the potential must contain a term proportional to some combination of...
  17. Demon117

    Total nuclear spin of deuteron

    Hello all, I am having trouble understanding how this works. In Krane there arises a discussion on total angular momentum I of the deuteron. While it is true it has three components, namely the individual spins of the neutron and proton, but also the orbital angular momentum l of the nucleons...
  18. N

    Gamma ray spectroscopy of deuteron formation

    For my advanced physics lab course this semester, I recently conducted an experiment using a hyper-pure germanium detector to measure the energy of gamma rays released upon the formation of deuterium (DF). Essentially, I used a neutron source to bombard a hydrogen rich target (used both...
  19. A

    Which force mediates a reaction in which a pion and a deuteron form two protons?

    Which fundamental force mediates the reaction \pi^+ + D \rightarrow p + p? My initial assumption was the strong force because states only feature quarks (i.e. there are no leptons) but looking at it again I'm not 100% sure. Do I need to include colour factors? Could it be a neutral current...
  20. U

    What Determines the Parity of Deuteron Spin and Parity?

    Deuteron is given by j(p)=1(+) In my textbook it says that the observed parity of + for deuteron means that the orbital angular momentum quantum number, l, is even so is 0 or 2, and s=1. However, looking back the textbook also says that for odd-odd nuclei, the parity is given by the...
  21. R

    Why is a deuteron an antisymmetric singlet in

    Why is a deuteron an antisymmetric singlet in isospin: |\uparrow\downarrow>-|\downarrow\uparrow>=|0,0> whereas a proton and neutron that are separated are a combination of an antisymmetric singlet and a symmetric triplet: |\uparrow\downarrow>=|0,0>+|1,0> I don't understand the difference...
  22. K

    What is the Probability for Deuteron Hi in a Square-Well Potential?

    hi, Need help to calculate the probability for the proton and neutron in the deuteron to be found beyond the range of the nucleon-nucleon force, assuming a square-well potential. I used schrödinger equation and solved for the r<R, and r>R. then took into acount the continuity condition at...
  23. D

    What is the Mass of a Deuteron?

    Homework Statement A proton (1.6726×10-27 kg) and a neutron (1.6749×10-27 kg) at rest combine to form a deuteron, the nucleus of deuterium or "heavy hydrogen". In this process, a gamma ray (high-energy photon) is emitted, and its energy is measured to be 2.39 MeV (2.39×106 eV). Keeping all...
  24. Q

    Exploring Fusion Reactions in Stars: Proton + Deuteron to 3He + Gamma Ray

    Homework Statement One of the thermonuclear or fusion reactions that takes place inside a star such as our Sun is the production of helium-3 (3He, with two protons and one neutron) and a gamma ray (high-energy photon, denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma, ) in a collision between a...
  25. W

    Minimum Photon Energy for Deuteron Dissociation

    Another Nuclear Physics problem: Minimum photon energy for deuteron dissociation Homework Statement What is the minimum photon energy necessary to dissociate a deuteron. Take the binding energy to be 2.224589 MeV Homework Equations \gamma + 2H \rightarrow 1H + n \vec{P} = \vec{P_n}...
  26. P

    Deuteron Wavefunction Question

    Homework Statement This is the first question from a past exam paper I'm doing at the moment, and I'm not sure if it's a case that I'm doing something stupid, or if there is a problem with the question. Q: The wavefunction of a deuteron can be approximated by: \psi (r) = \frac{C}{r}...
  27. P

    Calculate that the proton and neutron in a deuteron

    You can calculate that the proton and neutron in a deuteron spend quite some time so far away from each other, that they are outside each others force range. Why doesn't the deuteron break up? Is it because of the binding energy?
  28. N

    Calculating Binding Energy & Forming Deuteron Nucleus

    How can the time of binding energy be calculated?If so how long does it take to form deuteron nucleus?
  29. Amith2006

    Dissociation of deuteron by gamma rays

    Homework Statement I have a doubt in the following problem. I get an answer which is slightly different from the book answer. 1) A 6 MeV gamma ray is absorbed and dissociates a deuteron into a proton and a neutron. If the neutron makes an angle of 90 degrees with the direction of gamma ray...
  30. B

    Heavier proton, lighter deuteron?

    Hi, The mass of a bound system of quarks (e.g. proton) is larger than the mass of its constituents. You could say this is because the mass of the system corresponds to the energy in the color field, which is larger when the quarks are closer (even if the force is weaker then). For a bound...
  31. J

    Binding Energy of the Deuteron

    It seems that for the case of the Electron in the Ground State of the Hydrogen Atom that when the value of the Binding Energy (13.6 eV), as calculated by Bohr, is divided by the separation distance (the Bohr Radius = 5.29 x 10^-11 m) we only get half of the Coulomb Force (4.11 x 10^-8 N) which...