Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol 2H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1). The nucleus of a deuterium atom, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutrons in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (0.0312% by mass) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water).
The name deuterium is derived from the Greek deuteros, meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934 "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen". Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated.
Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of the stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter. The analysis of deuterium–protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium–protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of Earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet.Deuterium–protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Dear Forum,
I am solving for the expectation value of the kinetic energy for the deuteron (Krane problem 4.3). I must be missing something since this has become far more complicated than I remember.
The problem is as follows:
## <T> = \frac{\hbar^{2}}{2m} \int_{0}^{\infty}...
Dear Forum,
I am trying to solve a problem (4.6) from the introductory nuclear physics textbook by Krane. The problem is as follows:
Solving the deuteron using the radial equations gives the transcendental function,
##k_{1} \cot{k_{1}R} = -k_{2}##
Were
##k_{1} =...
To plot ##u(r)## we need to find the solutions for each region. Which is in the relevant equations part. Now, I have to do this numerically. Using python 3.7 I made an ##u## which is filled with zeros and a for loop with if/elseif statement, basically telling it to plot values for whenever...
Homework Statement
The reaction dd → απ0 (where α is the Helium-4 nucleus and d denotes the deuteron) has never been observed. Why?
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
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So I checked first the masses to make sure energy/momentum are conserved and found out that mass of 2d is...
Hello. Where is come from the heat (about 17,59MeV) from reaction deuteron + tritium -> Alfa + netron + Q although sum of substrates's mass is greater than sum of products's mass?
Homework Statement
How much of the time are the proton and neutron in a deuteron outside the range of the strong force? Suppose the strong force can be described by a spherical potential with parameters
##V_0 = 35 MeV##, ##R = 2.1fm##. The binding energy for deuteron is ##E_b = 2.22 MeV## and...
Homework Statement
The deuteron is mostly a bound state of a proton and neutron with orbital angular momentum L=0 and spin S=1. To a good approximation we can neglect the proton-neutron mass difference and electromagnetic interactions, and treat the proton and neutron as two isospin components...
I have seen something to this effect stated dozens of times on the internet : "..because the deuterons and the protons are exchanging so quickly, you will end up with a statistical distribution: 25% H2O, 25% D2O, and 50% HDO." They are referring to a sample of water which is 50 atom %...
I would like to take a 'real' ODE where I have some intuition of what it represents, and take it through to eigenvalues and vectors. I chose a highly simplified model of Deuteron from earlier in the text. (later I might try the real thing)
Given $ -\frac{\bar{h}^2}{2M}\nabla^2\psi...
All textbooks and material that I've read on the topic state that the deuteron being a weakly bound system, has no excited state. They also go on to state that the deuteron exists as a mixture of ##^3 S_1## and ##^3D_1## states.
So, are these states degenerate in energy? That is, are both of...
Hi, apologies if this is simple. I'm a bit confused with a piece of text from Introductory Nuclear Physics by Wong. It's talking about finding the expectation value of the magnetic moment of the deuteron. In the deuteron it is known the total spin quantum number is S = 1. In deriving the total...
Homework Statement
See attachment. Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
So,
\gamma + D \rightarrow p + n
(E_1,\underline{k}_1) + (E_2,\underline{0}) = 2(E_3,\underline{k}_3)
where I have assumed E3 ≈ E4 and k3 ≈ k4 as mn≈ mp and vp = vn
then splitting E and K components up and...
Deuterium atom is an isotope of hydrogen [NP]e- that is a fermion. Would it be correct the model the deuteron [NP] nucleus as a boson, given that it has even number of particles ? That is, would it be correct to say that two deuteron [NP], as bosons, could occupy the same particle state...
I'm learning about NMR and it's been stated that deuteron has a spin 1 nucleus and so should exhibit different behavior.
Why? I've heard of electrons having spin, and now protons, but I don't see why the spin of a neutron should matter since it's uncharged.
I'm thinking a spin of 1 means...
Homework Statement
The deuteron ground state is made up of l = 0 and l = 2 states;
a)Show this mixture cannot be an eigenstate of a central potential Hamiltonian
b)Using first-order time independent perturbation theory, argue the potential must contain a term proportional to some combination of...
Hello all, I am having trouble understanding how this works. In Krane there arises a discussion on total angular momentum I of the deuteron. While it is true it has three components, namely the individual spins of the neutron and proton, but also the orbital angular momentum l of the nucleons...
For my advanced physics lab course this semester, I recently conducted an experiment using a hyper-pure germanium detector to measure the energy of gamma rays released upon the formation of deuterium (DF).
Essentially, I used a neutron source to bombard a hydrogen rich target (used both...
Which fundamental force mediates the reaction \pi^+ + D \rightarrow p + p?
My initial assumption was the strong force because states only feature quarks (i.e. there are no leptons) but looking at it again I'm not 100% sure.
Do I need to include colour factors? Could it be a neutral current...
Deuteron is given by j(p)=1(+)
In my textbook it says that the observed parity of + for deuteron means that the orbital angular momentum quantum number, l, is even so is 0 or 2, and s=1.
However, looking back the textbook also says that for odd-odd nuclei, the parity is given by the...
Why is a deuteron an antisymmetric singlet in isospin:
|\uparrow\downarrow>-|\downarrow\uparrow>=|0,0>
whereas a proton and neutron that are separated are a combination of an antisymmetric singlet and a symmetric triplet:
|\uparrow\downarrow>=|0,0>+|1,0>
I don't understand the difference...
hi,
Need help to calculate the probability for the proton and neutron in the deuteron to be found beyond the range of the nucleon-nucleon force, assuming a square-well potential.
I used schrödinger equation and solved for the r<R, and r>R. then took into acount the continuity condition at...
Homework Statement
A proton (1.6726×10-27 kg) and a neutron (1.6749×10-27 kg) at rest combine to form a deuteron, the nucleus of deuterium or "heavy hydrogen". In this process, a gamma ray (high-energy photon) is emitted, and its energy is measured to be 2.39 MeV (2.39×106 eV). Keeping all...
Homework Statement
One of the thermonuclear or fusion reactions that takes place inside a star such as our Sun is the production of helium-3 (3He, with two protons and one neutron) and a gamma ray (high-energy photon, denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma, ) in a collision between a...
Another Nuclear Physics problem: Minimum photon energy for deuteron dissociation
Homework Statement
What is the minimum photon energy necessary to dissociate a deuteron. Take the binding energy to be 2.224589 MeV
Homework Equations
\gamma + 2H \rightarrow 1H + n
\vec{P} = \vec{P_n}...
Homework Statement
This is the first question from a past exam paper I'm doing at the moment, and I'm not sure if it's a case that I'm doing something stupid, or if there is a problem with the question.
Q: The wavefunction of a deuteron can be approximated by:
\psi (r) = \frac{C}{r}...
You can calculate that the proton and neutron in a deuteron spend quite some time so far away from each other, that they are outside each others force range. Why doesn't the deuteron break up? Is it because of the binding energy?
Homework Statement
I have a doubt in the following problem. I get an answer which is slightly different from the book answer.
1) A 6 MeV gamma ray is absorbed and dissociates a deuteron into a proton and a neutron. If the neutron makes an angle of 90 degrees with the direction of gamma ray...
Hi,
The mass of a bound system of quarks (e.g. proton) is larger than the mass of its constituents. You could say this is because the mass of the system corresponds to the energy in the color field, which is larger when the quarks are closer (even if the force is weaker then).
For a bound...
It seems that for the case of the Electron in the Ground State of the Hydrogen Atom that when the value of the Binding Energy (13.6 eV), as calculated by Bohr, is divided by the separation distance (the Bohr Radius = 5.29 x 10^-11 m) we only get half of the Coulomb Force (4.11 x 10^-8 N) which...