What is Ray: Definition and 516 Discussions

Finland's Slot Machine Association or RAY (Finnish: Raha-automaattiyhdistys) was a government-supervised and -owned nonprofit gaming (gambling) association (statutory corporation) in Finland. On January 1, 2017 RAY merged with the government-supervised and -owned nonprofit betting agency Veikkaus and Fintoto. The new company that was founded as a result is also called "Veikkaus". RAY was a gambling monopoly whose proceedings went to domestic charity such as pensioner care and gambling addiction treatment. While RAY was best known for its slot machines, the company also dealt in online gambling and controlled the only official casino in Finland, Casino Helsinki.RAY's operations were governed by legislation and decrees. The operations of the other Finnish gaming organisations, Veikkaus and Fintoto, are also based on the Finnish Lotteries Act. The act was last amended in 2012.RAY's revenue came from slot machines, casino games, and casino and digital gaming. All the proceeds from RAY's gaming operations were used to support Finnish health and welfare, and these funding decisions were also based on legislation.The history of the Tuplapotti predecessor, the Potti game, dates back to 1986, and in the 1990s a newer version of it was developed that rose to much greater popularity than its predecessor. The game was developed by Veikkaus (by then known as RAY), and the game is still one of the favorite gambling games in Finland.

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  1. O

    How to calculate gamma ray energies following beta decay?

    This is what I have for my solution thus far: "For gold to transition to mercury, it must exchange one of it's neutrons for a proton via ##\beta##-decay. In order to find the energy of the emitted gamma rays, we must first find the excess rest energy ##Q## present after the ##\beta##-decay. The...
  2. C

    Ray reflecting off intersecting mirrors

    For this problem, The solution is, I don't understand how if ## \gamma < 0## then there will be multiple reflections? I don't understand how ##\gamma## can be negative. Many thanks!
  3. B

    B Gamma Ray Burst / Jet Questions

    The 1st photo is a Google image of a Gamma ray Burst in space, the image in the other photo is being emitted from a device I am playing around with. I am just wondering what is the cause of or what dictates the behavior of actual Gamma Ray Bursts in space vs whatever light patters are in the...
  4. P

    Find pupil locations w/ paraxial ray tracing (thick lens, Geary CH 5)

    Per the description given in the book, one can trace rays FROM the physical aperture stop into object space to find the size and location of the entrance pupil (EP). Also, one can trace rays FROM the physical aperture stop into image space to find the size and location of the exit pupil (XP). In...
  5. P

    I Paraxial ray tracing: fixing image/height w/o knowing stop location

    In recent coursework, I was taught that one locates the image and identifies the image height using the marginal and chief rays. These descriptions are: Marginal ray: that ray traced from [top or bottom] of the object, through the outermost edge of the stop. The place where that ray crosses the...
  6. Sciencemaster

    I Incorrect units when calculating cosmic ray muon flux

    I recently performed an experiment that involved using a cylindrical scintillator to detect cosmic ray muons by observing the amount of particles that decayed within 20 microseconds over a long period of time. I'd like to use this to find the flux of muons at my scintillator so that I can...
  7. sol47739

    I Postive rays in cathode ray tube experiments?

    I read in the following book A history of the sciences by Stephen F. Mason. About the discovery of the electron the write what I attached in the picture. I wonder what do these positive rays traveling in the opposite direction they talk about consist of? Some ions or what? I understand that the...
  8. K

    A Ray Tracing Simulator: Simulating Gaussian Beam in Bow Tie Cavity

    Hello! Is there any good free ray tracing simulator? I just want to simulate the behavior of a Gaussian beam in a simple bow tie cavity. Thank you!
  9. V

    Best layman non mathematical interesting book on Ray and wave optics

    A book on optics which is less mathematical maybe a similar one to physics for poets or gamow gravity classics
  10. A

    I Why do modern X ray images have better resolution compared to older ones?

    It just occurred to me while watching some old X ray images , what is the reason behind why modern X ray images have so much more detail than older ones especially really old ones from the beginning of the technology at the start of 20th century? I ask this because (unlike in a CT scanner which...
  11. Paulpaulpa

    I A ray crossing 2 media of different indices and energy conservation

    The ##I_i## are the intensity of the rays, in other words energy per surface units per radians by seconds. The d##\Omega## are the solid angles The equation p75 isis what I don't understand. I suppose that each side represent the energy going and out of the surface dS but I don't understand...
  12. GeniVasc

    I Wavelength of Light Ray Affected by Gravity

    I was reading Einstein's 1911 paper named "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" when stated the formula for frequencies measured by observers at different fixed positions (heights) on Earth surface. One observer is at the origin of some coordinate system and measures a...
  13. Mikkel

    Ultra high energy cosmic ray deflection angle causes by magnetic field

    I'm given an ultra-high energy cosmic ray with energy 10^20 eV. It is coming from a source 10 Mpc away with an extragalactic magnetic field with strength B = 10^-9 G. I am to determine the maximum angular deflection of this cosmic ray, so it hits Earth. I don't have an attempt of the solution...
  14. E

    I Ray tracing in the movie Interstellar

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03808 They are using Boyer-Lindquist coordinates for the Kerr metric. As far as I understand they also introduced a camera-fixed basis defining spherical coordinates ##\theta_{cs}## and ##\phi_{cs}## to keep track of the directions of the light rays relative to the...
  15. kspex2

    Two mirrors meet at a 135 degree angle.... (light ray question)

    I tried to use complementary angles and the law of reflection but I still have no idea how to find the angle.
  16. J

    Electronics How do sensors handle interference due to the reflected ray?

    I am unable to see how a sensor where the receiving and emitting instruments are next to one another deal with wave interference between the emitted and reflected wave.
  17. M

    Ray Kurzweil and What elements could exotic baryons create?

    I was reading the Exotic baryons page on Wikipedia and a cited source said that Ray Kurzweil, renowned Futurist said that at the end of the 21st century, we could use femtotechnology to create new chemical elements from exotic baryons that could create a new periodic table of elements. Here is...
  18. P

    What is the maximum depth to which a P-wave ray can travel?

    I've created an excel spreadsheet with the given model in addition to calculating radius of the layer by subtracting depth from 6371. I've calculated Zf. I've also found what I think is vs by doing alpha * (radius column/6371), but that could be wrong. I know I need to find where 20/6371 =...
  19. Ozen

    Ray Diagram for an Experimental Lens Systems

    Hello, I wanted to confirm a suspicion with how the Aimpoint optics work, but to do that I need to do some ray diagrams. I only ever did them with simple convex, concave, and spherical systems while at college. From what I already know of how reflex sights work, the LED is placed at the focal...
  20. Tone L

    Optical Measurements of the Sun's radiance and ray tracing

    Summary: This is a hobbyist project I am working on. I am building an instrument to measure radiance from the sun at 500 nm, using optically filtered photodetector with bandwidth ± 10 nm. This type of science can be called Sun Photometry, so let's get to it! Geometry for Optics: The sun has an...
  21. P

    Finding the height of a focus point via ray tracing @ Snell's Law

    So far all I can work out is that the angle of incidence of the outer two and inner two rays is zero degrees, however, I can't work out how to get started on the problem. I feel like I need to use vertical slowness rather than the normal snell's law since I'm working with a dZ rather than a dX...
  22. D

    B Could Earth's Atmosphere Survive a Close Gamma Ray Burst?

    I'm watching an episode of "How the universe works" and they explained the nightmare scenario where a star supernovas and turns into a black hole, emitting such a powerful burst of gamma rays, that if it were any closer than 6000 light years then it would be capable of stripping the entire Earth...
  23. K

    Exploring the Ray Model for Radio Waves: Does it Apply to Longer Wavelengths?

    I have never seen ray model of light being considered for radio waves, or waves of larger wavelengths. I have a feeling that this model does not apply to them. Am I right?
  24. garthenar

    Solving for a neutralizing B0 in a Thomson Cathode Ray (Algebra?)

    I've attached a picture from the problem, the given equations, and my work so far. I knew I had a problem when My units wouldn't check out. This should just be simple algebra but It's not working. Please help me to understand what I am doing wrong.
  25. A

    B MRI vs Color X-Ray Technology: What Are the Differences and Benefits?

    Today I read about a seemingly new way of using Xrays that results in images that can be colored and more detailed. https://www.marsbioimaging.com/mars/ See this link for example. I do wonder what would be the major differences or benefits from such technology given modern MRI also has very...
  26. F

    How can you derive the expression for ds from a light ray's path?

    This is an example from a textbook. They show the following: ∫nds = ∫r-2*ds = ∫r-2*√((dr)2+r2*(dθ)2) How do you obtain the expression for ds?
  27. A

    Obtain Cathode Ray Tubes Without X-rays

    Good Day, I would like to obtain cathode-ray tubes for deflecting electrons with a magnet. However, I don't want to deal with X-rays, and would prefer to obtain cathode tubes that cannot produce X-rays at all. I haven't had much luck on the internet finding such cathode ray tubes or I don't...
  28. S

    Can a magnet bend a ray of light?

    Can an everyday magnet disturb a ray of light. I have seen many answers online saying no, and some saying yes, but only if the magnetic field is large enough.
  29. mjda

    I The Confinement Radius of a Cosmic Ray (Galactic vs. Extra-galactic)

    If we want to show whether or not a specific Cosmic Ray particle is confined to our galaxy we must use the Larmor radius (relativistic version), r = γmc / qB Considering a 10^14 eV proton and assuming the galactic magnetic field strength is 10^−11 T, show that the particle is confined to the...
  30. A

    Question regarding Ray Optics and Probability

    Let there be a sphere whose inner surface consists of a perfectly reflecting surface. It has a hole on it which allows a ray of light to enter. Give the angle made with the normal of the hole when the ray of light enters such that the probability that the ray comes out is the least?Assuming the...
  31. C

    Geiger (or other ionizing ray) Probe for Vacuum Conditions

    I am planning a physical experiement under vacuum conditions. In this experiement, I want to detect ionizing rays, especially as broad band as possible, for instance including alpha radiation. Typically geiger tubes are filled with a certain gas, that gets ionized by the radiation to measure...
  32. I

    Geometrical Optics - Light ray angles on a spherical mirror

    I can't see how the textbook produces the following relationships between angles: $$ \theta = \phi + \alpha \qquad (1)$$ $$ 2\theta = \alpha + \alpha ' \qquad (2)$$ My thinking is that the exterior angle theorem for triangles was used to create expression ##(1)##, but I am unsure as to how...
  33. Wrichik Basu

    B Which ray diagram is correct for a Compound microscope?

    Here are two ray diagrams for compound microscope, the first one proposed by the book, and the second one recommended by the teacher: In the first image, the light rays form a real image A'B', which becomes the virtual object for the eyepiece. See, the original rays are carried forward to...
  34. Krushnaraj Pandya

    Ray optics conceptual question

    Homework Statement I read that the magnification for a point object is undefined, but when we draw ray diagrams we consider the rays to be emanating from a point source and also define magnification for it- what am I missing? Homework Equations -- The Attempt at a Solution (conceptual query)
  35. K

    Min Max problem: the shortest distance for a light ray

    Homework Statement Homework Equations Minimum/Maximum occurs when the first derivative=0 GM≤AM: ##~\sqrt{xy}\leq\frac{x+y}{2}## The Attempt at a Solution [/B] If the sum of squares of the distances (setup 2) in an arbitrary point is bigger than the sum of the squares of the shortest...
  36. Robin04

    Electrons in a cathode ray tube

    Homework Statement The accelerating voltage in a cathode ray tube is ##1000 V##, the electron current density is ##150 \mu A##. a) How many electrons arrive at the screen in a second? b) What's the magnitude of the force exerted on the screen by the electrons if they stop on collision? (Sorry...
  37. yrjosmiel

    B Effects of a moving mirror on a ray of light

    Let's say I have an apparatus that's set up like this Let's also say that the mirror is infinitely long. If the mirror starts moving at subluminal speeds in the x axis, what would happen to the path of the ray of light? Would the dot made by the ray of light on the wall go up?
  38. axer

    Calculating Potential difference (X Ray tube)

    Homework Statement If the electrons hit the tungsten target with an energy of 75 keV, find the potential difference. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I tried this: (W=eV) V=W/Q V=eV/Q V=75,000/1.6*10-19 V= 4.6*1023 V, This seems wrong because all examples in my...
  39. ytht100

    Infinitesimal, Snell's law, and ray tracing

    With FIXED SOURCE AND RECEIVER, I have a light incident from fluid 1 with velocity v1 into fluid 2 with velocity v2. Obviously, according to Snell's law, v1/v2=sin(alpha1)/sin(alpha2), where alpha1 and alpha2 are the angles with regard to the vertical line. My question is: how to calculate...
  40. caters

    High dose gamma ray exposure vs Low dose gamma ray exposure

    I found out that high dose gamma ray exposure is actually easier for the body to repair than low dose gamma ray exposure. At first this made 0 sense to me as higher dose means you are exposed to more gamma rays per second and thus more damage is done. But now that I think about it, I think that...
  41. Poetria

    How Do You Determine the Polar Equation of a Line Perpendicular to a Given Ray?

    Homework Statement [/B] Consider the line whose shortest distance to the origin is 5 and that is perpendicular to the ray ##\theta= \frac {5*\pi}{7}## for r>0 Find its polar equation ##r=r(\theta)## and ##\theta_1<\theta_2## in the interval ##[0, 2\pi]## such that ##r(\theta)\geq 0## for all...
  42. A

    I Latest Gamma Ray Burst Experimental results

    with regards to this https://arxiv.org/abs/1103.5626 "Gamma ray burst delay times probe the geometry of momentum space" May we have updates of the latest experiment results along the line of Smolin 2011 idea concerning gamma ray burst delay times that can test if momentum space is curved?
  43. T

    Why parts of the laser ray seem brighter than other parts

    Hi. When we see a laser ray, it seems that part of the ray are brighter than the other parts and they seem like they’re vibrating and moving. It also seems there are fractures in its path. I want to know why do we see like this? For example see this picture (it is from wikipedia). I circled...
  44. S

    I Kilovoltage Peak role for an X ray tube

    Hello everyone, while reading about the X ray tube, I came across this: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/kilovoltage-peak In the second paragraph, it is stated that: "The radiation dose to the patient is directly proportional to the square of kV." I understand that by accelerating the...
  45. O

    I U-235 thermal neutron capture gamma ray

    Hi, When U-235 captures a neutron, it may end up with a fission reaction or an excited U-236 isotope. This U-236 emits gamma rays as it goes to its ground state. What I want to learn is that how much is the contribution of these gamma rays' energy to overall fission energy. I checked the...
  46. rocdoc

    I Weinberg and Ray Transformations – Ch2 App A.

    I wondered if anyone might have something to say about how a 'Ray Transformation' should be defined and also point out what Weinberg means by his 'ray transformations T', see Weinberg, Reference 1, pg 91. Should a ray transformation be an equivalence class of operators? I have started to try to...
  47. H

    Two parallel opposed Co-60 Gamma Ray beams in Excel

    Hi everyone, I have this question about POP. Assume a patient separation of 20cm. Using data for 6MV , FS 10x10 cm, plot the depth dose for one beam at 2 cm intervals. Include on your plot the dose at dmax and the dose at 20-dmax. On the same graph repeat this for the opposed beam. Now plot the...
  48. M

    How does the sign convention work in ray optics?

    Homework Statement I needed help to undestand some concepts in Ray Optics for my assignment. The topics which U am concerned are: Part 1: Mirror Equation, Refraction at singly curved surface, lens maker's equation, combination of thin lenses in contact. Part 2: Magnification Power of simple...
  49. A

    Linear attenuation coefficient for gamma ray attenuation

    Homework Statement I have data for the count rate (of gamma rays) against the thickness of various materials (Al, Pb, Fe etc...). I want to work out the linear attenuation coefficient. Can I do this by plotting the natural log of count rate against thickness? I don't have values for...