What is Ic engine: Definition and 38 Discussions

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, a rotor, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where weight or size of the engine is important.
The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1860 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nicolaus Otto (see Otto engine).
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine, though of a type so specialized that they are commonly treated as a separate category.
In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids for external combustion engines include air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler.
ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft and boats.
ICEs are typically powered by fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. Renewable fuels like biodiesel are used in compression ignition (CI) engines and bioethanol or ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) produced from bioethanol in spark ignition (SI) engines. Renewable fuels are commonly blended with fossil fuels. Hydrogen, which is rarely used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.

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  1. camerart

    Can a Rotary Engine Efficiently Charge Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles?

    Hi, Have you ever tried to invent anything? Long ago, as a school boy after learning about internal combusion engines, I 'invented' a rotary engine. (It had actually been invented in the 19th century) My dad said "If Fords can't do then you can't" So I stopped. Years later I learned about...
  2. V

    Energy transformations in an IC engine cylinder

    A drop of fuel is ignited in an engine cylinder, that produces heat, light and sound energies from the chemical energy stored in the drop of oil. What I am not clear about is how heat energy gets transformed into mechanical work? I think the heat energy produced from ignition flows from burnt...
  3. Benjamin_harsh

    What would happen if the flywheel is not used in an IC Engine?

    What would happen if flywheel is not installed to IC Engine? Does it have serious consequences?
  4. V

    Increasing Diesel Engine Efficiency with Retractable Plates

    In case of diesel cycle thermal efficiency is low, because heat addition takes place at constant pressure.so can we introduce some retractable plate which sits below the piston during end of compression stroke,and retracts back after heat addition,thus providing constant volume heat addition and...
  5. D

    IC Engine Connecting Rod Mass Moment of Inertia Measurements

    Does anyone know of a source, on the Internet preferably, for component inertial data for a real IC engine? In particular, what I'd like to obtain (for some real engine, any engine) are these items: 1. Piston weight (including wrist pin) 2. Cylinder bore dimension 3. Connecting rod length...
  6. SmritiB

    Gas Exhaust in 4 Stroke Engines: Continuous or Discrete?

    Is the gas coming out of the exhaust during the working of a 4 stroke engine continuous as long as the automobile moves? I know the intensity of air used depends on the speed, but the air that exhausts out, does it come continuously in time or like a discrete function ?
  7. S

    IC Engine Question -- Starting sequence for 4-stroke engine

    Hi , Everyone… one very general question regarding ic engine is suppose our vehical (Ic engine) Is at rest ,and we are ready to start vehical , when we kicked the kick By our legs then there is compression stroke..,right?, then when air fuel mixture is sucked in cylinder ( When there is...
  8. A

    Improving IC Engine Efficiency: Reducing Heat Loss Through Cylinder Walls

    hi.I would like to know something about the IC engine.I just read an article.It said that 30% efficiency is gone through conduction of heat by the cylinder wall.If it is reason for one of the efficiency loss why can't we build an cylinder coated with a material that is non conduction.So only...
  9. S

    Problem Involving a 2 stroke IC engine

    Homework Statement A two-stroke internal combustion engine can be modeled by the following cycle. The cycle starts with the piston chamber at maximum volume V1 = 1000 cm3, filled with an air-fuel mixture – which we treat as an ideal gas – at atmospheric pressure and room temperature (p1 =...
  10. marellasunny

    Gyroscopic effect in a horizontal axis IC engine

    My tutor says Henry Ford opted for a horizontal-bed IC engine for the Model-T as this would avoid having any gyroscopic effects(normally associated with a vertical oriented engine). My question is,how does it matter if the engine cylinders are oriented horizontally or vertically?since the...
  11. M

    Inertia forces in an ic engine

    when they say the inertia forces in the engine,what does it refer to ? this is with respect to the fact that in a diesel engine the point of maximum pressure is at combustion as there are no sufficient inertia forces to cancel out load forces..
  12. marellasunny

    Design of 4 stroke IC engine from few parameters (bmep, B.P, piston speed)

    (I have trouble in finding the stroke length and fuel flow rate) From Heywood,E2.11 You are designing a 4 stroke CI to provide a brake power of 300kW,Naturally aspirated at its max rated speed.Based on typical values for brake mean eff.pressure(bmep){700kPa to 900kPa} and max mean piston...
  13. S

    Recommendation for good book for IC Engine design

    Hey Everyone, I'm a mechanical engineering student and I was wondering if there was any good book regarding IC Engine design; which includes timing belt design, camshaft, crankshaft, rocker-arm, pump design etc.. a whole in one package that design engineers use for designing ic engines...
  14. E

    Problems finding Volumetric Efficiency

    1. The problem DIESEL IC ENGINE We were given a excel sheet, with RPM, Torque, Power, Bmep, Fuel mass flow rate, Airmass SFC, Engine Air inlet and Exhaust temp. The engine capacity is 2.2litre 4 stroke. Fuel specifications: 50 Cetane (0.05% Sulphur) Coolant = Fresh water with 45% glycol mix...
  15. K

    Automotive What parameters are kept constant during an IC engine performance test?

    Hi, I came across an engine performance graph as attached. I have basically two questions looking at that: 1.To do any engine testing we keep some parameter constant - May be throttle position or applied load (torque) or speed or power. What is kept constant for this test? 2.In the...
  16. T

    Flywheel effect on torque fluctuation of an IC engine

    How does a flywheel reduce torque fluctuations in a IC engine? Of course the more inertia you have, the less rotational speed fluctuation you get. But how does more inertia lead to less 'torque' fluctuation?
  17. D

    Design of IC engine coolant pump (centrifugal)

    Hello, I am to design a pump for the cooling circuit of a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine has already been designed. I am currently referring to Pump Handbook (McGraw Hill publications) and trying to get a hold of Centrifugal Pumps-Design & Application (Ross-Lobanoff). One...
  18. K

    Why Does IC Engine Torque Change with RPM and Gearbox Mechanics?

    Hi guys! This is a question related to IC engine characteristics(performance curves, torque-speed curve). Why is the Starting torque of IC engines small? Also why does it decrease after a maximum? Secondly, In one of the lectures, our professor asked us that in a gearbox form where does the...
  19. M

    IC Engine converted to hybrid air engine

    I was thinking the other day about a possible hybrid conversion vehicle that could store braking energy as compressed air. The setup is like this: The engine valves are all electric solenoid controlled. When the motor is running on gasoline it run like any other 4-stroke IC engine. There is...
  20. S

    Can IC engine efficiency can be increased beyond 60% ?

    I found following claim from an inventor: “The limit of IC engine efficiency cannot be normally exceeded due to facts entropy cannot be decreased and 2nd law of thermodynamics (heat cannot flow from cold to hot body). Injecting water in the beginning of expansion stroke can overcome these...
  21. S

    Why do electric motors have full torque at start while IC engines don't?

    how electric motor can have full torque at start? is it because magnetic forces are in phase with turning moment curve of rotor of electric motor. i mean the peak of magnetic forces and peak of turning moment occurs at same time. if we implement this in IC engine does it to can have full torque...
  22. J

    Simpliest way to simulate an IC engine

    Hi Guys, I would like to write some software to teach people to tune internal combustion engines. More specifically, as some of you may know, an engine is controlled by two 2D grids or 'maps' which have engine load on one axis and engine RMP on the other. One map tells the engine how early to...
  23. M

    Determining Mass of Moment of Inertia for Flywheel in IC Engine

    i have diagram of the turning moment in flywheel in internal combustion engine , i want to determine the mass of moment of inertia of the flywheel needed to keep speed fluctuation < or equal 1.5% at engine speed 560 rpm ? http://img534.imageshack.us/img534/1765/57306264.jpg
  24. V

    Doubt: Is 3 Stroke Engine Possible?

    Is 3 stroke engine possible??if not why?
  25. A

    What is the level of detail and purpose of this IC engine simulation project?

    Hello this is my first post on the forum, i have very little knowledge in physics and high level mathematics, but for the past few years I've been dabbling with excel on a way to compare and give rough estimates of many facets of engines. At the moment what I am working on is determining the...
  26. G

    Distance for an IC engine for a given load

    Hi, I have this question that, how do we calculate the distance an IC engine can propel a vehicle for given certain conditions? And what would be those required certain conditions? As a test case, i was looking at this engine: http://www.yanmar.com.au/industrial/la_series/l48ae.htm...
  27. A

    What Is the Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio for a Dual Fuel IC Engine?

    Homework Statement a mixture of 0.64 x 100 percent iso-octane and {1-0.64} x 100 percent methanol, based on volume, is mixed with air and combusted. Calculate the stoichiometric air fuel ratio. Note: please not this is mixing on a molar basis, not mass basis. It is necessary to perform a...
  28. M

    Pressure, temperatur inside ic engine

    pressure, temperatur inside ic engine... 1. what will be the temperature produced during the combustion process?? (NEGLECTING THE COOLING EFFECT PRODUCED by the cooling system) 2. The temperature of the exhaust gas at the exhaust "port" ??(CONSIDERING AND WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE COOLING...
  29. B

    How can I measure pressure inside an internal combustion engine?

    Could some one tell me if there is any method to find out the instant pressure inside the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine. I plan to change the way engines work if the pressure can be monitored.
  30. wolram

    Globe Valved IC Engine: Possible with Modern Materials?

    The idea seems possible with modern materials, the globe is controlled by a hydraulic stepper motor (which is also possible) according to engineers i have spoken to, the only way to find out if the whole idea is good is to make one, now i am in the sticky stuff, it requires MONEY, should i...
  31. B

    3.2cc IC Engine Retailers in Delhi: Preet Vihar Prices

    Could you tell me where to find the retailer of IC engines of 3.2 cc size in Delhi and how much it would cost. I have been told by someone that we would be able to get it in Preet Vihar. Could any of you give me some idea in this regard.
  32. A

    Mechanical efficiency of IC engine

    what is the equation for the mechanical efficiency of an internal combustion engine? what are the formulas for 'ip' for 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines? thank you
  33. wolram

    Ceramic Engine Parts: Piston Coating & Beyond

    Some years ago i read of an attempt to make major engine componets from ceramics, i see now that ceramic coating is available for some parts (piston), so what is preventing the use of ceramics for say an engine block or cylinder head?
  34. T

    Exploring Increased Engine Load and Air-Fuel Ratio Changes on the Race Track

    There is a fair amount of empirical evidence in my world that people experience their Air-Fuel ratio going lean as they go down the race track (drag race). There are all kinds of theories that abound, but none of them make any sense (at least not to me). Most of theories have to do with the...
  35. T

    Theoretical Max of an IC Engine

    I am a car enthusiast and have absolutely no engineering educational/knoweldge, so keep that in mind. :smile: If an internal combustion engine revolutions per minute increase simply by opening the throttle, I assume that this is a function of the pressure differential between the air outside...
  36. T

    Combustion Temp's for an IC Engine

    This may be the wrong forum, so mods please move if necessary (and forgive my error :) ). I was trying to research combustion temperatures (for a typical four stroke engine) as they relate to air/fuel ratio (AFR). I have googled my butt off, and I read many interesting things. But, I still...