What is Automobile: Definition and 90 Discussions

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of cars say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport people rather than goods.Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became widely available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort, and a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex, but also more reliable and easier to operate. These include rear-reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in-car entertainment. Most cars in use in the early 2020s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, became commercially available in the 2000s and are predicted to cost less to buy than gasoline cars before 2025. The transition from fossil fuels to electric cars features prominently in most climate change mitigation scenarios, such as Project Drawdown's 100 actionable solutions for climate change.There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs to the individual include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, healthcare, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Traffic collisions are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.Personal benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and convenience. Societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies. There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. Car usage is increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.

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  1. S

    Adjustment of Variable Resistance in an automobile battery

    How is the load (variable resistance) adjusted in an automobile battery? Mechanically (potentiometer, rheostat) or electronically (digital potentiometer) or are both configurations possible.Can the load in a automobile battery be a three terminal divider (potentiometer) or is it almost always...
  2. K

    So who here has tried to make a homemade wind tunnel? My first attempt

    Hello all, i posted this on another forum but didn't get much response, I had an 18” centrifugal fan around around and wanted to see if I can push some real air to make a wind tunnel. I'm just a hobbyist, and like to build and modify cars, figured this would be something to look into. Looks...
  3. shivajikobardan

    Engineering Dynamic physical model - automobile wheel suspension confusion

    Been a long time I studied physics that had anything to do with mechanics, so I'm now in need of memorizing almost everything. So I am seeking for some guidance here. This is "system simulation/modeling/discrete event system simulation/etc" type of subject. The first thing that I didn't...
  4. shk

    Material properties -- Elastic and Plastic deformation in automobile crashes

    a)plastic deformation because of permanent deformation b) the other parts that have been destroyed have stored the energy and this saved the passenger compartment. C) the alloy crash barrier is stronger than the car body and and saves more of the energy by deforming shape. I'm not sure about my...
  5. R

    Unreasonable values for engine torque in vehicle simulation

    I'm trying to simulate the physics of a Toyota Camry during acceleration with a time granularity of 100ms. My simulated conditions are as follows: m = 1590 kg v = 17 m/s a = 1.5 m/s2 η (transmission efficiency) = 0.85 rwheel = 0.35 m Fdrag = 100 N Ffriction = 260 N Faccel = 1590 kg × 1.5 m/s2 =...
  6. K

    Mathematical modeling of driveline impact test of an automobile

    I am in a process of making a mathematical model of an automobile driveline validation procedure called "Driveline impact". In this test, after the engine in cranked, first gear is selected. While clutch pedal is still pressed, engine rpm is raised unto its max. torque deliverable speed. In this...
  7. G

    Automotive Automobile HP and Gas mileage question

    Hi all, I have a few questions concerning cars and HP, I will post the first question now and I think the answer will determine if I need further help. I will prefeace my question with the disclaimer that I have very limited automotive knowledge. If 2 cars that are operating at the same...
  8. R

    Automotive Automotive MAF sensor vs temperature

    I'm working on a DIY EFI system for automotive use. I have a question about the mass air flow sensor operation. I know they measure the volume of air passing thru them. But the question is whether that measurement needs to be corrected for air temperature or if the MAF sensor does that by...
  9. R

    Automotive Towards the *fully* 3D-printed electric car

    An article from 2015: 3-D-printed car could hit streets next year. Chris Woodyard, USA TODAY 4:48 p.m. EST November 12, 2015 http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2015/11/10/3d-printed-car-local-motors-swim/75530830/ Several companies have come out with what they call "3D-printed" cars, but...
  10. E

    What Is the Maximum Velocity of a RWD Vehicle on a 6% Grade?

    Homework Statement Determine the maximum velocity attainable by a vehicle with the following conditions: RWD 6% grade Weight = 20 kN CG is 1.25 m behind front axle and 0.5 m above ground level. Wheel base is 2.8 m. Effective rolling radius of wheel = 30 cm Coefficient of aerodynamic drag =...
  11. H

    Auto/Motor Front suspension for DIY scooter

    Hi I am new to this forum and I was referred to it by a friend. I am building an electric scooter and want to know how to add suspension/shock absorbers to it. I know the terrain I want to go over. Bumps of about 1-2 inch. My wheel size will be pretty small about 7-8 inches. I was looking to...
  12. S

    Power output of automobile at different engine rpm

    I figure my 2.4 liter Volvo will burn about a liter of gasoline over an hour of idling (source: Natural Resources Canada). Since a liter of gasoline contains roughly 33.8 million joules (~9.4 kilowatt-hours) of energy, I figure that that means my car idles at a power output of around 9.4...
  13. SmritiB

    Gas Exhaust in 4 Stroke Engines: Continuous or Discrete?

    Is the gas coming out of the exhaust during the working of a 4 stroke engine continuous as long as the automobile moves? I know the intensity of air used depends on the speed, but the air that exhausts out, does it come continuously in time or like a discrete function ?
  14. J

    Automobile velocity on the bridge

    Homework Statement Automobile with m = 1000kg, traveling at v = 54km/h got to the bridge with curvature radius r = 50m. What is its velocity at the top of the bridge? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution If this solution is correct, could you please explain to me how can this...
  15. M

    Is a Self-Sufficient Car Possible with Extra Wheels?

    Okay I'm probably way out of my league here because in only 17 and this is my first post, but I was wondering about a self-sufficient car. I know putting a wind turbine on an automobile adds resistance which negates effect. However, a wind turbine builds energy just by spinning, and an...
  16. Karan Dua

    Calculate Top Speed of Car Using Gear Ratio, Torque, Power & RPM

    Hey guys, I am a bit confused while calculating top speed of the car using gear ratio, Torque, Power and Engine Speed(RPM). Can someone help me out with this? Specifications are given as follows: Maximum Torque : 19.2 N-m @ 3800 RPM Maximum Power : 10 Hp @ 2800 RPM Tire Specifications: 25x8...
  17. H

    Material selection for chassis

    I am working on a project for which we have to design a Light weight tricycle. I want to know the procedure for selecting a light weight material for the chassis, which has good stiffness, economically available and good weld ability. We also have no constraints on the cross section of the pipes...
  18. R

    Why is the Braking Coefficient - Slip curve of this shape?

    Hi all, I want to know the why the Braking force coefficient is increasing first and then decreasing with respect to wheel slip. I attached the graph for your reference
  19. C

    What happens when gasoline gets old - chemically and in car engine?

    Recently I bought an old car (1954 Ford Zephyr, a six-cylinder 2.2 liter English car) whose recent history was essentially unknown to the seller but had probably done little running for some time. He warned me that the engine was not running correctly - the car was blowing black smoke and...
  20. R

    Accumulated drag coefficient for an automobile

    Hello everyone, I have a question regarding the accumulated drag curve shown in the figure below for the CFD simulation of external flow over an automobile. (It is written Vehicle Cd in the figure) It can be seen in several regions that the accumulated drag curve is dropping (ie., having a...
  21. G

    Find total displacement of an automobile

    Homework Statement An automobile travels in a straight line for 10 seconds at 20 m/s than accelerates uniformly to a speed of 30 m/s in the next 10 seconds. Find the total displacement. Homework Equations d = 1/2(v0+v)t The Attempt at a Solution v0 = 20 m/s v = 30 m/s t =...
  22. S

    Modal analysis of an automobile

    hi. I need to locate a safe region in an automotive, where vibration level is very low. i have done modal analysis of that vehicle. In the result i got DMX valve. which is maximum deflection value. what does it actually represent? Does it means the amplitude of vibration. Can i conclude...
  23. jmex

    FRP Automobiles: Benefits Over Metal Bodies

    hello, I know it may sound weird but why not? WHy automobile companies don't go for FRP body instead of metal. It has many advantages over metal. So why not?
  24. K

    Prototyping automobile components

    Hi, I'm creating software based simulations for different components of a car. I've some query regarding this. Also please let me know if what I'm doing is correct or not 1. Engine component It would take the acceleration request and fuel injection(set at the beginning) and would compute...
  25. K

    Would wind tubine on moving automobile pomote inlet efficiency?

    Question as the title above ! Could we use the wind turbine to compress the air into engine cylinder as the exhaust compression tubine does ? Thanks all for replying !
  26. R

    Kinematics question - An automobile accelerating and braking

    kinematics question -- An automobile accelerating and braking Homework Statement According to recent test data, an automobile travels 0.250 mi in 19.9 s, starting from rest. The same car, when braking from 60.0 mi/h on dry pavement, stops in 146 ft. Assume constant acceleration in each part...
  27. M

    Electromotive force of automobile battery

    Homework Statement An automobile battery has an emf of 12.6 V and an internal resistance of 0.080 0 Ω. The headlights together present equivalent resistance 5.00 Ω (assumed constant). What is the potential difference across the headlight bulbs (a) when they are the only load on the battery...
  28. M

    How to build a career in automobile industry?

    Hi everyone! This is Mohammad Umar. I am a mechanical engineering student here in Delhi, India. There are many things that are running in my mind right now regarding my career. Its already high time now! I am planning to go to Germany for my M.S in automobile as I am really really...
  29. K

    Average force to keep something in place during an automobile crash?

    Homework Statement Suppose that a seat-belted mother riding in an automobile holds a 10 kg baby in her arms. the automobile crashes and decelerates from 50km/h to 0 in .1 s. what average force would the mother have to exert on the baby to hold it?? do you think she can do this? Homework...
  30. F

    Help Solving Automobile and Train Problems

    Homework Statement I've already done 10 probs, but I can't figure these out. Please help if you can. 1. An automobile traveling v = 90 km/h overtakes a L = 1.00 km long train traveling in the same direction on a track parallel to the road. If the train's speed is 80 km/h, how long does it...
  31. W

    What diode do I need for automobile turn signals with LED's

    Hello, I have LED's all over my vehicle. I have them as tail lights, in the climate control,door switches, and several more throughout my car. I have this piece called a HYPERFLASH harness hooked up in the system that was recommended to prevent hyperflash, and it has done a perfect job...
  32. K

    Physics of Automobile Drifting Question?

    Ok, this has been on my mind all day. Sorry if it's a stupid question, I'm still a H.S student trying to figure out to study Mechanical Engineering or Physics. But moving on... Ok, so the engine propels the vehicle at a constant velocity. If the front wheels turn and the back end...
  33. X

    2D Momentum of automobile collision Problem

    Need help with two 2D momentum questions. Q1: Two automobiles collide at an intersection. One car of mass 1.4x103 kg is traveling at 45km/h [south]; the other car of mass 1.3x103 ks is traveling at 39 km/h [east]. If the cars have a completely inelastic collision, what is their velocity after...
  34. A

    Loads on automobile door frames

    What are the kind of loads that act on an automobile door frame while opening, closing other than the load on the hinge?
  35. B

    Torque is applied to a steering wheel of an automobile

    (Q) What torque is applied to a steering wheel of an automobile when the driver applies a force of 50 Newtons tangent to the circumference of the wheel? Diameter of the steering wheel is 40 cm. F = 50 N D (torque arm) = 0.40m T= Fd = 20 N... but its wrong... any ideas...
  36. A

    Requirement of Automobile glasses

    I just wanted to understand what are the main properties required for an automobile glass. I understand that for a windshield of an automobile, the material must have high impact resistance but do compressive and tensile strengths also matter that much? For the window glasses in automobiles...
  37. S

    Most mechanically complex component of an automobile?

    What is the most mechanically complex component of an automobile? Someone told me that an automatic transmission is more complex than an electronic microchip. I do know a tiny bit about auto mechanics, but not much. Manual transmissions are relatively simple, mechanically. It's called gear...
  38. K

    Automobile turn signal isolated circuit

    How many out there have hearing problems? Can you suggest a way to add heads up display to a noisy sports car? Old sports car I am constructing uses one light bulb [on each side, at the rear] to indicate 1. turnsignal 2. braking 3. nighttime driving. I figure, if I can create a separated...
  39. R

    Can weight reduction be optimized in automobile superstructures?

    someone please explain the phrase "properties optimised for weight reduction" in case of auto body and spaceframes. Also please refer some links to some data on service conditions of auto body. Thanks in advance.
  40. P

    How to install new lights in an automobile

    hey everyone, I don't really know about the electrical of a car system. but i intend to need some help an guidance from you all about installing some decoration lights for an automobile.All i know the car uses a 12V lead-acid battery and has an alternator which charges up the battery when the...
  41. F

    Automobile mechanic that actually helps

    Thought I ought to share this really fantastic website: http://scottykilmer.homestead.com/contact.html Also this Youtube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/scottykilmer I've had a lot of questions already, and he answers all of them FOR FREE! Imagine that--an actual decent human being...
  42. E

    Name 3 driver-operated controls in an automobile that will cause the automobile to ac

    1. The problem Remember that acceleration is a change in velocity. There are 3 driver-operated controls in an automobile that will cause the automobile to accelerate. 2. The attempt at a solution Is it axis of rotation, tangential speed, and uniform circular motion?
  43. E

    De-Rectifying Automobile Alternator

    Hi, Automobile Alternators produce AC currents which are converted to DC currents by a diode bridge known as the rectifier.The question is. How does one remove the rectifier so the Alternator produces AC current only. How can it be connected to a Transformer Is there any adverse effect on...
  44. S

    How Fast Can a 1967 Corvette Go Using Full Power in 6 Seconds?

    Homework Statement A 1967 Corvette has a weight of 3020 lbs. The 427 cu-in engine was rated at 435 hp at 5400 rpm. a) If the engine used all 435 hp at 100% efficiency during acceleration, what speed would the car attain after 6 seconds? b) What is the average acceleration? (in “g”s)...
  45. B

    Automobile drives into a brick wall

    Homework Statement An automobile of mass 3000 kg is driven into a brick wall in a safety test. The bumper behaves like a Hooke’s-law spring. It has an effective spring constant of 6 × 106 N/m, and is observed to compress a distance of 4.23 cm as the car is brought to rest. What was the...
  46. J

    Design of an automobile bumper

    Homework Statement I have posted the assignment hand out. The weight of the car will be 3702lbs. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Right now I am overwhelmed with this project, I am not really sure where to start. Here is my thoughts on where to start. The weight...
  47. M

    Sideways movement in automobile

    i just want to know if this is possible,say i want to bring about sideways movement to the wheel and want the car to move horizontally.by providing an expandable material connected at the end of the axle to either side of the wheel ,so whenever sideways motion is required as the material...
  48. C

    Questioning the Forces Involved in Automobile Wheels

    I am trying to understand all of the forces involved in a vehicles wheel, The weight of the auto on the wheel downward would be radial load, and the force 90 degrees from that would be the thrust load directly perpindicular with the wheel. What I learned is that there is an equal reacting force...