In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are some three trillion mature trees in the world.A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development.
Trees usually reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead.
Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, and they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.
Looking at the result of a great number of fossil expeditions, I understand how you can construct the full or partial skeletons of a number of different animals, you would be able to certainly identify certain bones as belonging to a distinct animal. That's great. you now know there were these...
I know that the maximum number of trees in a heap will be when all the trees are of smallest order as possible. Then, after performing CONSOLIDATE operation on the heap, all the newly created trees in the heap will be of different orders. Since in a different exercise I showed that the minimal...
I have done the working on the attached sheet, i got ##3## as the minimum. I do not have the mark scheme for this worksheet.
Apple trees will have ##22## trees per row ( 3 rows in total).
Bananas will have ##22## trees per row (4 rows in total).
Mango trees will have ##22## trees per row (5...
Why are struct use for linked list and classes used for binary tree.
honestly what is the different between a class and a struct?
I have a teacher one tell me that a class was a struct on steroids.
but what does that really mean ?
Attempt - I am stuck at this problem for hours, couldn't make any progress. Still, here's what I've done :
Let ## e_1 \in E_1 \setminus E_2 ## be arbitrary. Suppose for the sake of contradiction that ## \forall ## ## e_2 \in E_2 \setminus E_1 ##, ## T_1' = \langle V,(E_1\setminus \{ e_1 \})...
https://www.abqjournal.com/1218873/on-the-trail-of-the-medallion-trees.html
Medallions have been attached to trees that have had a core removed. The cores are used to count growth rings, the diameter of the core is a few millimeters and does not hurt the tree. The core can be long, like more...
Homework Statement
FIGURE 2 shows an improved arrangement for separating water from the hydrocarbon liquid for the process in question 2. Two simple level control loops, LC, have been added to regulate flow control valves on a pumped system. Extra protection is also provided in the form of high...
Hello! (Wave)
Wo consider the graph $G$ that we get by deleting any edge from the complete bipartite graph $K_{7,8}$. How many spanning trees does the complement graph $\overline{G}$ of $G$ have?
Could you give me a hint how we can find the desired number of spanning trees? (Thinking)
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Reduce the matrix to reduced matrix by removing 1 row completely
Number of trees = determinant of [ Ar times ArT ]
The Attempt at a Solution
I removed 4th row to get Ar(reduced matrix)
Then I did Ar times Ar (transpose)
And found it's determinant but I...
Homework Statement
(P)
/ \
(F) (U)
/ \ / \
(D, E) (J, O) (T) (V)
Given the 2-3 tree, delete F E V from the tree in the given order. Show the tree after each deletion.
Homework Equations
Min = 1
Max = 2
The Attempt at a...
My textbook says that formation of petrified trees is a result of a degradation and a sedimentation action of theunderground water, and then it goes on explaining that the underground water replaces the plant material in the tree with silica and other inorganic materials, which I think is a...
Homework Statement
A uniform rope of weight ##W## hangs between two trees. The ends of the rope are same height, and they each make an angle ##\theta## with the trees. Find :
a): The tension at the either end of the rope.
b): The tension in the middle of the rope.
Homework EquationsThe...
A tree seed takes water and minerals(?) from the ground, carbon and oxygen(?) from the air, and heat and light(?) from the sun. When a tree dies and dries up, it can be used as firewood, a source of energy.
Is there a way to capture that energy without the seed-tree scenario? i.e., but can we...
What happens, if instead of having any pointer pointing to a node's parent, we had pointer pointing to the node's successor? We know, that Searching would remain the same. But in my opinion Insertion and Deletion would change. This would happen, because in insertion, we would be needed to find...
I wish to ask some question about natural numbers' construction by using logical trees, without using free variables.
First, some background that leads to my question:
True is notated by 1
~True is notated by 0
p and q are two propositions as follows:
p = 0 0 1 1
q = 0 1 0 1
So, we get...
So it is logically observed that no matter how many times the radix point is "pushed" "downward" along the unbounded logical tree, no logical path "above" the radix point has an unbounded number of bits, which logically means that no amount of bounded logical paths (which are equivalent to...
I wish to ask some question about natural numbers' construction by using logical trees, without using free variables.
First, some background that leads to my question:
True is notated by 1
~True is notated by 0
p and q are two propositions as follows:
p = 0 0 1 1
q = 0 1 0 1
So, we get...
Homework Statement
Create a linear stack with N binary search trees (data of a tree node is an integer). Read N trees, push them on the stack. Then, empty the stack and store trees in the new array and print the content of the stack.
2. The attempt at a solution
The following code gives...
i know that a node cannot have more than one parent given that these parents have common ancestor (because this is undirected cycle and a tree must have no cycles).
but can a node have more than one parent given that these parents don't have common ancestor (which will produce an unrooted tree i...
Homework Statement
We'll define a binary tree as a tree where the degree of every internal node is exactly 3. Show that the set of all binary trees is countable.
Homework Equations
A set is countable if it is finite or there is a one-to-one correspondence with the natural numbers.
The Attempt...
Why has no one figured out yet an equation to count the number of unlabeled trees on n vertices?. I also have this dilemma between researchers and non-researchers. A researcher is just someone who is trying to find a solution to a problem for which no solution has been found yet. Right?, so if I...
Homework Statement
A. Show that n^n−2/n! < T(n) by looking at how the symmetric group Sn acts on labelled trees. Use |Sn| = n!
T(n) is the number of unlabeled trees on n vertices
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
I can't find any mathematical relation between labelled trees and...
I am reading the book Mathematical Logic by Ian Chiswell and Wilfred Hodges ... and am currently focused on Chapter 3: Propositional Logic and, in particular, Section 3.4: Propositional Natural Deduction ...
I need help with understanding an aspect of Example 3.4.3 which reads as...
Homework Statement
Let T be any spanning tree of an undirected graph G. Suppose that uv is any edge in G that is not in T. The following proofs are easy by using the definitions of undirected tree, spanning tree and cycle
a)Let G1 be the subgraph that results from adding uv to T. Show that G1...
Homework Statement
Show that every 2-tree(Definition 3.2) with n internal nodes has n+1 external nodes
Homework Equations
A 2 tree is a tree which nodes have 2 children or no children.
Internal nodes are nodes which have two children
external nodes are leafs.
The Attempt at a Solution
Proof...
I don't understand the requirements for a red-black tree.
Using this photo:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Red-black_tree_example.svg
One of the 5 required properties is that all leaves are black.
A leaf is a node without a child, so that would only be 11 and 15 two links...
From mycology books and articles, I read that most land plants (> 80 percent) on Earth live in symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. In this symbiosis, plants provide glucose to fungi and fungi provide water and nutrients to the plants. Without fungi, plants cannot harvest nutrients in sufficient...
How many trees are in a graph if the number of nodes and the number of branches (or meshes) is given? I refer to the trees which has to "walk" through the nodes along the given branches (so no tree between 2 nodes without a connecting branch between them)
Hello guys,
I have been wracking my little brain with this one. Why do fruit trees generally prefer a more acidic soil than vegetable plants. Veg plants like 6-7ph (except potatoes - why again !) Fruit around 5-6pH. Thanks in advance :)
I am not sure whether it should be here, or in statistical mathematics or in computers thread...feel free to move it. I am using it here because I am trying to understand the algorithm when it's used in particle physics (e.g. identification of neutral pions in ATLAS).
As I read it:
In general...
Hi! (Wave)
How can we find the depth of a perfect binary tree and how of a complete one? (Thinking)
Since a perfect binary tree is a full binary tree, at which the leaves have the same depth, I thought that we can find the depth, by just looking at the leftmost nodes, like that...
Hello! (Wave)
I want to draw trees, that traverse "MATHHELPBOARDS" in:
pre-order
in-order
post-order
That's what I have tried:
pre-order
in-order
post-order
Could you tell me if it is right or if I have done something wrong? (Thinking)
Hi, I'd like to know the log properties when they are the power of a constant. I've searched everywhere but I can't find it. the reason I want to know it is that, when solving a recursion tree problem, my teacher got an result of n^(log4 3) but I got 3^(log4 n). the base of the log haven't...
Hello,
There are three different orders of traversal that we learned about
##\bullet## pre-order traversal
##\bullet## in-order traversal
##\bullet## post-order traversal
Anyone know of any easy ways of remembering these 3 and how to order them? I have posted my lecture slides, but I could...
Can we start planting trees on Mars now? Considering that there are so many tree species on Earth that lives in extreme conditions, at least one of them would survive on Mars right?
Imagine what Mars would be like in 50 years if we started doing this now.
Homework Statement
Your car is smelly so you've placed a Little Trees air freshener in your rear view mirror. You begin to turn around a corner of radius R and the little tree starts to make an angle θ from the vertical. What is the angle θ as a function of the speed v and and radius R...
Hi,
I'm currently stuck on how to construct a breadth first and depth first spanning tree for this graph, the algorithm that I'm following is somewhat ambiguous. I'd really appreciate if someone can provide an explanation on how I should go by doing this.
Thanks
I just spent 5 minutes getting a problem wrong, only to stop for a second and try again to realize the problems answer was completely obvious, and very, very simple and I wanted to know what I could do to help prevent spending time on things that are obviously not wrong and see right off that...
In addition to herbs, some trees can act as weeds. In the southern Urals in Bashkortostan one of such weed trees is maple. It grows quickly, reproduces rapidly, and easily fills the land. So I have a question: is it possible to use a maple tree as a stock for fruit trees? Please, tell me which...
Prove that a graph on v vertices that has no cycle is connected iff it has precisely v-1 edges.
Necessary Condition:
A connected graph with no cycles is a tree. Therefore, it has v-1 edges.
Sufficient Condition:
I need help with this.
How can I use "a connected graph has no cycles iff it has...
Homework Statement
Write out a tree (this will be a big tree) of dependencies and hence write down an expression for
∂z/∂rHomework Equations
z=k(x, y)=xy2, x=(w1)(w2)+w3, y=w4;
w1=t, w2=t2, w3=2t+1, w4=sin(t);
t=r2+2s2The Attempt at a Solution
This is the tree I drew and followed the...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
F = ma
The Attempt at a Solution
say I project the weight onto T
then I get the right answer
if theta = pi / 4 then Wcostheta = W / sqrt2
but if I project the tension onto the weight, i don't get the right thing
i get the opposite, Tcostheta...
Homework Statement
Hi there,
I was wondering if anyone out there was familiar with image classification algorithms. I have been creating histograms of pixel intensity distributions.
For example, suppose I have 100 images of a tiger and 100 images of a lion.
I create 100 histograms using...