What is Trees: Definition and 100 Discussions

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are some three trillion mature trees in the world.A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development.
Trees usually reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead.
Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, and they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.

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  1. jedishrfu

    The Eyes of Trees are Watching

  2. Al-Layth

    How do evolutionists construct descendency trees from fossils?

    Looking at the result of a great number of fossil expeditions, I understand how you can construct the full or partial skeletons of a number of different animals, you would be able to certainly identify certain bones as belonging to a distinct animal. That's great. you now know there were these...
  3. C

    Comp Sci Number of trees in a Fibonacci Heap without CASCADING-CUT

    I know that the maximum number of trees in a heap will be when all the trees are of smallest order as possible. Then, after performing CONSOLIDATE operation on the heap, all the newly created trees in the heap will be of different orders. Since in a different exercise I showed that the minimal...
  4. Nethrz

    Medical What is the significance of binomial nomenclature in distinguishing species?

    They from two completely different kingdoms plantae and animalia
  5. chwala

    Problem involving different numbers of apple, banana and mango trees

    I have done the working on the attached sheet, i got ##3## as the minimum. I do not have the mark scheme for this worksheet. Apple trees will have ##22## trees per row ( 3 rows in total). Bananas will have ##22## trees per row (4 rows in total). Mango trees will have ##22## trees per row (5...
  6. B

    Why are structs used for linked lists and classes used for binary trees?

    Why are struct use for linked list and classes used for binary tree. honestly what is the different between a class and a struct? I have a teacher one tell me that a class was a struct on steroids. but what does that really mean ?
  7. C

    Showing existence of an Edge s.t. Graphs T1' , T2' are Trees

    Attempt - I am stuck at this problem for hours, couldn't make any progress. Still, here's what I've done : Let ## e_1 \in E_1 \setminus E_2 ## be arbitrary. Suppose for the sake of contradiction that ## \forall ## ## e_2 \in E_2 \setminus E_1 ##, ## T_1' = \langle V,(E_1\setminus \{ e_1 \})...
  8. jim mcnamara

    Medallion trees in Sandia Mountains New Mexico, USA

    https://www.abqjournal.com/1218873/on-the-trail-of-the-medallion-trees.html Medallions have been attached to trees that have had a core removed. The cores are used to count growth rings, the diameter of the core is a few millimeters and does not hurt the tree. The core can be long, like more...
  9. G

    How Can Fault Tree Analysis Estimate Risk in Hydrocarbon Separation Processes?

    Homework Statement FIGURE 2 shows an improved arrangement for separating water from the hydrocarbon liquid for the process in question 2. Two simple level control loops, LC, have been added to regulate flow control valves on a pumped system. Extra protection is also provided in the form of high...
  10. evinda

    MHB How many new branches will the complement graph of a deleted edge have?

    Hello! (Wave) Wo consider the graph $G$ that we get by deleting any edge from the complete bipartite graph $K_{7,8}$. How many spanning trees does the complement graph $\overline{G}$ of $G$ have? Could you give me a hint how we can find the desired number of spanning trees? (Thinking)
  11. BillTre

    Dog Invents Its Own Currency that Grows on Trees

    Article here. Dog attending University learns to pay for its treats with leaves. Who said schooling is not worth it?
  12. J

    Number of possible trees in graph theory

    Homework Statement Homework Equations Reduce the matrix to reduced matrix by removing 1 row completely Number of trees = determinant of [ Ar times ArT ] The Attempt at a Solution I removed 4th row to get Ar(reduced matrix) Then I did Ar times Ar (transpose) And found it's determinant but I...
  13. O

    Delete 'F', 'E', 'V' from 2-3 Tree

    Homework Statement (P) / \ (F) (U) / \ / \ (D, E) (J, O) (T) (V) Given the 2-3 tree, delete F E V from the tree in the given order. Show the tree after each deletion. Homework Equations Min = 1 Max = 2 The Attempt at a...
  14. Asmaa Mohammad

    How Does Underground Water Contribute to the Formation of Petrified Trees?

    My textbook says that formation of petrified trees is a result of a degradation and a sedimentation action of theunderground water, and then it goes on explaining that the underground water replaces the plant material in the tree with silica and other inorganic materials, which I think is a...
  15. B

    Tension in a rope hanging between two trees

    Homework Statement A uniform rope of weight ##W## hangs between two trees. The ends of the rope are same height, and they each make an angle ##\theta## with the trees. Find : a): The tension at the either end of the rope. b): The tension in the middle of the rope. Homework EquationsThe...
  16. R

    The Energy Potential of Trees: A Look at Biomimicry

    A tree seed takes water and minerals(?) from the ground, carbon and oxygen(?) from the air, and heat and light(?) from the sun. When a tree dies and dries up, it can be used as firewood, a source of energy. Is there a way to capture that energy without the seed-tree scenario? i.e., but can we...
  17. mooncrater

    Different Node Deletion/Insertion in a Binary Search Tree

    What happens, if instead of having any pointer pointing to a node's parent, we had pointer pointing to the node's successor? We know, that Searching would remain the same. But in my opinion Insertion and Deletion would change. This would happen, because in insertion, we would be needed to find...
  18. Allen_Wolf

    Gases & Trees: Carbon Dioxide & Oxygen Usage

    1)How much carbon dioxide does a mature tree use everyday? 2)How much oxygen is used by a mature tree everyday?
  19. Look

    B Unbounded Logical Trees: Constructing Natural Numbers with Logical Trees

    I wish to ask some question about natural numbers' construction by using logical trees, without using free variables. First, some background that leads to my question: True is notated by 1 ~True is notated by 0 p and q are two propositions as follows: p = 0 0 1 1 q = 0 1 0 1 So, we get...
  20. Look

    MHB Is There a Logical Limit to Infinite Collections in Unbounded Logical Trees?

    So it is logically observed that no matter how many times the radix point is "pushed" "downward" along the unbounded logical tree, no logical path "above" the radix point has an unbounded number of bits, which logically means that no amount of bounded logical paths (which are equivalent to...
  21. Look

    MHB How Can Unbounded Logical Trees Construct Natural Numbers?

    I wish to ask some question about natural numbers' construction by using logical trees, without using free variables. First, some background that leads to my question: True is notated by 1 ~True is notated by 0 p and q are two propositions as follows: p = 0 0 1 1 q = 0 1 0 1 So, we get...
  22. G

    C: Stack with binary search trees

    Homework Statement Create a linear stack with N binary search trees (data of a tree node is an integer). Read N trees, push them on the stack. Then, empty the stack and store trees in the new array and print the content of the stack. 2. The attempt at a solution The following code gives...
  23. M

    Can a Node Have Multiple Parents in Trees?

    i know that a node cannot have more than one parent given that these parents have common ancestor (because this is undirected cycle and a tree must have no cycles). but can a node have more than one parent given that these parents don't have common ancestor (which will produce an unrooted tree i...
  24. G

    How can the countability of binary trees be proven?

    Homework Statement We'll define a binary tree as a tree where the degree of every internal node is exactly 3. Show that the set of all binary trees is countable. Homework Equations A set is countable if it is finite or there is a one-to-one correspondence with the natural numbers. The Attempt...
  25. TheMathNoob

    Equation for the number of unlabeled trees on n vertices

    Why has no one figured out yet an equation to count the number of unlabeled trees on n vertices?. I also have this dilemma between researchers and non-researchers. A researcher is just someone who is trying to find a solution to a problem for which no solution has been found yet. Right?, so if I...
  26. TheMathNoob

    Graph theory proof (Unlabeled trees)

    Homework Statement A. Show that n^n−2/n! < T(n) by looking at how the symmetric group Sn acts on labelled trees. Use |Sn| = n! T(n) is the number of unlabeled trees on n vertices Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I can't find any mathematical relation between labelled trees and...
  27. Math Amateur

    MHB Propositional Logic - Derivations and Trees - Chiswell and Hodges, Section 3.4

    I am reading the book Mathematical Logic by Ian Chiswell and Wilfred Hodges ... and am currently focused on Chapter 3: Propositional Logic and, in particular, Section 3.4: Propositional Natural Deduction ... I need help with understanding an aspect of Example 3.4.3 which reads as...
  28. TheMathNoob

    Easy proof about spanning trees (for you)

    Homework Statement Let T be any spanning tree of an undirected graph G. Suppose that uv is any edge in G that is not in T. The following proofs are easy by using the definitions of undirected tree, spanning tree and cycle a)Let G1 be the subgraph that results from adding uv to T. Show that G1...
  29. TheMathNoob

    Mathematical Induction in binary trees

    Homework Statement Show that every 2-tree(Definition 3.2) with n internal nodes has n+1 external nodes Homework Equations A 2 tree is a tree which nodes have 2 children or no children. Internal nodes are nodes which have two children external nodes are leafs. The Attempt at a Solution Proof...
  30. J

    What are the Misunderstandings about Red-Black Tree Properties?

    I don't understand the requirements for a red-black tree. Using this photo: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Red-black_tree_example.svg One of the 5 required properties is that all leaves are black. A leaf is a node without a child, so that would only be 11 and 15 two links...
  31. S

    Can planting trees really reduce CO2 in atmosphere?

    From mycology books and articles, I read that most land plants (> 80 percent) on Earth live in symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. In this symbiosis, plants provide glucose to fungi and fungi provide water and nutrients to the plants. Without fungi, plants cannot harvest nutrients in sufficient...
  32. M

    How Many Spanning Trees Can a Graph Have?

    How many trees are in a graph if the number of nodes and the number of branches (or meshes) is given? I refer to the trees which has to "walk" through the nodes along the given branches (so no tree between 2 nodes without a connecting branch between them)
  33. emma69

    Why do fruit trees generally prefer more acidic soil than vegetable plants?

    Hello guys, I have been wracking my little brain with this one. Why do fruit trees generally prefer a more acidic soil than vegetable plants. Veg plants like 6-7ph (except potatoes - why again !) Fruit around 5-6pH. Thanks in advance :)
  34. ChrisVer

    Boosted Decision Trees algorithm

    I am not sure whether it should be here, or in statistical mathematics or in computers thread...feel free to move it. I am using it here because I am trying to understand the algorithm when it's used in particle physics (e.g. identification of neutral pions in ATLAS). As I read it: In general...
  35. Henry R

    MHB How to Build a Binary Search Tree with Given Data?

    Draw a Binary Search Trees (BST) produced when data containing 30,40,50,60,10,20,55,15 is inserted one by one. Thanks.
  36. evinda

    MHB Finding Depth of Perfect & Complete Binary Trees

    Hi! (Wave) How can we find the depth of a perfect binary tree and how of a complete one? (Thinking) Since a perfect binary tree is a full binary tree, at which the leaves have the same depth, I thought that we can find the depth, by just looking at the leftmost nodes, like that...
  37. evinda

    MHB Drawing Trees Through MATHHELPBOARDS: Pre-Order, In-Order, Post-Order

    Hello! (Wave) I want to draw trees, that traverse "MATHHELPBOARDS" in: pre-order in-order post-order That's what I have tried: pre-order in-order post-order Could you tell me if it is right or if I have done something wrong? (Thinking)
  38. L

    Solving Recursion Trees with Log Properties of a Constant

    Hi, I'd like to know the log properties when they are the power of a constant. I've searched everywhere but I can't find it. the reason I want to know it is that, when solving a recursion tree problem, my teacher got an result of n^(log4 3) but I got 3^(log4 n). the base of the log haven't...
  39. gfd43tg

    What is the order of traversal in this recursive fibonacci function?

    Hello, There are three different orders of traversal that we learned about ##\bullet## pre-order traversal ##\bullet## in-order traversal ##\bullet## post-order traversal Anyone know of any easy ways of remembering these 3 and how to order them? I have posted my lecture slides, but I could...
  40. howabout1337

    Start planting trees on mars now

    Can we start planting trees on Mars now? Considering that there are so many tree species on Earth that lives in extreme conditions, at least one of them would survive on Mars right? Imagine what Mars would be like in 50 years if we started doing this now.
  41. C

    Little trees makes angle around turn

    Homework Statement Your car is smelly so you've placed a Little Trees air freshener in your rear view mirror. You begin to turn around a corner of radius R and the little tree starts to make an angle θ from the vertical. What is the angle θ as a function of the speed v and and radius R...
  42. A

    MHB Breadth First and Depth First Spanning Trees

    Hi, I'm currently stuck on how to construct a breadth first and depth first spanning tree for this graph, the algorithm that I'm following is somewhat ambiguous. I'd really appreciate if someone can provide an explanation on how I should go by doing this. Thanks
  43. B

    MHB Growing More Trees to Sustainable Living

    Just checking to see if my work is correct for these 5.
  44. Greg Bernhardt

    Cities to be Lit by Bioluminescent Trees

    Future Cities Lit by Beautiful Bioluminescent Trees http://blog.suny.edu/2014/03/future-cities-lit-by-beautiful-bioluminescent-trees/
  45. T

    How to see the forest through the trees? (How not to miss the obvious?

    I just spent 5 minutes getting a problem wrong, only to stop for a second and try again to realize the problems answer was completely obvious, and very, very simple and I wanted to know what I could do to help prevent spending time on things that are obviously not wrong and see right off that...
  46. R

    Grafting fruit trees on non-fruit ones

    In addition to herbs, some trees can act as weeds. In the southern Urals in Bashkortostan one of such weed trees is maple. It grows quickly, reproduces rapidly, and easily fills the land. So I have a question: is it possible to use a maple tree as a stock for fruit trees? Please, tell me which...
  47. A

    MHB Graph theory proof related to trees

    Prove that a graph on v vertices that has no cycle is connected iff it has precisely v-1 edges. Necessary Condition: A connected graph with no cycles is a tree. Therefore, it has v-1 edges. Sufficient Condition: I need help with this. How can I use "a connected graph has no cycles iff it has...
  48. P

    Applying the chain rule using trees?

    Homework Statement Write out a tree (this will be a big tree) of dependencies and hence write down an expression for ∂z/∂rHomework Equations z=k(x, y)=xy2, x=(w1)(w2)+w3, y=w4; w1=t, w2=t2, w3=2t+1, w4=sin(t); t=r2+2s2The Attempt at a Solution This is the tree I drew and followed the...
  49. PhizKid

    Tension of rope between two trees

    Homework Statement Homework Equations F = ma The Attempt at a Solution say I project the weight onto T then I get the right answer if theta = pi / 4 then Wcostheta = W / sqrt2 but if I project the tension onto the weight, i don't get the right thing i get the opposite, Tcostheta...
  50. S

    Classification Trees vs Neural Networks

    Homework Statement Hi there, I was wondering if anyone out there was familiar with image classification algorithms. I have been creating histograms of pixel intensity distributions. For example, suppose I have 100 images of a tiger and 100 images of a lion. I create 100 histograms using...