What is Plants: Definition and 199 Discussions

Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses, and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize, but still have flowers, fruits, and seeds. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
There are about 320,000 species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, produce seeds. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen, and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems. Plants that produce grain, fruit, and vegetables also form basic human foods and have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.

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  1. DaveC426913

    Can I save anything in my greenhouse from frost damage?

    We moved from a house with virtually no windows to a house with a 350 square foot sunroom. We went from 2 tiny plants to 27 medium and large plants. We have more money than sense. Plants were all doing great until the temp outside dropped to near 0C. (I did check that they were all hardy enough...
  2. .Scott

    B Canadian Antineutrino Detector detects Nuclear Power Plants from 240km

    The SNO+ Experiment in Canada is still in development, but analysis of early antineutrino detections as published in Physics Review Letters and as referenced in the SNO+ results page are believed to be from appear to be the from Ontario reactors 240Km away.
  3. Steven Ellet

    Growing Fuzzy Potatoes at Home

    I put a russet potato in a clear plastic container with a dish of water. It had sprouted potato tubers(I think that's the right term) but I waited too long... it now has roots and white fur. Is there a reasonable change I can still get a plant out of it, or should I just start over?
  4. Wrichik Basu

    Getting rid of millipedes that are infesting plants in garden

    We have a small garden on our terrace. Today, when I went to water the plants, I found that some flower plants had their leaves turned translucent, i.e., they had lost all the chlorophyll. Upon looking closely, I found these millipedes having their lunch off the leaves: Till now...
  5. AlexanderReed

    Where to find detailed control panel pictures of nuclear plants?

    Hello, I would like to know where I can find detailed control panels pictures of nuclear plants. Not necessarily the complete control room but the main panels. I need to be able to read switches, alarms lights, etc... Have a nice day! Thanks
  6. Algr

    Why does demand knock power plants offline?

    https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/14/us/texas-heat-wave-ercot-conserve/index.html Why would they make plants like this? If demand gets too high, the plant just stops? And potentially knocks out other plants? Wouldn't it make more sense to cut off a few places at a time so that the plant can...
  7. S

    "Can plants hear?" -- Nobel or IgNobel?

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/can-plants-hear/ https://now.northropgrumman.com/can-plants-hear-the-science-of-sound-sensing-flora/ Well?
  8. BWV

    Halite / Centurion and fission - fusion power plants

    Its unclear to me what exactly these tests entailed and how much today is still top secret. They involved inertial confinement fusion with x-rays from a fission explosion. never see this discussed - forgetting about political issues with fission, how feasible is a fusion reactor utilizing...
  9. O

    Unlocking the Mystery of Inherent Radiation in Plants: A Search for Answers

    <mentor: moved to Biology> How did you find PF?: While searching to find the amount of radiation in plants. I am searching to find research on the amount of inherent radiation in plants. If plants have inherent radiation, obviously digesting plants with radiation is not a prudent thing to do...
  10. S

    History History of Steam Plants: USA Heyday & Accidents

    The term "Steam plant" can refer to a place that distributes steam for heating buildings - as opposed to a plant that generates electricity. I have the impression that there are few, if any, such steam plants in operation in the USA. When was their heyday? Were there accidents from broken...
  11. M

    Do plants get any negative sensations when we cut them?

    Homework Statement:: I was wondering when I break a branch of a tree, does it feel any pain or does it feel the same way I feel when I trim my nails or cut hair? Relevant Equations:: I tend to think that the latter is true as trees don't have brains or neurons. Thanks <mentor moved to...
  12. Steven Ellet

    Speed up composting with mycorrhizal Fungi?

    I have successfully composted before,(for planting) but is there a way to speed it up, maybe with mycorrhizal? (I hope this is the right section) I live in a hot (35C-48 C or 95F-120F) dry environment and I know to keep it damp (not Dripping) and well mixed (add air)
  13. E

    Nuclear Power Plants - Electricity Production

    I've calculated that reaction-energy in fission of a single atom of Uranium-235 is 2.5977713481*10^-11 Joules (based off of the equation given above.) I'm assuming that PWh has to be converted into simpler units so, 2.49PWh = 2.49*10^15Wh.. afterwards I could make it into watts but I was never...
  14. jim mcnamara

    What plants are safe to consume according to the GRAS list from the US FDA?

    I found a useful resource. The GRAS list of plants from the US FDA. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.20 Before you have a 'Well duh' response, please consider: If your culinary roots are from Europe or North America then: what is clary...
  15. M

    How can I create a budget-friendly and weather-resistant garden in Texas?

    I am creating a blueprint for my future garden and I have been researching ways to naturally insulate plants for protection from cold and hot weather plus other necessities to create a flowing garden on a budget. If you have some ideas bring 'em on. I am open to a plethora of possibilities.
  16. A

    Do plants respond to low frequency electromagnetic waves?

    I'm wondering if plants are sensitive to electromagnetic (EM) waves? Of course I'm not speaking of light but in the low frequency domain, say from 0 Hz to 100 kHz? I looked up the web but couldn't find anything, only experiments with EM waves above the range of 300 Mhz. Has there been any...
  17. S

    Robot Maintenance & Replacement in Manufacturing Plants

    Hi everyone. I wasn't sure where to include this thread, so thought I'd include this under General Engineering (mods: please feel free to move this thread to a more appropriate subforum). One thing that came into my mind was with respect to robots used in manufacturing (e.g. auto assembly...
  18. T

    Flow rate of steam in power plants

    I want to know what's the flow rate (in kg/s) of saturated steam at 5 barA pressure to the turbines of a 250 kW power plant.
  19. A

    Andrew's Senior Project: Copper Sulfate & Plant Development

    Hello, I'm Andrew and I'm in 12th grade. If you are interested, I would like to share a presentation showing the process, observations, results of an experiment showing the physical effects copper sulfate can have on early plant development. I, with much help from some intelligent members of...
  20. ORF

    Do carnivores have a higher proportion of light isotopes than plants?

    Hello, because of the "kinetic isotopic effect", https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_isotope_effect can the ratio of the common isotopes of N, C, P, H, O, S determine the position of an individual in the food chain? (eg, have carnivore animals higher proportion of light isotopes than...
  21. A

    Help with Copper and Zinc's Effects on a Plant Experiment

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I wanted to do an experiment on the effects that copper and zinc have on mung beans. I have copper sulfate pentahyde and zinc sulfate monohydrate, which I had purchased because I have seen information on other similar experiments where these were...
  22. BillTre

    Monocots Evolved from Aquatic Plants says Molecular Study

    I'm not a plant expert, but I can tell monocots from dicots. Apparently the monocot lineage was founded by aquatic plants (Science mag news story, original paper) and some obscure monocot leaf structure features can be explained by that aquatic origin. I'm actually kind of surprised...
  23. bgm

    Efficiency of Base Load Power Plants

    interested in efficiency metrics with regard to our base-load infrastructure... this information is not readily available. I think that renewable stuff has its place only after we make the most of our base plants with load shifting. The base plants exist, and they waste energy. I simply do not...
  24. F

    Power Plants and Micro-Regulation

    Electrical generation plants produce large amoounts of power to serve millions of people and many thousands of factories. I know very little about how such power is regulated and I always wonder how such large power output can be instantly regulated to accommodate the many instant changes in...
  25. T

    Synthetic fibers (rope) that absorb water and shorten

    Hello. I have an engineering idea, an invention. I want to make a watering valve for plants that opens the water when the soil moisture content is too low. I am looking for a material that (1) would not rot, and (2) absorb water and contract at a significant rate to open a valve (millimeter...
  26. Delta Force

    How Do Steam Plants Use Different Fuels?

    Historically it wasn't uncommon for boilers to be run on fuels different from those they were originally designed for. Ships were commonly converted from coal to petroleum after the 1910s, and for a period of time it was common to convert power plants from coal to petroleum as well. A common...
  27. mfb

    Just add poison: Bacteria outperform plants in efficiency

    The authors call them "cyborg bacteria", but as far as I can see they didn't change the bacteria artificially, they just put them in unusual conditions, including poison. They used bacteria that get rid of poisonous substances (such as cadmium) by forming crystals out of them. Under the right...
  28. L

    Why are salient pole rotors preferred in hydro plants?

    Hi all, I tried to post in this post https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/salient-and-non-salient-pole-synchronous-generator.878198/ but I now realize that creating a new thread might have been better.So... Salient rotors are not used in high rotational speed applications, and we must use...
  29. sophiecentaur

    I How do PIR detectors react to plants?

    I thought that plants respire so slowly that their surface temperatures must be pretty much the same as ambient. However, on windy nights, I have experienced three different PIR security lights in three different positions that are triggered by nearby leaves when the wind blows them about. None...
  30. curiosity colour

    What plants have alkaloids in their roots?

    i need to conduct an experiment on root of a plant that has alkaloids in it, but i don't know what plants does. can you guys suggest any plants to me? it'll be better if the plant is common to find thanks in advance
  31. Ahmed Abdullah

    Insect that has evolved to recognize carnivorous plants

    Obviously in a biome consisting of high density of carnivorous plants any insect that can recognize these plants or at least recognize organs associated with carnivory will get fitness advantage. So it seems a very natural thing to evolve from insects point of view. Has it happenned? If yes...
  32. C

    Alternate Heat Expansion Media for Nuclear Power Plants

    I am interested in whether it might be possible to select a more efficient heat expansion media for nuclear power plants than water, which has a very specific heat and a very high heat of vaporization. The high value of the specific heat and the heat of vaporization of water requires much...
  33. Delta Force

    Volanic Ash and Nuclear Power Plants

    Trojan Nuclear Power Plant was located 12 miles north of St. Helens, Oregon. St. Helens, Oregon, is only 39 miles away from Mount St. Helens, which had a major volcanic eruption in 1980. The heaviest ash fell to the northwest of the volcano in Washington and to some extents Idaho, which...
  34. K

    Volume of water required to cool thermal/nuclear plants?

    Homework Statement In the year 2004 the USA produced 1787 TWh of electrical energy in conventional thermal plants and 476 TWh in nuclear plants. Assuming 30% efficiency for nuclear plants and 40% for conventional thermal plants, determine the (annual) volume of cooling water required to cool...
  35. I

    Can Plants Form Memories? Investigating the Possibility of Memory in Plants

    From what I know, neurons are the only ones that create memories through long-term potentiation. Do plants have any equivalent process? Can they create a "repository of information"? I am guessing not. Other than genetically coded molecules that are reacting to the world outside and perhaps...
  36. P

    Uranium 235 over Polonium 210 in Nuclear Plants?

    I was researching on radioactive elements and found out that polonium is the most radioactive element and the most radioactive isotope of polonium (out of 33!) is polonium 210. So I was wondering why it isn't used in nuclear plants and bombs. I know that if a slow neutron was to hit uranium 235...
  37. O

    How long can nuclear plants last without power? (CME hit)

    Last night I watched History channel 10-hours "Doomsday 10 Ways the World will End".. the others are far out like Gamma Ray Burst, Black Holes, Rogue Planet, Killer Asteroid, Nuclear War, etc. and I can only feel entertained but when I watched the Solar Storm part. I got alarmed. This has...
  38. Preston Feagan

    Looking to dissolve plant matter without affecting rubber.

    Hello! I'm having a bit of an issue here, and I came across this site while searching on how to dissolve plant matter. The thread I found had some ideas, but said a reason would be needed before any concrete advice could be given. So here's my request - I need to instantaneously dissolve plant...
  39. rajen

    What are the operational problems in filtration in water treatment plants

    Can anyone tell me about the operational problems involved with filtration in water treatment plant?
  40. Allen_Wolf

    Balance of Oxygen in Earth: Plants Role

    In equation of photosynthesis were see 6 O2 is produced In equation of respiration we see that 6 O2 is used. But if plants produce and take back the same amount of O2 then how is the balance of oxygen in Earth maintained?
  41. S

    Papermaking - pulp from plants

    In handmade papermaking, are the chemical treatments ( e.g. boiling in soda ash, soaking bamboo in lime juice) necessarily for turning raw plant material into pulp? Or is the creation of the pulp just a mechanical process of breaking up the material with a "hollander beater" or some other...
  42. Aafia

    How exactly does cuticular transpiration occur in plants?

    Cuticle is the waxy layer on epidermis which prevents loss of water from leaves but some of the transpiration also occurs through cuticle. If cuticle is wax then it should prevent the water loss completely.
  43. L

    Frequency Control in Power Plants -- Droop

    Hi, how do power operators change the droop setting in modern power plants? Back in the days it was with help of a flyball governor(?). In todays power plants do operators adjust some sort of gain electronically via a scada system or something?
  44. G.K. Masterson

    Writing: Input Wanted Nuclear Plants -- In the event of a 50% population collapse

    Hi all, I'm a science-fiction/fantasy writer who is in the midst of outlining a distant-future (10,000+ years) story. The main parts of it I can handle (humans on Earth have gone through a cycle of Intellectual --> Dark ages with the current era being a kind of pinnacle never again achieved)...
  45. S

    Nuclear fusion power plants - why is it taking so long to make them?

    Hello everyone and happy new year! I would like to ask why it takes so long to create nuclear fusion power plants. The world's first nuclear fission power plant to generate electricity was started in 1954, some nine years after the nuclear fission bomb was detonated. Now we are more than 50...
  46. I

    C3 and C4 Plant Facts: What's Incorrect?

    Homework Statement [/B] Which of the following statements about C3 and C4 plants is incorrect? a. In C4 plants, the CO2 is first incorporated into a 4-carbon compound and in C3 plants the CO2 is first incorporated into a 3-carbon compound b. C4 plants use PEP Carboxylase for the uptake of CO2...
  47. davenn

    Can We Stop the Violence Against Plants?

    Sounds good to me! :biggrin:
  48. H

    Possible fusion power plants of the future

    Question about fusion power sources. An article I just read stated that they would be safe as if anything went wrong they would just stop working. Is this correct ? If so than why do stars continue to burn and seem (to me at least) to be self feeding. Respectfully, Pat Hagar
  49. skepticwulf

    Do plants need direct sunlight?

    We all know the famous theory that an asteroid hits the Earth and kill the dinosaurs by starting a chain reaction where the dust is all over the atmosphere preventing sunlight to reach plants causing them eventually to die thus causing herbivorous to die thus causing carnivorous to die. But when...
  50. J

    Why is the nominal capacity of power plants given in terms of power, not energy?

    Why is the nominal capacity of power plants given in terms of power and not in terms of energy?