LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii: Notizbuch eines Philologen (1947) is a book by Victor Klemperer, Professor of Literature at the Dresden University of Technology. The title, half in Latin and half in German, translates to "The Language of the Third Reich: A Philologist's Notebook"; the book is published in English translation as The Language of the Third Reich.
An LTI circuit such as one composed of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, in general is a stable LTI system, i.e. its impulse response is one that decays over time. I have no problem with that, as it speaks for itself through laws of energy conservation, but I want to see this from a...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Find out the function of the system.
Apply that to input.
The Attempt at a Solution
From given input output, system is a differentiator.
So when input is n u[n]
output is differentiating it,
we get:
n (impulse response) + u[n]
Which is not in any of the...
Hi everyone,
I'm an electrical engineer trying to make a little bit of order in my mind about eigenfunction theory, sturm liouville operators (regular and singular) on my own free time and I thought I was grasping almost everything, but I had a little doubt that is actually coming from the field...
Homework Statement
Discrete time causal LTI system has impulse response h(n) = (-1/2)^n, n≥0.
a)Find transfer function of given system.
b)Find frequency characteristics of system.
c) Find response for u(n) = μ(n)-μ(n-4)
The Attempt at a Solution
a) Either from definition, or from table...
Hello,
I am trying to estimate transfer function of unknown LTI system, given output and assumed input as point process.
I have measurement of output, while input, which is assumed to be point process, could be created synthetically using known times and amplitudes.
My questions:
1. What is...
Hello All,
I am trying to learn about lti systems and what not for my research work but before I can apply my research I have to understand the fundamentals, which is what this question is kind of about!
I want to find h(t), the impulse response of an LTI system where my input and output are...
Homework Statement
Find the closed form of the impulse response of the system y[n] = 7y[n-1]-12y[n-2]+x[n] using the peel away and guess method. Ie, by using Python code to find the geometric ratios and amplitudes of the outputs as n grows large, then calculate residuals, and find the...
I understand what time invariance means but there are a few catches that I'm completely confused about: Suppose we have $$y(t)=x(\alpha t-\beta)$$ to test time invariance we shift the input then "plug" it into the output:$$x_1(t_1)=x(t-t_o)$$ so this is when I become confused; when we plug...
Homework Statement
Consider a LTI system for which the filter coefficients are ##{\mathrm{h}_k}=\{1,2,1\}##. Find the output when the input is ##\mathrm{x}[n]=3\mathrm{cos}(\frac{\pi}{3}n-\frac{\pi}{2})-3\mathrm{cos}(\frac{7\pi}{8}n)##. Identify two frequencies in this composite signal. Show...
Homework Statement
A DT system is defined by the input-output relationship y[n] = x[n] ∗ h[n],
where x[n] is input, y[n] is output, '*' is convolution, and h[n] = u[n+1].
Is this an LTI system? Explain.
Homework Equations
x[n] - input, h[n] - impulse response
y[n]=h[n]*x[n] = Σ (k=-inf to inf)...
Homework Statement
Please see he attached file for the problem text.
Homework Equations
The output ##y(t) = h(t) * x(t)##, where ##h(t)## is the system's impulse response while ##x(t)## is the input signal.
Laplace transformed, the formula above turns into ## Y(s)=H(s) \cdot X(s)##, where...
Hi. If you have a LTI system with an impulse response function ##h(t)## taking in an input ##x(t)##, why does its output ##y(t)## become
?
I realize ##y(t)## not only depends on the instantaneous input ##x(t)##, but also on the lingering effects of previous inputs ##x(\tau)## with ##\tau <...
Hi,
For my math methods 3 course, I am not quite sure which books to use. The course is based on the math methods book by Riley, Hobson, and Bence, and I don't particularly like it.
Hence, I am looking for some alternatives. Especially for the Preliminaries section. I had a real hard time...
Hi!
Homework Statement
a) Calculate and sketch amplitude spectrum of u(t),
b) u(t) is input signal for linear time invariant system whose transfer function H(jw) is shown. Calculate output signal uo(t)
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
I completed task a), I got...
Homework Statement
Tell whether following systems are i. linear and ii. time-invariant:
$$y(t) = \int_{-\infty}^t x(\tau)d\tau$$
$$y(t) = \int_{0}^t x(\tau)d\tau$$
$$y(t) = \int_{t-1}^{t+1} x(\tau)d\tau$$Homework Equations
N/AThe Attempt at a Solution
I'm a little thrown off by the integrals...
Homework Statement
The transfer function of an LTI system H(s) = (s^2 + 2)/(s^3+2s^2+2s+1)
Find the followings
i) pole-zero pattern of H(s)
ii) Stability of the system
iii) Impulse response h(t)
Homework Equations
Zero for which H(s) = 0 & Pole is for which H(s) = ∞
The...
Determine \(H(s)\) and specify its region of convergence. Your answer should be consistent with the fact that the system is causal and stable.
In order to find \(H(s)\), we need to find \(X(s)\) and \(Y(s)\).
\begin{align*}...
Not sure if this is the right forum. This is a mathematical question, but it is from signals.
An LTI system is a mapping from one function space to another that is both linear and time invariant.
Given this, how might I show that if the input is a sinusoid, the output, is also a sinusoid...
I have attached an image of a ''brick-wall'' band pass filter. Can someone please help me find the expression of frequency response for it?
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
Determine the unit-step response of the discrete-time LTI
systems described by the following impulse responses:
h[n]=(0.9)^{n}e^{j(\pi/2)n}u[n]So I am completely confused. . . I don't even know how to start. . . I want to say that I need to do a summation but the more examples and text I look...
Homework Statement
I am reading a little bit on Causal LTI systems. I know causality means that a system cannot depend on the future, but why does that mean an impulse function, say
h(t) = 0, for all t<0
I mean, if t is negative, then it's not really depending on the future, but the...
Homework Statement
Find the impulse response of a system with transfer function H(S) = (s+3)/(s^2+2s+1)
or H(S)=(s+3)/[(s+1)^2]
Homework Equations
Poles are s1=s2=-1
y = Ae^st + Be^st
The Attempt at a Solution
In my notes I do not have an answer for the case when there is...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Not sure
The Attempt at a Solution
No idea how to even begin.
I don't even know how to start this equation. My textbook has no examples of this type. Do I need to transform x(t)? If someone could simply steer me in the right direction...
edit: you aren't proving it's LTI, you proving it COULD be lti
Homework Statement
the question:
could the following system be LTI?
x(t)=-5cos(2t) --> y(t)=exp(-2tj)Homework Equations
the chapter is about eigenfunctions of LTI systems, which are of the form exp(st).The Attempt at a Solution
So...
Homework Statement
An LTI discrete-time system has frequency response given by
(a) Use one of the above forms of the frequency response to obtain an equation for the
impulse response h[n] of the system.
(b) From the frequency response, determine the difference equation that is...
Hello,
I apologize in advance if I have missed the right place to ask. I'd be grateful if you could forward me to the right place, if that is the case.
Google didn't help, so maybe someone here can point me in the right direction:
1) "If the input to a LTI system is a Gaussian random...
I've been told that to calculate the difference equation of an LTI system, you simply take the sample values of the impulse response as the coefficients of the x[n-k] terms in the difference equation. i.e. if h[n] = {1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125} for n>=0, then y[n] = x[n]...
Homework Statement
this system satisfies the condition of initial rest.
Y[n] =(1/2)y[n-1] + x[n]
I'm trying to prove that this is linear and time invariant.The Attempt at a Solution
I'm trying it this way.
To be LTI system,
It has to satisfy below.
aX1[n] -> aY1[n]
bX2[n] -> bY2[n]
aX1 +...
Homework Statement
The signal s(t) is a deterministic signal with the finite duration (0,Ts) and the energy Es=∫s2(t)dt. In the following system, n(t) is a normal noise with the mean zero and the power spectral density Gn(f)=η/2. Show that no(Ts) has a normal distribution with the mean zero...
Homework Statement
Calculate the step response of the system (i.e. response to x(n) = u(n)
Previously calculated the impulse response becomes h(n) 3/11 (5/8)^{n} u(n) + 5/22(1/8)^{n}u(n)
Homework Equations
H(z) =\frac{Y(z)}{X(z)}
u(n) =\frac{1}{1-z^{-1}}
The Attempt at a...
Homework Statement
Show that the group delay of an LTI discrete-time system characterized by a frequency response H(e^{j\omega}) can be expressed as
\tau(\omega)= Re\left\{\frac{j\frac{dH(e^{j\omega}}{d\omega}}{H(e^{j\omega}}\right\} .
Homework Equations
The...
Hello,
am having an understanding problem, about an exercice on LTI systems with unit sample response.
i've been given the graphical depicted output y[n], and the following output x[n]= u[n]-u[n-2]
the system is as follow
x[n]----> h1[n]----->h2[n]------>y[n]
with h2[n]= s[n] - s[n-1]...
I just started my first graduate level controls class this semester, and it looks like my professors notes aren't going to be quite enough. Can anybody recommend a good book with lots of state space representation examples, or if not a book, a website would do fine as well. Thanks for any help.
Homework Statement
Suppose that we have a linear time invariant system with a system function
H(s) = \frac{s+1}{s^{2} + 2s + 2}
we want to find the output of the system when the input is x(t) = e^{\left | t \right |}
The Attempt at a Solution
what I tried to do is find the laplace...
How do you represent the Fourier transform of a periodic signal as the input in a LTI system?
More precisely, a sequence of triangle pulses symmetric to the origin.
I know what the Fourier transform is 2\pi (sum (Xn delta(omega - (n)omega0)))
I was told to reduce the Xn to...
hello,
If I have two LTI system in G1(s) and G2(s) and I know that for a certain fraction of the time period G1 is active and for the reminaing fraction G2 is active, then is there any method to get the equivalent transfer function ?
Umat.
Is the following system stable. If so how.
y(t)= \frac{d}{dt} x(t)I have tried the following proof but i think it is wrong.
PROOF:
The System is LINEAR
The system is time invariant
So on applying the stability criterion for LTI systems
ie . \int^{\infty}_{-\infty} h(t) dt < \infty...
If I have the unit impulse response function for a discrete-time LTI system (Unit sequence response?), h[n], how can I calculate the time taken for the output to fall below 1% of its initial value, after a unit impulse is applied to the input?
In particular, I have:
h[n]=(\alpha...
Hi lads, need help with this question from a signals and systems course.
LTI system is defined as follows
H(s) = \frac{1}{ s^2 - 2rs cos(theta) + r^2}
where r = 20pi, theta = 1.47.
Find an expression for the step response of the system
I think...
Homework Statement
what is the limit of yb(t) as \delta goes to zero.
yb(t) = (b/delta)*exp[-t/RC](exp[delta/RC] - 1)(u(t)-u(t-delta))
b=1.
2. The attempt at a solution
I used L'hopitals rule to find the limit of (b/delta)*exp[-t/RC](exp[delta/RC] - 1), which i got to...
Homework Statement
Hello all,
As part of a Control Theory assignment I have to compute the step response for the discrete-time LTI system given by the following state-space matrices:
A = \[ \left( \begin{array}{ccc}
0 & 1 \\
0 & 3 \end{array} \right)\]
B = \[ \left(...
I am looking for good, theoretical references on the reciprocity theorem for resistor networks.
I am trying to find out how general the theorem is and whether it is only limited to LTI systems.
Thanks in advance for the suggestions...
Can anybody prove or give a bit detail about the causality condition i.e
h(t) = 0, t<0 for continuous-time LTI system.
And based on this how a continuous time LTI system is causal if,
x(t) = 0, t<0.
I hope I catched the correct forum.
Under http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LTI_system_theory
e^{s t} is an eigenvalue.
I don't really understand that the following is an eigenvalue equation:
\quad = e^{s t} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} h(\tau) \, e^{-s \tau} \, d \tau
\quad = e^{s t}...
How will we evaluate the integral for calculation of Amplitude Factor for an LTI system for which the input and output are related by a time shift of 3, i.e.,
y(t) = x(t - 3)
The answer is: H(s) = e^(-3s)
I want to understand the Mathematics behind the evaluation of the integral...