# Magnetic field and forces Definition and 18 Discussions

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials. A moving charge in a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to its own velocity and to the magnetic field. A permanent magnet's magnetic field pulls on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. In addition, a magnetic field that varies with location will exert a force on a range of non-magnetic materials by affecting the motion of their outer atomic electrons. Magnetic fields surround magnetized materials, and are created by electric currents such as those used in electromagnets, and by electric fields varying in time. Since both strength and direction of a magnetic field may vary with location, they are described as a map assigning a vector to each point of space or, more precisely—because of the way the magnetic field transforms under mirror reflection—as a field of pseudovectors.
In electromagnetics, the term "magnetic field" is used for two distinct but closely related vector fields denoted by the symbols B and H. In the International System of Units, H, magnetic field strength, is measured in the SI base units of ampere per meter (A/m). B, magnetic flux density, is measured in tesla (in SI base units: kilogram per second2 per ampere), which is equivalent to newton per meter per ampere. H and B differ in how they account for magnetization. In a vacuum, the two fields are related through the vacuum permeability,

B

/

μ

0

=

H

{\displaystyle \mathbf {B} /\mu _{0}=\mathbf {H} }
; but in a magnetized material, the terms differ by the material's magnetization at each point.
Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin. Magnetic fields and electric fields are interrelated and are both components of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.
Magnetic fields are used throughout modern technology, particularly in electrical engineering and electromechanics. Rotating magnetic fields are used in both electric motors and generators. The interaction of magnetic fields in electric devices such as transformers is conceptualized and investigated as magnetic circuits. Magnetic forces give information about the charge carriers in a material through the Hall effect. The Earth produces its own magnetic field, which shields the Earth's ozone layer from the solar wind and is important in navigation using a compass.

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1. ### I Derivation of induced voltage in loop

##\phi_m = Blwcos\theta## voltage = ##\frac{-d\phi_m}{dt} = Blwsin\theta\frac{d\theta}{dt}## where l is the length of the loop and w is the width of the loop The top and bottom of the loop have magnetic forces perpendicular to the loop. My book says that means that there is no current through...
2. ### I Perfect conductor in rotating magnetic field

Hello all, what would happen to a perfectly conducting cylinder immersed in a rotating magnetic field, with the rotation axis parallel to that of the cylinder? I guess the cylinder would start to rotate with the field? Right? Thank you
3. ### Can two variables in two different equations cancel each other?

Using the related equations, I have come up with an equation that I think would answer this question (#4). However, I was just wondering does the 'L' from equation #1 and 'l' in equation #3 cancels each other out when the substitution is made to give out equation #4 (since they are both the...
4. ### Force & energy in cutting and stretching magnetic field lines?

I have an ordinary switchable magnet for holding tools to a lathe. It's like a magnetic force gearbox, but I can't quite understand the force multiplication. When placed on a steel surface the switch force is approximately ~5N on both finger and thumb at 1.5cm radius acting over a 3cm arc...
5. ### Can a virtual particle from a maget accelerate another particle on a linear path?

Summary: Can a particle accelerator accelerate gaseous fuel? Does space-time differ for detonating ionized fuel moving near the speed of light within a magnetic field such as a particle accelerator?
6. ### Magnitude of the Magnetic Field near a Circuit Inclined at an Angle

For the front wire, I got the magnitude of the magnetic field in terms of the magnitude of the magnetic force, the current, "l," and the "theta". I am unsure how to proceed because I thought that the magnetic force is independent of any other forces. I am also just lost in general. Any help...
7. ### What exactly is magnetism, anyway?

After carefully reading textbooks, research papers and a lot of forums, I find myself more confused than ever regarding the composition of magnetic fields. So please let me ask some (hopefully) very simple questions: (1) Do we or do we not know exactly how magnetic fields arise and dissipate...
8. ### Magnetic field "lines" confused with magnetic field "vectors"

I might be a slow learner, but am still trying to understand the difference between field lines and vectors. I've got that magnetic field lines are symbolic and that the directional arrows applied (from north to south) are a convention. But see the attached image. The field lines form a closed...
9. ### Derivation: force on magnetic moment in magnetic field

I am trying to derive the equation ##\vec{\Gamma} = \vec{m} \times \vec{B}##, where ##\vec{m} = I \vec{A}## is the magnetic moment, and ##\vec{A}## is normal to surface ##A##, from the Lorentz force law ##\mathrm{d}\vec{F} = I \vec{dl} \times \vec{B}##. For an arbitrary closed current loop ##C##...
10. ### Magnetic Field from Protons vs Electrons

If an electron is moving in a circle in a magnetic field, it produces a magnetic field in accordance to the right hand rule. If a proton is moving in a circle in a magnetic field, would it produce a magnetic field in accordance to the left hand equivalent to the right hand rule.
11. ### Find induced current, magnetic force, work in inclined plane

Homework Statement [IMG]http://[url=https://ibb.co/b3Emfo]https://preview.ibb.co/gLaEY8/20180527_055248.jpg[ A conducting bar slides down without friction on a pair of conducting rails separated by distance d. Connected to resistor R and there magnetic field B directed upward, perpendicular to...
12. ### Electric Force on a Charge in a Solenoid

Homework Statement [IMG]http://[url=https://ibb.co/dgUy6T]https://preview.ibb.co/iyqS0o/20180525_213806.jpg Since i only know the field direction, increasing go into page. Why the answer is C? Why the answer "a" ? The R and r on the pic is respected to what? Homework Equations The...
13. M

### Charge moving with a constant linear velocity....

Charge moving in constant linear velocity does not produce magnetic field... If not, please provide an explanation...
14. ### I Force on Steel Bar Inside Solenoid

Hello all. Me and some friends are building a coil cannon, and we've been doing some calculations [I know its unecessary but... well, we're physicists! (well, physics students...)]. But we got stuck. How to calculate the force acting on a steel bar (or some other ferromagnetic material, maybe...
15. ### Magnetic Forces on objects in nonuniform fields

I have this question which I need to solve . But I am unable to. Suppose I have a current ring of radius R and current I (constant). at a distance x from the centre of the ring, I have a iron disk (radius r and thickness t) present in the plane of the ring. This disk will be attracted to the...
16. ### Physics 12: electromagnetism problem -- Find the acceleration of the proton in a B-field

Homework Statement [/B] A proton is accelerated from rest at the positive plate of two charged parallel plates with a potential difference of 2000 v. After leaving the plates through a small hole in the negative plate, it enters a uniform magnetic field of 0.50 T in a direction perpendicular to...
17. ### Magnetic Fields- Finding the radius

Homework Statement A single ionized uranium ion of mass 6.9 x 10 ^-25 kg is accelerated through a potential difference of 4.4 x 10^5 V. What is the radius of the path it would take if injected at 90 degrees into 0.47 T uniform magnetic field at this velocity? 3. Attempts Since centripetal...
18. ### A Concentric Conducting Loops

Hello, As a heuristic tool for a complex problem, I'm trying to understand a series of nested conducting loops each with a initial identical current on it. These perfectly conducting loops are in the same plane each with that current in either direction. Each nested loop is perfectly...