What is Ads/cft: Definition and 56 Discussions

In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories. On one side are anti-de Sitter spaces (AdS) which are used in theories of quantum gravity, formulated in terms of string theory or M-theory. On the other side of the correspondence are conformal field theories (CFT) which are quantum field theories, including theories similar to the Yang–Mills theories that describe elementary particles.
The duality represents a major advance in the understanding of string theory and quantum gravity. This is because it provides a non-perturbative formulation of string theory with certain boundary conditions and because it is the most successful realization of the holographic principle, an idea in quantum gravity originally proposed by Gerard 't Hooft and promoted by Leonard Susskind.
It also provides a powerful toolkit for studying strongly coupled quantum field theories. Much of the usefulness of the duality results from the fact that it is a strong-weak duality: when the fields of the quantum field theory are strongly interacting, the ones in the gravitational theory are weakly interacting and thus more mathematically tractable. This fact has been used to study many aspects of nuclear and condensed matter physics by translating problems in those subjects into more mathematically tractable problems in string theory.
The AdS/CFT correspondence was first proposed by Juan Maldacena in late 1997. Important aspects of the correspondence were soon elaborated in two articles, one by Steven Gubser, Igor Klebanov and Alexander Polyakov, and another by Edward Witten. By 2015, Maldacena's article had over 10,000 citations, becoming the most highly cited article in the field of high energy physics, reaching over 20,000 citations in 2020.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. S

    Quantum Clifford Algebra for Quantum Field Theory, Supersymmetry, Supergravity

    I'm currently trying to learn Clifford algebra or more specifically spinors, in higher dimensions. My goal is to study AdS/CFT, but an essential part of learning it is to understand SUSY which then needs some element of Clifford algebra in higher dimensions. I have consulted, Introduction to...
  2. ohwilleke

    I Rovelli on Quantum Gravity

    Rovelli points to three pieces of existing observational evidence that should guide future quantum gravity research. Bottom line: * abandon Lorentz invariance violating quantum gravity theories, * abandon supergravity and string theory, and * stop working on the anti-deSitter/conformal field...
  3. H

    A Can holography provide a complete description of a space-time?

    I read that the parameters of each these two theories can be obtained from parameters of the other theory and if one event may appear in ads5 with a given probability there is another event in the CFT side which will get the same probability. But is there a one to one map between the two space...
  4. H

    A Is ADS Theory a Quantum Theory? Hawking's Bet and the ADS/CFT Equivalence

    I read that he admitter having lost his bet with Preskill when he discovered the ADS/CFT equivalence. I can understand that because CFT is a quantum theory in which evolution is unitary (but there is the problem of measurements). so the black holes can be described with unitary tools. On...
  5. P

    AdS/CFT electromagnetic wavefunction emergence

    If an electomagnetic wave like blue light, for example, exists in 3 dimensions, then how does/can the AdS/CFT conjecture explain it's emergence? Are the electric and the magnetic components of the blue wave both in 2 dimensions in CFT, and if so how would they combine and emerge into AdS to form...
  6. H

    A Ads/cft correspondence and quantum / classical correspondance

    Hi Pf I do not know if it is only an analogy but i consider these two correspondences: I) the transformation of a quantum spin into a statistical problem by a Wick rotation. we start with a qubit evolving in time between 0 and t from S0 to St. we use a exp(iHt) operator to describe its...
  7. S

    High Energy Introductory notes on AdS/CFT or black hole thermodynamics

    I am looking for a book/notes on the topics mentioned in the title that would be accessible to an undergrad. I have a background in grad quantum and statistical mechanics, but most resources I found on those topics assume a familiarity with QFT, string theory, gauge theory, and general...
  8. nomadreid

    I What use is the AdS/CFT correspondence in a flat universe?

    All the accounts which I have read (and which are accessible to my limited knowledge of General Relativity and its mathematics) on the holographic principle says vaguely that the AdS/CFT correspondence is very enlightening, but with the caveat that, well, we don't happen to live in an AdS space...
  9. I

    Programs Topics at the junction of AdS/CFT and quantum information

    I have been asked to draft a (informal) research proposal for a PhD thesis. I have some background in quantum information and my interests are leaning towards the AdS/CFT correspondence. I was wondering if you could suggest a few (preferably recent) theory papers at the junction of quantum...
  10. I

    Admissions Role of AdS/CFT correspondence in the context of integrability

    I have a masters degree. I studied general relativity and quantum field theory. I was interested in applying to PhD programs for AdS/CFT. I was wondering how integrability fits in the context of AdS/CFT. As I understand, the AdS/CFT correspondence postulates a duality between gravity theories...
  11. J

    A Fields transforming in the adjoint representation?

    Hi! I'm doing my master thesis in AdS/CFT and I've read several times that "Fields transforms in the adjoint representation" or "Fields transforms in the fundamental representation". I've had courses in Advanced mathematics (where I studied Group theory) and QFTs, but I don't understand (or...
  12. CharlieCW

    A Is AdS/CFT Theory a Viable Option for Post-Graduate Research in HEP?

    Lately AdS/CFT seems to have been a very promising tool to simplify calculations in HEP (ex. quark-gluon plasma) and offer some insights into quantum gravity. I was considering doing a Master or PhD thesis in this field, but I'm wondering if the prospects are more reasonable than just string...
  13. F

    A Solving Almheriri's Dilaton-Gravity Model in AdS##_2##

    I am going through Almheriri's article about " Models of AdS##_2## and I am stuck on a derivation. I think they make some kind of assumption which I don't understand. What I am trying to do, is to compute the equation of motion by varying the action with respect to the metric. Unfortunately I...
  14. J

    Cosmology Book on Black Holes, Strings, AdS/CFT

    Hello, I would really like a book like Susskind's "An Introduction To Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe" but not so condensed. If you have anything to suggest please do so. Also, if you know of any book that contains any part of the above book in...
  15. J

    High Energy AdS/CFT book that includes prerequisites

    Hello! Is there any book on Gauge/Gravity duality(or AdS/CFT correspondence) that includes a pedagogical and detailed overview on its prerequisites? Thanks in advance!
  16. A

    AdS/CFT: Null Geodesics & Causal Connection?

    I believe I've read that null geodesics can reach the boundary of AdS space within finite affine parameter and that this allows for a causal connection between the bulk AdS spacetime and the boundary on which the CFT lives and that this is very important for AdS/CFT. I can't find a reference...
  17. Jimster41

    AdS/CFT w/out Holography and SLOT - Fluctuation Work Theorem

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.00591 AdS/CFT without holography: A hidden dimension on the CFT side and implications for black-hole entropy H. Nikolic (Submitted on 2 Jul 2015) We propose a new non-holographic formulation of AdS/CFT correspondence, according to which quantum gravity on AdS and its...
  18. S.Daedalus

    Einstein Equation of State vs Gravity from Entanglement

    There's a somehow related set of issues I find myself pondering time and again: In 1995, Ted Jacobson derived Einstein's equations from thermodynamics across a horizon. Roughly, he showed that if the horizon's entropy is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking formula, then the second law of...
  19. Demystifier

    Is there a reversed GKPW for AdS/CFT?

    In Ads/CFT, the famous GKPW equation gives a recipe how to calculate correlators in the boundary theory by using the bulk theory. But is there a reverse? What if I want to calculate the correlators in the bulk theory by using the boundary theory?
  20. K

    Does Ads/CFT correspondence apply to LQG Kodama state?

    first paperhttp://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0209079 Quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant Lee Smolin 59 pages "A quantum theory of gravity is described in the case of a positive cosmological constant in 3+1 dimensions. Both old and new results are described, which support the case...
  21. K

    Do any and all 4D or 5D AdS satisfy AdS/CFT correspondence

    does any and all 4-D 5-D AdS spaces always have a 3-d or 4-D (d-1) CFT corresponding ? or are there 4D and 5D AdS where there is NO corresponding CFT? i.e is it possible to posit a 4D (5D) space that is AdS that has no 3D (4D) CFT ? since our universe is 4D, should AdS in 4D be studied with...
  22. M

    Pentagons, hexagons, quantum gravity, AdS/CFT

    arxiv:1503.06237 proposes a 5-qubit error-correcting code as an analogy for AdS/CFT duality. One of the authors, Beni Yoshida, has an expository post at quantumfrontiers.com and motls.blogspot.com. It includes the idea of joining together many instances of the 5-qubit code (which as a diagram is...
  23. M

    What is the recommended resource for learning the basics of AdS/CFT?

    I'm looking to start learning the basics of AdS/CFT, in particular AdS/CFT integrability, over the summer before I start grad school. By the time I finish my undergrad I will have a good background in QFT (first 12 chapters of Peskin & Schroeder), GR (Sean Carroll's notes and Wald), quantum...
  24. I

    ADS/CFT Correspondense question

    I have a question about ADS/CFT Correspondence. There is a quote from Wikipedia that confuses me. "Every entity in one theory has a counterpart in the other theory. For example, a single particle in the gravitational theory might correspond to some collection of particles in the boundary...
  25. Demystifier

    The classical limit of AdS/CFT

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is a correspondence of one quantum theory to another quantum theory. But what about the classical limit of these two theories? Is there a correspondence between the corresponding classical theories? If there is, what a precise form this classical-to-classical...
  26. A

    AdS/CFT and Holography: Exploring the Questions

    I studied string theory for 2 years officially and much more on my own, chance made it that I spent the last year reading "serious" algebraic topology books and differential geometry specific for mathematicians. After gaining this insight I am very skeptical about string theory and the...
  27. J

    Whatever happened to AdS/CFT and the Quark Gluon Plasma?

    Nice posting by Bee Hossenfelder on her Blog !.. http://backreaction.blogspot.nl/2013/09/whatever-happened-to-adscft-and-quark.html A decade ago, the AdS/CFT correspondence was celebrated as a possible description of the quark gluon plasma. RHIC measurements of heavy ion collisions at that...
  28. P

    Approximations and limits in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Hi, sorry for the quite long text. Thanks in advance for any help! I am a little confused about the different limits in which the AdS/CFT correspondence is conjectured to hold in its stong, intermediate, weak form. I am trying to understand the correspondence motivated by Maldacena's...
  29. M

    Is AdS/CFT geometric or quantum?

    Hi everyone, long time lurker first time poster. There's been a some debate here on AdS/CFT and I can't resolve the facts of the matter. I have read Maldacena's large-N paper but of course there is no mention of AdS/CFT in there. The reason I'm posting is because I was hoping someone could...
  30. N

    AdS/CFT as quantum to classical correspondence

    This paper proposes an intuitive interpretation of basic aspects of Maldacena's conjecture in QFT and of the mathematical beauty of extra-dimensional theories. Its ansatz is that every particle is a reference clock. It is a peer-reviewed paper and uses an extremely original and simple formalism...
  31. P

    AdS/CFT derived from Kaluza theory

    Has there been a major breakthrough in AdS/CFT correspondence? The maths are so simple compared to what I normally read on AdS/CFT. Could this be accurate? Accurate or not, this an excellent theoretical exercise in the braneworld. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BxV2HFmw-aNMcEktN3Jhd0d4eW8/edit
  32. J

    What is the smoking gun that validates ADS/CFT

    To my understanding there is no proof of ADS/CFT but people seem to take it as absolute fact. What is the reason for this?
  33. tom.stoer

    AdS/CFT and non-perturbative gravity in string theory

    I understand that suitable compactified strings in AdS correspond to conformal field theories (w/o gravity) living on the boundary space. What I do not get is the exact relationship between non-perturbative gravitational phenomena in the bulk and the CFT. All what I have seen are...
  34. pinu

    Studying AdS/CFT: Advice for Beginners with No CFT/SUSY Background

    I am studying Witten's papers on AdS/CFT. But I don't have any CFT or SUSY background. Can anyone suggest me some lecture notes or books where I can have illustrative ideas on Ads/CFT correspondence? I do have Nastase's notes.It is really good but too short for introduction!
  35. S

    2 questions. 1 on Field theory, the other on Ads/CFT.

    My first question: QED has U(1) symmetry. The transformation is a function of x (psi -> psi*theta(x)). How does this depend on the spacetime? Do interactions therefore differ between curved space and flat space? Is this what leads on to QFT on curved spacetime research? My second question...
  36. J

    Is Ads/CFT correspondance the same as gauge /gravity duality?

    Is Ads/CFT correspondance the same as gauge /gravity duality?
  37. S

    Relation between Verlinde's Entropic gravity and AdS/CFT

    Hi there PF I have been thinking about Verlinde's entropic gravity in relation to AdS/CFT. In Verlinde's gravity, gravity is caused by changes in entropy on holographic screens. Now if we look at the dimensionality of this picture, we have gravity in 3+1 dimensions (regular space, like where...
  38. atyy

    Black hole microstate in AdS/CFT

    I've asked this before, but am still confused. In AdS/CFT, a typical statement like that on p6 of Hubeny and Rangamani's http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.3675 is that a large black hole in the bulk corresponds to a thermal state in the CFT. However, if the CFT is the complete physics, then I'd...
  39. atyy

    Spin Foams & AdS/CFT: Lattice Gauge Theories

    Apparently some lattice gauge theories can be formulated as spin foams. Conrady even says "The concept of spin foams is both new and old. It is old in the sense that it is just another name for the plaquette diagrams that appear in the strong coupling expansion of lattice gauge theories". Do...
  40. P

    Any application of AdS/CFT to nucleon structure?

    AdS/CFT has primarily focused on quark-gluon plasma, but I notice some people are trying to apply the idea to bound states such as baryons. How much progress has been made in this field? Is it possible for AdS/CFT to shed light on problems such as parton distribution functions and proton spin...
  41. S

    Ontology of AdS/CFT classical on the bulk?

    Is it true in AdS/CFT the ontology on the boundary is quantum (whatever that may be), and the ontology in the bulk is classical? If that were true it would be a new "interpretation" of quantum mechanics.
  42. D

    AdS/CFT correspondence and the cosmological constant

    Hi all, From what I understand AdS/CFT correspondence has been one of the most researched areas in string theory. I'd like to know if there has been any work done to relate this duality to the cosmological constant. As unrelated as they may sound, the expansion of space will change the...
  43. P

    How could random connections on a manifold be the key to understanding AdS/CFT?

    new explanation for AdS/CFT?? Here is a possible new interpretation of AdS/CFT. (Just humor me for a moment.) First, take a look at the pattens as photographed in Discover magizine: "Waves on a sphere follow the unpredictable Rules of Quantum Mechanics". (p. 53 of March 2011 Discover...
  44. C

    Non-perturbative string theory from AdS/CFT ?

    Can some one point out papers that discuss non-perturbative aspects of string theory that have been derived from perturbing gauge theories through the gauge/gravity duality? I can only find papers discussing the other way around - be it in QCD or CMT.
  45. marcus

    Can AdS/CFT Be Established Without String Theory Through Freidel's Approach?

    Could the correspondence be proven along the lines suggested by Laurent Freidel---one of the leaders in LQG research? If you haven't heard of Freidel, there are two covariant LQG models currently being studied one being Rovelli et al, the other being Freidel et al's. He gave the invited LQG...
  46. atyy

    Horizon in AdS/CFT: CFT in Black Hole Spacetime

    In a spacetime with a black hole, where is the horizon in the CFT? Also, if a black hole spacetime corresponds to a thermal CFT, doesn't that mean the CFT is in a box where there is still a universe outside to provide a temperature?
  47. A

    Programs Writing a PhD research proposal: AdS/CFT

    I am trying to write a research proposal and hav no idea where to start I'm doing a Masters in Theoretical Physics and want to do a PhD involving such Geometrical Applications to QFT. But the last sentence, besides personal background and a relatively naive version of why I'm interested is all...
  48. atyy

    How generally can an AdS/CFT analogy be made?

    Can every QFT/CFT be interpreted at least approximately as a theory of gravity? If not, is it known which QFT/CFTs have gravitational counterparts?
  49. P

    AdS/CFT: any significant quantitative success?

    I've heard a lot about AdS/CFT lately as an approach to solve strongly coupled field theories such as QCD and condensed matter systems. However I am left wondering whether AdS/CFT has produced any quantitative result that is either i) not obtainable from previous methods, or ii) significantly...
  50. O

    From String theory to QFT & SM: What does AdS/CFT theory can do and what cann't do?

    Can anyone please comment on this? Any new progress in extending String theory to QFT & SM other than AdS/CFT?