# What is Xray: Definition and 35 Discussions

An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30×1015 Hz to 30×1018 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. He named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spellings of X-ray(s) in English include the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).

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1. ### A XRay Help -- Xrays are generated "accidentally" in a HV machine

First post here, thanks in advance... It may seem like xrays aren't something to play around with at home - but that's not my intent! I just need to get some paperwork done (no, it's not homework...). Does anyone have any insight into this question - or know of an expert source I could...
2. ### Bragg diffraction form an “inclined” crystal plane

Homework Statement In picture, first-order reflection from the reflection planes shown occurs when an x-ray beam of wavelength ##0.260 nm## makes an angle ##\theta=63.8°## with the top face of the crystal. What is the unit cell size ##a_0##? Homework Equations Bragg law d=\frac{ n...
3. ### X-ray diffraction and Bragg's law

Homework Statement The Attempt at a Solution Hi All, I have two issues with this question. First of all when I put the given values into the Bragg condition for diffraction I get two different wavelengths when the question implies there is only one. Secondly, I don't know how I can...
4. ### Medical Xray diagnostics mutagenic and so genocide effect on genome

They worry only about X-rays risks during pregnancy but not in pre-gravid wonen on pre-zygote oöcytes: https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=abdominct «Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant» But if a...
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### What is the potential for extremity doses in this X-ray exposure incident?

Homework Statement A research worker is irradiating some drug samples in an x–ray beam. The tube is running at 60kVp with a tube current of 4mA. Although the ‘shutter open’ lamp is extinguished, indicating the shutter is closed , it is faulty and the researcher loads his samples with the...
6. ### A Xray NanoDiffraction of Si and SiGe

Hello I am doing research on kinematic and dynamic scattering of xrays on a crystals. I am attempting to simulate the diffraction patterns of a silicon substrate and I have already simulated two other layers of a Silicon Quantum Well and SiGe from which the hetero structure was composed of. In...
7. ### I Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging Explained

Hello I am confused what Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging is with real and reciprocal space. Would someone be able to explain this to me like I am 5 years old because I am really not getting it.
8. ### I Xray NanoDiffraction of Si and SiGe

Hello I have been struggling with my research on xray diffraction of crystals and had a few questions about crystallography, rocking curves(omega scan), θ-2θ scans and diffraction patterns. Let me know if you need more explanation. Thank you! -What is the difference between a rocking...
9. ### X-Ray Diffraction Homework: Find Lattice Spacing d

Homework Statement X-rays of wavelength λ are incident on a cubic crystal with spacing d as shown in the figure. The incident angle is fixed at θi degrees. A detector is rotated from perpendicular to the 100 plane (90 degrees (grazing)) until the first maximum is detected at θs degrees due to...
10. ### Is it possible to see Newton rings in CT (xray) images?

I have seen what looks like Newtons rings interference pattern in transverse CT images of 2 solid water block on top of each other. My understanding is that Newtons rings occur in visible light eg photography or scanners. Can anyone shed some light on this? :)
11. ### What is the definition of the coefficient of linear and mass

hi, i'm student in a university. I do not understand the definition of these concepts, and I would like to know the properties of these and it depends questions like They depend on the material used? the atomic number? thanks for answering capisko,
12. ### Which Element Produces Lower Energy Ka X-rays in an Experiment?

In an experiment one observes the characteristic Ka X-rays of two elements at energies of 6.930 and 7.478 eV. The higher energy line is due to Ni. What element is responsible for the lower energy line?
13. ### XRay Production and Bremsstrahlung

Hello, I have been studying XRays recently in a general science course. It's about A Level standard but I want to take my interest further. Anyway to the point. I thought I understood the release of XRays when an electron is slowed as it ploughs into a tungsten anode in an X-Ray Tube...
14. ### Characteristic X-Ray Kα & Kβ Line Energies

Homework Statement What are the energies of the characteristic Kα line and Kβ lines? Homework Equations K-shell ( n =1):-69.5 keV L-shell ( n =2 ): -11.3 keV M-shell ( n =3 ): -2.30 keV Z = 74 E = (energy level) (Z-1)2/n2 The Attempt at a Solution for alpha i have (-11.3keV) (74-1)2/22 for n...
15. ### Measurement uncertainty: Standard uncertainty of the mean

Homework Statement Hi, I am doing some basic X-ray analysis and trying to quantify the measurement uncertainty associated with my determined value for the K-α line of copper. I have obtained the x-ray spectrum from a copper target using a detector and multichannel analyzer (No. of pulses/pulse...
16. ### X-ray Diffraction Homework: 2theta for (abc) and (def) Planes

Homework Statement [/B] A crystal composed of two fractions, one having the a cell parameters of x and the other of y are subjected to X-ray diffraction using both a Ni k-beta and a Zr b-beta radiation. Derive the angular position (2theta) for (abc) and (def) planes Homework Equations...
17. ### Characteristic Spectrum and the K-alpha line

I have just finished a junior-level lab assignment in which we used X-ray diffraction to determine the lattice constants of unknown materials. In the theory section of the lab write-up, it briefly explains the K-alpha doublet of the characteristic spectrum. I understand that it is the result...
18. ### Axion signature in the presence of strong magnetic fields?

So there was this article published today that some researchers may have found a dark matter signature emanating from the sun in the form of xr-ray emission from axion interactions with Earth's magnetic field. Article...
19. ### What is the direction of the anode heel effect in a rotating anode x-ray tube?

anode heel effect occurs in a direction parallel to the anode-cathode axis?
20. ### How Small Must a Bone Be to Detect a 5% Change in X-ray Imaging Intensity?

Homework Statement Imagine a 10 cm thick slab of flesh. If your x-ray imager can reliably identify a 5% change in intensity from one location to another in an image, what is the smallest diameter bone you are going to be able to make detect in your x-ray image? Absorption length of bone...
21. ### Can Crystals Absorb X-rays and Gamma Rays to Emit RF for Movement Tracking?

Hi guys, Could someone refer me to sources which explain and give examples for crystals which absorb xray / gamma ray and emit RF ? Meaning that if I radiate a crystal with xray I get RF so I can theoretically track its movement in the enclosed are. Thanks a lot!
22. ### Xray refraction and UV refraction border?

Xray in any matter have a slightly below one refraction index. Ultraviolet still have materials with above 1 refraction index. Where in the spectrum between them does >1 index cease to be possible, and what is the nature of this threshold?
23. ### Help with connection between crystal and xray

Hi there, I am reading some introduction of crystal and the book mention that we can use the x-ray to explore the structure of the crystal. I more or less understand the idea between that, it is kinda like scatter the incoming wave and observe the outgoing wave. But the mystery stated in the...
24. ### Medical How do xray machines produce xrays?

If anyone has knowledge about how xrays are produced from xray machines could you please help me. Any information about this would be greatly appreciated and simple language would be great. I already know that the actual xray is produced from an electron shift in the tungsten to a lower...
25. ### What is the difference in radiation dosage between digital and film x-rays?

Is there a radiation physicist can help me calculate my xray medical tests by msv ? Thank u
26. ### Miller Indices for FCC and BCC and XRay Diffraction Peaks

In my Physics lab, I'm doing X-Ray diffraction and attempting to determine the crystal structure of some common salts. To do this, I first need to determine the Miller Indices for the crystal structures that I'm considering. I can then match the location of peaks in X-Ray data (we're using...
27. ### Prof's Bonus Question for XRay Diffraction

Homework Statement Hi guys, so here's a bonus question on my assignment for materials course. " A metallic crystal is irradiated with Xrays of a fixed wavelength. Bragg reflection is observed at angles of 23 and 73.5 degrees, as well as another angle phi which is intermediate between the...
28. ### Xray - what physics discipline?

Hi, New here. I work in the design and manufacture of medical xray tubes (CT applications mostly). So off and on I think about going back to grad school (have a BS in physics-general). So for my first question to the forum, what discipline would you categorize the field of xray...
29. ### Benefit of SAXS over normal xray analysis?

I think I understand correctly that small angle xray scattering, (SAXS), has an advantage over normal xray diffraction techniques in that you can analyse crystals with higher spacings, (if you look at BRaggs law). However isn't single crystal xray diffraction used on protein crystals all the...
30. ### Xray flash warns of supernova explosion

In a type 1b core-collapse supernova there is an initial Xray flash before the visible explosion. This was theorized to happen but nobody had seen it until this year. In January this year the Swift Xray satellite which can see Xray just happened to be looking in the right place (studying...
31. ### Just a question re high power xray

i was checking out the web and ran across an experiment in Siberia that had a grant. the experiment was a 300 kw electron beam at 5 MeV for efficient conversion to xray. to me this has such an interesting use for industry both electron beam and xray. if it had a 10% efficiency on power used...
32. ### Understanding XRay Emission: Maximum Frequency and Derivation Explained

Sorry if this is the wrong forum. There is a cathode and an anode and one is emmiting an electron (whichever one of the two does that, I honestly forget) The electron moves through a electric potentinal of 70,000 volts. When it reaches the other side an Xray photon is emitted. 1) What...
33. ### XRAY - Mosely Question: K & L Waves Explained

Hi, I am an amateur to physics, am trying to understand what Mosely actually did when he used 'K' and 'L' waves to derive atomic numbers of elements. Can someone please tell me what exactly the 'K' and 'L' waves are, respectively? What is a 'K' wave and what does it measure? What is a 'L'...
34. ### Scintillator converts xray photons into visible photons

I believe that a scintillator converts xray photons into visible photons through the process of exciting electrons, then allowing it to fall to ground state. My q is: shouldn't the energy of the photon released be the same as the photon energy that is used to excite the electron? Just on...
35. ### Background Independence for the local Xray technologist

A PF poster recently asked about the Background Independence feature that distiguishes classical 1915 General Relativity from Stringy theories. She suggested that the explanation be at the "basic Xray tech" level. That probably means starting with a short exerpt from Smolin article in...