What is Albert einstein: Definition and 45 Discussions

Albert Einstein ( EYEN-styne; German: [ˈalbɛʁt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn] (listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity, but he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics. Relativity and quantum mechanics are together the two pillars of modern physics. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation". His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His intellectual achievements and originality resulted in "Einstein" becoming synonymous with "genius".In 1905, a year sometimes described as his annus mirabilis ('miracle year'), Einstein published four groundbreaking papers. These outlined the theory of the photoelectric effect, explained Brownian motion, introduced special relativity, and demonstrated mass-energy equivalence. Einstein thought that the laws of classical mechanics could no longer be reconciled with those of the electromagnetic field, which led him to develop his special theory of relativity. He then extended the theory to gravitational fields; he published a paper on general relativity in 1916, introducing his theory of gravitation. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation, which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. However, for much of the later part of his career, he worked on two ultimately unsuccessful endeavors. First, despite his great contributions to quantum mechanics, he opposed what it evolved into, objecting that nature "does not play dice". Second, he attempted to devise a unified field theory by generalizing his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism. As a result, he became increasingly isolated from the mainstream of modern physics.
Einstein was born in the German Empire, but moved to Switzerland in 1895, forsaking his German citizenship (as a subject of the Kingdom of Württemberg) the following year. In 1897, at the age of 17, he enrolled in the mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Swiss Federal polytechnic school (later renamed as ETH Zurich) in Zürich, graduating in 1900. In 1901 he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for the rest of his life, and in 1903 he secured a permanent position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. In 1914, Einstein moved to Berlin in order to join the Prussian Academy of Sciences and the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1917, Einstein became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics; he also became a German citizen again – Prussian this time. In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Einstein did not return to Germany because he objected to the policies of the newly elected Nazi-led government. He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential German nuclear weapons program and recommending that the US begin similar research. Einstein supported the Allies, but generally denounced the idea of nuclear weapons.
Einstein bequeathed his personal archives, library and intellectual assets to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel.

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  1. R

    Some lines from the book "Ideas and Opnions" by Albert Einstein

    I read these lines from the book Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein- "Gradually the conviction gained recognition that all knowledge about things is exclusively a working-over of the raw material furnished by the senses." what I interpret from is that knowledge is obtained by observing...
  2. N

    What Book Did Albert Einstein Write About Education and the Mind?

    Hello, I am trying to find in which book Albert Einstein wrote something. I will appreciate any help. The adage i am trying to find is: Education is not the learning of things , but the education of the mind so that it can think. Thank.you
  3. Sandip Patel

    B Which Watch Will Have Slower Time: Object 1 or Object 2?

    Assumption: Object 1 is moving and object 2 is static. It is impossible to say which object is moving without any reference object 3. There are three scenarios possible. 1. Reference object 3 is at same position in space time with object 2, then object 1 is moving and object 2 is static. 2...
  4. S

    Question about a statement by Albert Einstein

    Some of the most profound statements on the nature of science have come from Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists of all time. What do you think Einsteine meant when he said: "The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible"?
  5. Gamma

    The Other Einstein by Marie Benedict

    I am glad that this Summer I was introduced to an awesome novel, The Other Einstein. The book is the fictional portrayal of Mileva Maric, the wife of my favorite scientist Albert Einstein, and her struggles to balance life and work. The author has done a good job in researching the life of...
  6. bhobba

    I Einstein's View of Quantum Mechanics

    Hi All This is an outgrowth of the following thread: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/light-photons-waves-particles-wave-particle-duality.934063/ OK first we need to clear up a few misconceptions about Einsteins view of QM. It is often said Einstein didn't believe in QM. That's really a...
  7. V

    Time Dilation on a Spaceship: Observing Earth's Clock at High Speeds

    Homework Statement If someone on a spaceship looked at a clock on Earth traveling at 99.5% the speed of light what would they notice? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Would they notice that time is faster on earth? Is my assumption correct
  8. Greg Bernhardt

    Insights How well do you know Albert Einstein? - Comments

    Greg Bernhardt submitted a new PF Insights post How Well Do You Know Albert Einstein? Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  9. B

    Research -- "Ziemlich Frech : Einstein versus Nernst"

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  10. Anagha shyam

    What is Theoretical Cosmology and How Can I Pursue It as a High School Student?

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  11. M

    Struggle learning fluid mechanics

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  12. H

    Modern Einstein has an idea but needs your help

    This is not a joke. Suppose Albert Einstein was born in 1979, not 1879, and to date had not written any articles. Like the old Albert, modern Albert works for a government department. He assesses applications for arts grants. You see, unlike the old Albert, modern Albert studied art after...
  13. Demystifier

    What Do These Famous Quotes Reveal About the Minds of Great Scientists?

    GENERAL: Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former. Albert Einstein Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. Albert Einstein The fear of death is the most unjustified of all fears, for there's no...
  14. T

    How Did Einstein Complete His PhD While Working Full-Time?

    History question: I searched all over the web and cannot find the answer. I knew that Albert Einstein earned his phd from university of zurich. from wiki: In 1900, Einstein was awarded the Zürich Polytechnic teaching diploma. (Between 1900 to 4/30/1905, I deduced that Einstein was unemployed and...
  15. T

    How did Einstein come to the Conclusion of Spacetime?

    What led Albert Einstein to conclude that space and time were not two separate entities but merely one spacetime. Also, has there been experiment to prove this notion?
  16. K

    Start Learning Physics: Where to Begin?

    Hi, I have recently become very interested in physics. I feel like having a good physics background allows you to properly grasp everything that is going on around you and ultimately the Universe. I am very eager to learn about how things work, about light, energy, Isaac Newton's laws, Albert...
  17. Mordred

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  18. andromeda

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  19. Greg Bernhardt

    Would You Rather.... Science Edition

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  20. N

    The rotating disk of Albert Einstein

    Hello To demonstrate that we can deduce from special relativity the existence of an observer who finds that his three-dimensional space is not euclidean (a conclusion that is false in my opinion), in subsection "Behaviour of Clocks and Measuring Rods on a Rotating Body of Reference" of his...
  21. T

    A list of Physicist and their contributions

    Below is a list of physicist I compiled, and there achievements. I have sources if you want them. Do tell me if there is any more I should add or anything I should add to their bios, thanks in advance.θ Richard Feynman (1918-1988) Developing Path Integral Formalism of Quantum Field...
  22. G

    JollyOlly's book 'A Roller Coaster Ride through Relativity'

    I'm concerned about your book. I got up to this part: And I got very concerned. Although what you say is true, the fact that you put the last part of the quote in a box, like you did for what you called the Fundamental Principle and its restated version, gave me the impression that you...
  23. S

    What Are My Chances of Being Accepted into an REU Program for Math?

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  24. H

    Albert Einstein Proves Equations: Maths or Observation?

    How Albert einstein proved this equations that I referred at the title? He proved that with maths or with observation?
  25. A

    Mathmatically, why are parallel universes even theorized?

    Hi all, What is the Hamiltonian or main equation, that if you solve it, parallel universes are predicted? For example, the Dirac equation, if solved, predicts the existence of anti-particles. If You solve Maxwell's Equations, you predict there should be E & M waves. Solving certain...
  26. C

    Is imagination more important than knowledge?

    In 1953 Albert Einstein wrote to the Cleveland Physics Society on the occasion of a commemoration of the Michaelson–Morley experiment. In that letter he wrote:[1] What led me more or less directly to the special theory of relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a...
  27. shounakbhatta

    Who is the true father of modern physics?

    Hello, Some consider Albert Einstein, some think it was Galileo Galilei, some consider that E=mc^2 formula revolutionized the entire picture of physics, some consider James Clerk Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. I consider it was Sir Isaac Newton. Newton can be well considered as...
  28. P

    Mechanics of a Large Chest in Space

    At the moment, I am reading the book Relativity, written by Albert Einstein regarding his special and general theory of relativity. In his introduction to general relativity, he poses a thought experiment: Suppose we have a large chest in space far away from any appreciable mass (stars...
  29. ohwilleke

    The Case Against The Word Aether

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  30. D

    The Impact of Running on Mass: Albert Einstein's Theory

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  31. V

    Quote about movement through spacetime that is confusing me:

    The quote is from Jake Goldberg's Albert Einstein: the rebel behind relativity: p. 53: "As objects begin to move rapidly through the dimension of space, their movement throught the dimension of time must slow down, because no object can move through space-time faster than the speed of light."...
  32. SkyWatcher

    Relativity: The General and Special Theory by Albert Einstein

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  33. P

    How did Albert Einstein figure this out?

    Here's a shorter article for your review. Any errors? ---- I was wondering, how did Albert Einstein figure this out? So I got an English translation of the original article, which is entitled "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend On It's Energy Content?" This article is only a page long...
  34. S

    Discovering Binary Universe: Albert Einstein & Beyond

    Hello. I have just regestered to tell the world of my amazing theory. I have called it, Binary universe. Albert Einstin said that everything puts a dent in spacetime. If sapce is flat, there is 2 sides witch means 2 universes. One is ours, an there's another one. I call it UB ( Universe B)...
  35. T

    Error in special relativity Albert Einstein assumed

    Error in special relativity Albert einstein assumed (in the time dilation) a box-car moving with velocity V with a mirror in its ceiling and observer 1 sitting in the box car holding flash light vertically so when he sends a flash pulse , this pulse will go vertically , hit the mirror , and...
  36. rhody

    Albert Einstein: High Functioning Autistic

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wRRNeAilrnM" I thought this short 4 minute video was worthwhile, it presents a brief summary of Einstein's life and why some professional psychiatrists say that Einstein was a high functioning autistic. His own words seem to reinforce that view below: see...
  37. J

    Albert Einstein & Quantum Mechanics

    Okay, I have heard that Albert Einstein wasn't really into this whole idea of quantum mechanics. What was some of the reasons for this?
  38. Z

    Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein

    If both Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein are still alive today, imagine the world we will be living in and the impact on all theories of physics! Can you imagine what the world will be like with them still around?
  39. Z

    Simultaneity - Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity

    The following is the Einstein’s train but instead of train consider two airships of equal in lengths. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wteiuxyqtoM&feature=related Both are moving with same speed but opposite in direction. After certain time they cross each other such that one is exactly...
  40. marcus

    Albert Einstein: A Pious Atheist

    http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.4400 Albert Einstein - a Pious Atheist V. Djokovic, P. Grujic 21 pages (Submitted on 29 Jun 2007) "We consider Einstein's attitude with regard to religion both from sociological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider...
  41. S

    Ten Obscure Factoids Concerning Albert Einstein

    http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/19980907140525data_trunc_sys.shtml :smile: That's strange.
  42. M

    Albert Einstein debate of 2004

    Yeah i have to write a 20 page paper on the Albert Einstein debate of 2004 in january sometime. I can't find anything about it I am currently a senior and am not a big math/physics person so if anyone has any information about it could you please help me out thank you. -Justin
  43. E

    Who Are Some Other Renowned Scientists Besides Hawking and Einstein?

    Like anyone other than Stephen Hawking... =-/
  44. marcus

    Strings Meets Loops at the Albert Einstein Institute

    John Baez just posted this announcement and tentative schedule for a conference this month at the Albert Einstein Institute (Max Planck Institute for Gravitation Physics) on the outskirts of Berlin. We have had several threads at PF studying work by AEI people---Hanno Sahlmann, Martin...
  45. M

    What are the fundamental concepts of relativity explained by Einstein?

    I've been reading the book Relativity by Einstein, but need some things cleared up. I have only studied physics in college (took both mechanics and topics pertaining to more smaller scale phenomenas) and have a vague familiarity with concepts of physics but would like to expand on this a bit...