What is Stephen hawking: Definition and 97 Discussions

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.
Hawking was born in Oxford into a family of doctors. He began his university education at University College, Oxford, in October 1959 at the age of 17, where he received a first-class BA (Hons.) degree in physics. He began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in October 1962, where he obtained his PhD degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativity and cosmology in March 1966. In 1963, Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease that gradually paralysed him over the decades. After the loss of his speech, he communicated through a speech-generating device initially through use of a handheld switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle.
Hawking's scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Initially, Hawking radiation was controversial. By the late 1970s and following the publication of further research, the discovery was widely accepted as a significant breakthrough in theoretical physics. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.Hawking achieved commercial success with several works of popular science in which he discussed his theories and cosmology in general. His book A Brief History of Time appeared on the Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He died on 14 March 2018 at the age of 76, after living with motor neurone disease for more than 50 years.

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  1. S

    B How does hawking radiation escape a black hole?

    Hello, Stephen Hawking's book The Future of The Universe says that matter would have to exceed the minimum speed of 5 times the speed of light to exit a black hole. This means that the matter would have to be transferred to Energy using E=MC^2 but all energy is limited by the speed of light...
  2. A

    I What do the authors of the paper mean here exactly by path integral?

    Hi, I am new here so apologies if i am not using the right subforum. I don't have a physics background so i am not very technical but i do have a little bit of understanding. I was reading this paper by hawking/hertog and came across something that ended up confusing me. Here is it: "Pre-big...
  3. robphy

    Stephen Hawking is the Jan 8, 2022 Google Doodle

    I just noticed that Stephen Hawking, who was born Jan 8, 1942 and would have been 80 today, is featured in the Jan 8, 2022 Google Doodle. (Visit https://www.google.com/ to see.) https://www.google.com/doodles/stephen-hawkings-80th-birthday
  4. N

    B 'A Brief History of Time' question on gravity

    I'm reading through Stephen Hawking's 'A Brief History of Time' and came across this sentence in the second chapter: " If the law were that the gravitational attraction of a star went down faster or increased more rapidly with distance, the orbits of the planets would not be elliptical, they...
  5. Nuno_S_Oliveira

    B Translating Stephen Hawking: Plus/Minus Term & Black Holes

    Hi, I'm a Portuguese translator working on a documentary about black holes and there is a specific bit of dialogue between Stephen Hawking and his colleagues that I'm having a hard time translating. Basically, Hawking says: "So, it could be the F plus minus term takes this away." Is this the...
  6. GiriBang

    George's secret key to the Universe -- Lucy Hawking & Stephen Hawking

    In this book series George, a school kid meets a neighbor Eric, a scientist . He's surprised to find that Eric possesses a supercomputer which can actually actually teleport people to space. The book explains astronomical concepts like the red shift, true vacuum and false vacuum for instance...
  7. S

    I The Multiverse and 'No boundary' conditions approach in cosmology

    Summary: Questions about the Multiverse hypothesis and the 'No boundary' conditions approach in cosmology I have some questions about James Hartle and Stephen Hawking's 'No-boundary' proposal: - In their approach multiple histories would exist. These histories could yield universes with...
  8. R

    B Can someone please explain this paragraph from A Brief History Of Time

    what does it mean when you say the stars all fall in on each other?And what does the line uniform distribution of stars outside this region mean?and what does this line mean- again fall in?what does fall in mean? would really appreciate some help in understanding the meaning in simpler words...
  9. Hawkingo

    Stephen Hawking predicted the future of mankind

    Well known scientist professor Stephen Hawking had predicted the possibility that genetic modification can give birth to superhumans that could destroy the rest of humanity. The essays, published in the Sunday Times, were written in preparation for a book that will be published on Tuesday. Read...
  10. A

    B Documentary about Hawkings contributions to science

    Hello Community, as mentioned above I am currently gathering information for a documentary about Stephen Hawking scientific contributions. According to "The Guardian" the most important are: - Singularities in Gravitational Collapse -Blackhole mechanics -How Blackholes can vanish -How Galaxies...
  11. J

    If Stephen Hawking didn't have the disease that he had....

    How do you think Stephen Hawking would have been if he didn't have the disease that he had and wasn't physically handicapped?
  12. U

    B Remembering the Legacy of Stephen Hawking on Pi Day - BBC News

    He passed away on Pi day 3/14. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-43396008
  13. Laurie K

    B Who Was the Great Man We Lost on Pi Day and Albert Einstein's Birthday?

    On Pi day and the anniversary of Albert Einstein's birthday, a great man, mathematician and scientist passed away. Vale Stephen Hawking. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/03/14/health/stephen-hawking-dead/index.html
  14. StevieTNZ

    News Stephen Hawking has Died - March 14th, 2018

    https://www.stuff.co.nz/science/102269868/stephen-hawking-has-died RIP Stephen.
  15. Borg

    A Stephen Hawking's doctoral thesis is available online

    Stephen Hawking makes his doctoral thesis available online Direct link to the paper: Properties of expanding universes
  16. Greg Bernhardt

    Insights Think You Know Stephen Hawking? - Comments

    TheAdmin submitted a new PF Insights post Think You Know Stephen Hawking Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  17. RooksAndBooks

    News Donald Trump: What Do the Scientists Say?

    Donald Trump is a candidate running in the 2016 POTUS race. On 9/20/2016, 375 scientists signed an open letter regarding Donald Trump. I think it's interesting to read, since personally I do not see Trump as a viable candidate and the open letter addresses climate change and the United States...
  18. J

    Is Hawking's statement of Raychaudhuri's equation wrong?

    In Hawkin's lectures: http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9409195v1, he states that the Raychaudhuri equation \dot \rho=\rho^2+\sigma^{ab}\sigma_{ab}+\frac 1 n R_{ab}l^a l^b with n=2 for null geodesics and n=3 for timelike geodesics. But in most places I've seen \dot \theta=-\frac 1 n...
  19. marcus

    Stephen Hawking offers new resolution of black hole paradox

    Bee Hossenfelder was live-blogging from Stockholm Conference on BH info puzzle today Tuesday 25 August. Herewith: http://backreaction.blogspot.com/2015/08/hawking-proposes-new-idea-for-how.html The conference is 24-29 August. Hawking presented his idea Tuesday, based on joint work with Malcolm...
  20. D

    Theoretical vs Experimental Physics

    I was watching a sixty symbols video on Stephen Hawking: , and it got me thinking. Is there any practical value for theoretical physicists, if what they are doing is simply speculation not backed by any data? I understand observing a physical phenomena, and from understanding it predicting new...
  21. A

    Stephen Hawking and Zero Energy

    I've heard famous physicists like Stephen Hawking promote the idea that the conflict between the laws of thermodynamics and the beginning of the universe can be avoided if there is the same amount of anti-matter as there is matter, making the total energy level zero. I understand, that makes...
  22. Serious Max

    Time Dilation Explained by Stephen Hawking: 1 Day = 1 Year?

    Here (at ~3:50) they say if the ship reaches 99% of the speed of light, a single day on the ship = year on Earth. But it looks like it's going to be one week on Earth. http://cosmology.com/images/3TimeDilationTable1.jpg Is it just a simplification of some sort in the video?
  23. Priyank

    Exploring the Multiverse: Big Bang & Creation

    People say that Multiverse doesn't exist, But as per #TheGrandDesign by Stephen Hawking, Quantum Fluctuations led to the creation of tiny universes out of nothing. A few of these reached a critical size, then expand in an inflationary manner, formed galaxies, stars and, in at least one case...
  24. Priyank

    A Brief History Of Time (Stephen Hawking) FAQs -- Big Bang & Multiverse question

    If the universe was created by the Big Bang, then how did Multiverse come into existence?
  25. bcrowell

    Were Hawking Radiation & Singularity Theorem Controversial in 1965?

    I just saw The Theory of Everything, which is a Hollywood biopic about Stephen Hawking. Of course the physics content had to be watered down and made to serve dramatic and thematic purposes, but a couple of historical points seemed interesting and made me wonder whether they were real: 1...
  26. Anagha shyam

    What is Theoretical Cosmology and How Can I Pursue It as a High School Student?

    I am a new member! I am very much interested and want to pursue theoretical cosmology. I am currently a class/grade 10 student!
  27. David Carroll

    Why is temperature inversely proportional to the horizon's area?

    As I posted in another thread, I'm giving the caveat that I am no physicist and have only a rudimentary knowledge of math. Anyway, I am currently reading a book called "Three Roads to Quantum Gravity" by Lee Smolin. I came across a section of the book that confused me. Namely, Dr. Smolin...
  28. A

    I have difficulty understanding quantum physics

    Like I was reading Stephen Hawking and while I found quantum physics interesting, I had trouble truly understand it. I mean I know it's the study of very small particles and stuff like you cannot predict where an electron is if the more you know its velocity but I had trouble understand the why...
  29. C

    What Pop Science Books Should I Read Next?

    Here is what I have read: carroll, sean from eternity to here carroll, sean the particle at the end of the universe deutsch, david the fabric of reality gott, j. richard time travel in einstein's universe greene, brian the elegant universe greene, brian the fabric of the cosmos greene...
  30. enorbet

    Gravity Waves and Graceful Exit

    Recently reading the Scientific American article The Black Hole at the Beginning of Time, which at first glance made me wonder if they were bowing to pressure to increase circulation, did however get me to thinking about Inflation and Graceful Exit, a rather major problem. I understand that...
  31. twistor

    Stephen Hawking: Hilarious Interview - Watch Now!

    THAT'S AN EXTREMELY HILARIOUS INTERVIEW WITH STEPHEN HAWKING. What are your thoughts on it? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPV3D7f3bHY
  32. nuclearhead

    If black holes don't exist then neither does the cosmic horizon?

    So according to Stephen Hawking, non-penetrable event horizons don't really exist. So by the same argument the cosmic event horizon can't exist either right? Only an "apparent" horizon which may hold information from outside the visible Universe for a short while until it enters the visible...
  33. 1

    Do famous physicists (Kaku and Hawking) pass off asumptions as fact?

    Hello all, I will freely admit I suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and now that it is well managed I tend to attach my obsessions over interest. One thing I tend to obsess about is the possibility of aliens. I think about the fact that us humans are the only technological creatures on...
  34. N

    Any recommendtions for self-studying physics?

    I'm currently finishing my grade 11 year of high school and I have hopes of attending one of the prestigious schools in the US such as MIT, Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, etc. I would love to be able to study physics in university and, since my school's physics courses are lacking any significant...
  35. wolram

    Sir Roger Penrose: Challenging Modern Physics Theories

    http://www.sciencefriday.com/segment/04/04/2014/sir-roger-penrose-cosmic-inflation-is-fantasy.html What does Sir Roger know that others do not. Sir Roger Penrose calls string theory a "fashion," quantum mechanics "faith," and cosmic inflation a "fantasy." Coming from an armchair theorist...
  36. R

    Do all forms of energy behave like light?

    The idea of this question came from Stephen Hawking on a show on the Discovery channel called "Curiosity: Did God Create the Universe". Stephen Hawking said that energy and space were the only ingredients necessary to create the universe: Do all forms of energy behave like light? Can all forms...
  37. S

    A Written Asignment About Time

    Homework Statement I was assigned to write sort of like an essay and the topic I was give is "Time". As simple as that. It needs to include front cover, introduction, body, references, conclusion, so on and so forth. It's due this coming Thursday. Homework Equations No equations...
  38. dheeraj

    Difference between micro black hole and primordial black hole

    If the amount of hidden information inside a black hole, depends on the size of the hole, one would expect from general principles, that the black hole would have a temperature, and would glow like a piece of hot metal. But that was impossible, because as everyone knew, nothing could get out of...
  39. zoobyshoe

    Hawking Says, There are no black holes.

    Hawking Says, "There are no black holes." More: http://www.nature.com/news/stephen-hawking-there-are-no-black-holes-1.14583
  40. J

    Almost uncontrollable fascination with astro/quantum physics

    I'm wondering if I'm alone, but I have this huge fascination with how the universe and everything works, like other dimensions, string theory, all that stuff. Basically everything that astrophysicist like Stephen hawking study. I would almost give up winning the lottery if I could know and...
  41. Integral

    Steve Hawking's new take on black holes

    In a recent paper Steve Hawking is reexamines black holes.
  42. rjbeery

    Black holes may not exist after all

    I've posted a few threads over the years questioning the existence of black holes, and the response has been unequivocal defense of them... http://www.nature.com/news/stephen-hawking-there-are-no-black-holes-1.14583
  43. S

    White Holes created our Universe

    In general relativity, a white hole, is a hypothetical region of space-time which cannot be entered from the outside; but matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole, which can be entered from the outside, but from which nothing, including light, has the...
  44. P

    Question about relativistic quantum hawking radiation.

    So as I understand it Stephen Hawking and one other person I can't remember the name of worked on an equation to described the "temperature" of a black hole, that you can actually get information out of it. I know that there is one way it could happen with those vacuum particles in vacuum energy...
  45. N

    How physics get done not what you might expect

    How physics gets done...not what you might expect ahoy geeks! I came across a couple of funny stories I thought worth sharing...So if you have any, add them on... Stephen Hawking; Sixty years in a Nutshell, Chapter 6, The future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology, Celebrating Stephen...
  46. us40

    No Boundary Condition Universe: Stephen Hawking

    Hello, According to Stephen Hawking no boundary condition universe does not have any boundary in space time.If it is so then it is like earth.You can not go north to north pole.Earth does not have any edge or boundary.So universe is like closed structure like earth.Means after some times it...
  47. shounakbhatta

    Stephen Hawking's contribution

    Hello, We all know about the intellectual giant Dr.Hawking -- perhaps named after Einstein. If we want to know what had been, till date, the several contributions of Stephen Hawking in General relativity or astrophysics or black holes or...What the list would be? Thanks
  48. M

    Can blind individuals excel in mathematics?

    Is it possible to be blind and still be a mathematician? I can't see how anyone can study calculus and other type of math in your head without ever being able to see what you're doing. I think most people have to see their work to understand what to do next, notice patterns ect. I heard that...
  49. D

    Hawking's Position on Repeating Big Bang

    What is the evidence for Hawking's statement here: "After giving a brief historical background on relativistic physics and cosmology, Hawking discussed the idea of a repeating Big Bang. He noted that in the 1980s, he and physicist Roger Penrose proved the universe could not “bounce” when it...
  50. Astronuc

    How Does Dr. Ian Chapman's Research Impact Nuclear Fusion Technology?

    "Dr Ian Chapman has been named one of the UK’s top young physicists by the Institute of Physics, winning the 2013 Maxwell Medal, given to those who excel early in their career. The scientist from Abingdon has joined the likes of Stephen Hawking in being awarded a national prize for his...