What is Proportional: Definition and 195 Discussions

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical and political divisions of the electorate. For instance in the European parliament, each member state has a number of seats that is (roughly) proportional to its population, enabling geographical proportional representation. Almost all European countries also have political proportional representation (ideological proportional representation to the degree that parties honestly describe their goals): When n% of the electorate support a particular political party or set of candidates as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats are allotted to that party or those candidates. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result—not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts (also called super-districts), as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, PR systems that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats, as large as a province or an entire nation.The most widely used families of PR electoral systems are party-list PR, single transferable vote (STV), and mixed-member PR (MMP).
With party list PR, political parties define candidate lists and voters vote for a list. The relative vote for each list determines how many candidates from each list are actually elected. Lists can be "closed" or "open". Closed lists are determined before the elections, usually by the party heads or by primary elections. Open lists allow voters to indicate preferences for individual candidates during the elections.
With single transferable vote, voters can rank individual candidates, rather than just vote for a single "best" candidate. During the count, as candidates are elected or eliminated, surplus or discarded votes that would otherwise be wasted are transferred to other candidates in order of preferences, forming consensus groups that elect surviving candidates. STV enables voters to vote across party lines, to choose the most preferred of a party's candidates and vote for independent candidates, knowing that if the candidate is not elected their vote will likely not be wasted.
Mixed member PR (MMP), also called the additional member system (AMS), is a two-tier mixed electoral system, combining local non-proportional plurality/majoritarian elections and a compensatory regional or national party-list PR election. Voters typically have two votes, one for their single-member district and one for the party list. Parties that are under-represented by district elections are compensated by additional members, such that the total number of members of each party is proportional based on the party-list vote.According to the ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, some form of proportional representation is used for national lower house elections in 94 countries. Party list PR, being used in 85 countries, is the most widely used. MMP is used in seven lower houses. STV is used in only two: Ireland, since independence in 1922, and Malta, since 1921. STV is also used in the Australian Senate, and can be used for nonpartisan elections such as the city council of Cambridge MA.Due to factors such as electoral thresholds and the use of small constituencies, as well as manipulation tactics such as party splitting and gerrymandering, perfect proportionality is rarely achieved under these systems. Nonetheless, they approximate proportionality much better than other systems. Some jurisdictions use leveling seats to compensate for such factors.

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  1. J

    I Noise Proportional to Square Root of Illumination: Need Formula Help

    Many people have said that the noise that affects laser light is proportional to the square root of the illumination. But I can't find the formula. Can anyone help?
  2. D

    Why is Gravitational Force Proportional to Mass Product?

    why is that the gravitational force proportional to product of masses why not sum of masses or something else .........
  3. C

    I Calculating Proportional Luminosity of Fictitious Star

    I am attempting to calculate the proportional luminosity of a fictitious star using surface area and temperature in kelvin. To what level of accuracy can I expect from the formula L ∝ AT^4? Where L = Luminosity, A = surface area and T = Temperature L ∝ AT^4 L ∝ 4π · (r)^2 · (T)^4 If I replace...
  4. homeworkhelpls

    I Why is resistivity inversely proportional to resistance for NTC semiconductors?

    Why is resistivity inversely proportional to resistance for NTC semiconductors?
  5. rudransh verma

    Car's maximum acceleration on a road is proportional to what?

    Since the car starts from rest it’s accelerating. So, $$F_a-f_k=ma$$ $$F_a-\mu mg=ma$$ $$\frac{F_a-\mu mg}m=a$$ Now from second eqn, ##s=ut+\frac12at^2## $$s=\frac12\frac{F_a-\mu mg}mt^2$$ $$\frac{2sm}{F_a-\mu mg}=t^2$$ $$\sqrt{\frac{2sm}{F_a-\mu mg}}=t$$ I don’t think I am getting any where!
  6. K

    A Understanding Proportional Counter Circuit

    Hi, I am a graduate student currently studying on the topic of simple gas filled proportional counter. In the effort of trying to make my own system, I ran into this problem that how should I connect multiple counters to one single preamp correctly (and cheaply). This is the circuit I'm working...
  7. P

    Engineering Proportional only controller in LED Driver using Op-Amp

    I have a proportional-only controller LED driver circuit - I need to fine-tune its ##K_P## to 10 for a significant input of -0.2 to 0.2 V in the steady state. In that case, should I use a potentiometer with 10:1 setting? The LED (actuator) can drive voltages between 0 to 4V, so I need to add...
  8. Mr.Husky

    B How is the acceleration proportional to the removed force?

    Image above is the question. Below image depicts solution. if F1 is removed then the acceleration of that mass must be sum of accelerations of remaining forces. Right?? But answer says that acceleration of that mass is equal to acceleration of F1. I don't understand it. Can someone explain it??
  9. Spinnor

    I Output of down converted beam not proportional to input beam power?

    There are optical crystals that can convert a small fraction of the incoming beam of light into light of different frequency. See the Wiki article, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_parametric_down-conversion "Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (also known as SPDC, parametric...
  10. M

    Inversely proportional or a linear relationship?

    Would you call it an inverse relationship or a linear relationship, what is the correct terminology?
  11. JD_PM

    Showing that a given propagator is proportional to Green's function

    First off let me say I am a bit confused by this question. Searching for some references I found the following related to the KG propagator, given by (P&S, chapter 2 pages 29, 30) Then they Fourier-transformed the KG propagator Is this what is aimed with this exercise? If yes, could you...
  12. Jason-Li

    Engineering Proportional plus derivative controller

    Hello, There is a thread related to this question however it was marked correct but doesn't look correct to me? https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/step-change-in-a-proportional-plus-integral-controller.961180/ I think I have it but it is quite different to other answers I have seen? I...
  13. Jason-Li

    Engineering Disturbance in a proportional control system

    Hello, I found an old thread related to this question but it doesn't look correct to me so was looking for some guidance. I have equated Qo = (Q2+Q1*G) / (1+H*G) I did this by rearranging Qo=Q2+G(Q1-Q0*H) I then went on to the calculations and found before step disturbance: Qo=...
  14. melmel4546

    5/3-way proportional directional control valve VPWP

    how does a 5/3-way proportional directional control valve VPWP work ? and Information about the 5/3-way proportional directional control valve plss. :cry:
  15. J

    Is the concentration of greenhouse gases proportional to the temperate

    I can't seem to find an answer to this: If the present level of greenhouse gas concentration were not to change, would the temperature of the planet continue to increase? Or would it level off? Or is a continually increasing concentration of greenhouse gases required to keep raising the planets...
  16. G

    Forces proportional to the sides of a quadrilateral result in a couple

    Can I please ask for help with the following: Forces proportional to the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order act respectively along those sides. Prove that the resultant of the system is a couple whose magnitude is represented by twice the area of the quadrilateral. Not sure where to start...
  17. T

    Temperature and Sound Wave Velocity: Exploring the Proportional Relationship

    Apologies if this is a question with a basic answer, I'm coming back to physics after many years of being away from it! I read somewhere that for longitudinal sound waves traveling through air, if the temperature increases by 1 degree celsius then the velocity of the wave will increase y 0.6...
  18. A

    Engineering Speed of a DC generator is proportional to the generated voltage?

    I'm confused as I'm aware speed is directly proportional to the EMF, but is it proportional to the voltage as well? If the speed of a DC generator is halved and everything else is remaining constant the EMF will have so will the output voltage half
  19. A

    I Why must the Gibbs Free Energy be proportional to N?

    In the textbook Thermal Physics by Daniel Schroeder he says the following: However, I don't follow this argument. Let's say that G was the following: $$G(T, P, N) = (TPN)^{1/3}$$ Then $$G(\lambda T, \lambda P, \lambda N) = \lambda G$$ So $$G$$ is extensive, but $$G \not \propto N.$$
  20. F

    A Exploring the D0 Experiment: Proportional vs. Mini Drift Tubes

    Hi all, I'm reading an article describing the D0 experiment at Fermilab during Run II. Proportional drift tubes and mini drift tubes were used to detect muons: can someone explain me the difference between these two kinds of drift tubes? Thanks Federica
  21. J

    A Skew scattering and its proportional behaviour to conductivity

    Hallo guys,Im kinda confused about something and hope you can help me. Let me introduce you to it. we take a look on one Mechanismen to the spin hall effect, skew scattering effect. i just read that you can see this contribution only in the clean Limit. So that's really strange for me cause...
  22. N

    Question about proportional counters for gamma rays

    I understand the concept that a more energetic photon would cause more ionization events and therefore we can estimate the original energy of the incident photon. But what I don't get is that in practice, you don't get one photon entering the detector at a time, you get a whole bunch of them...
  23. Frigus

    B Why do we multiply two directly proportional things?

    when we say one term is directly proportional to something for example if I say x directly proportional to y and I also say x is also directly proportional to z then why we multiply y and z when we say x is directly proportional to something whose value is yz.
  24. F

    I Why is hysteresis loss proportional to area hysteresis loop ?

    Why does hysteresis loss cause heat and why the heat proportional the area of hysteresis loop?
  25. crownedhues

    Can Someone Explain Proportional Reasoning to Me?

    I already tried plugging in values I saw from example problems and tried to find the correlation between the two solutions I would get, but thus far haven’t been able to find any. Maybe I’m overcomplicating this or looking at this the wrong way?
  26. N

    A Is energy inversely proportional to mass?

    Hello. I'm a graduate student in electrical engineering, and I'm taking a class in semiconductor physics. My professor has used this equation for the energy of an electron in a semiconductor: $$E=\frac{\hbar^2 k^2}{2m^*}$$ This seems to imply that energy is inversely proportional to mass, i.e...
  27. PainterGuy

    B Expression where a certain quantity is proportional to the force squared

    Hi, I'm trying to find an expression or phenomenon where a certain quantity is proportional to force squared or power squared. For example, we have Force ∝ acceleration and Power ∝ I². I'm not sure if my question is a legit. I was trying to understand something and this question came to my...
  28. B

    Is this relationship directly proportional?

    I was confused by the question below http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/Pages/Physics_4/Tests/Test%20on%20Fields.pdf if you look at question at question 1 section B same reasoning is used to answer this question as you can see the graph is a straight line?? but plotting r against T ^2/3 or...
  29. D

    How proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller

    Homework Statement (a) With the aid of a sketch explain how proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller whose output is 0.2 to 1.0 bar. Assume that the controller is direct acting. (b) Show, mathematically, that the output is dependent on the difference between the measured and...
  30. Cc518

    Calculating τ by knowing I is proportional to A^2

    Homework Statement A vibrating standing wave on a string radiates a sound wave with intensity proportional to the square of the standing-wave amplitude. When a piano key is struck and held down, so that the string continues to vibrate, the sound level decreases by 8.0 dB in 1.0 s. What is the...
  31. D

    Step Change in a proportional plus integral controller

    Homework Statement Figure 5 shows the input and output wave forms for a proportional plus integral controller. State: (i) the controllers proportional gain (ii) the controllers integral action time The attachment below is a copy and paste of the input and output wave forms I am given...
  32. J

    Proportional control system: Calculating the change in offset

    Homework Statement I'm having trouble worki out the transfer function of the block. Whats confusing me is the input of O2 input of 50. If that wasn't there I know the transfer function would be Oo/Oi=G/1+GH. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
  33. F

    A1v1=a2v2? pressure and velocity are inversely proportional?

    If Bernoulli's equation P + 1/2ρv2 + ρgh = constant, implying that pressure decreases as velocity increases, and the Venturi effect states that a1v1 = a2v, what resolves this apparent contradiction? The velocity slows as the cross sectional area increases, but a narrower pipe would have greater...
  34. E

    How kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared

    I hear somewhere explanation why kinetic energy is proportional to $v^2$ and not to $v^3$, for instance. https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/quadratic-forms-and-kinetic-energy.826884/ I wish to find reference for this. Now I find your thread with the same question and very similar answers...
  35. Alexanddros81

    Particle Motion; Acceleration directly proportional to time

    Homework Statement 11.10 The acceleration of a particle is directly proposional to the time t. At t = 0, the velocity of the particle is v = 16 in./s. Knowing that v = 15 in./s and that x = 20 in. when t = 1 s, determine the velocity, the position, and the total distance traveled when t = 7s...
  36. K

    Vf^2=Vi^2+2ad not proportional?

    <Moderator's note: Moved from a technical forum and thus no template.> Hi, I am a junior in high school and future physicist. I have a problem (I am very curious) and would like for it to be solved as I CAN NOT figure this out! I was thinking about an object being dropped from rest from my...
  37. T

    I'm trying to understand what a proportional band is....

    I've always struggled with understanding proportional band - even after watching a number of videos trying to explain it. Now I've got a fan regulator that has a temperature sensor and a potentiometer. It works by sending a signal (0-10V) to the fan if the ambient temperature drops below a...
  38. A

    Reverse-acting proportional pressure controller

    Homework Statement [/B] A 5 to 20 bar reverse acting proportional pressure controller has an output of 4 to 20 mA. The set point is 11 bar. Determine: (a) the measured value pressure which gives an output of 15 mA when the proportional band setting of the controller is 40% (b) the proportional...
  39. T

    Is current proportional to emf

    Faraday's law states that emf is proportional to change in flux. The scenario I am using is a magnet is moved towards a closed loop. As it moves towards the loop, flux through the loop is increased causing a emf to be induced. Does I also know that a current is induced. So does that mean current...
  40. S

    Finding Proportional Relationships using Log-Log Graphs

    Homework Statement [/B] Given a a log-log graph with 8 lines, you must determine the equation of each line in its original relationship. The slope of the graph (m) gives the power of the original relationship. Examples: if m = 2, 3; then y ∝ x^2, x^3, etc. if m = -1, -2; then y ∝ 1/x...
  41. Superman123

    Is the buoyant force proportional to the mass?

    1. The task is to figure out if the buoyant force is proportional to the mass of the object that is being sunk in the fluid (the fluid in this case water). I had an answer and that the buoyant force is proportional to the mass, but my answer only took into consideration objects with the same...
  42. J

    Find constant when velocity is proportional to time

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution [/B] I am having difficulty understanding the question statement . I do not understand how can body come to rest when velocity is directly proportional to time .As time progresses , velocity increases . Could someone help me...
  43. sepideh

    A Simulating a Proportional Counter with Soil Sample in SRIM

    hello every one, I want to simulate a proportional counter with soil sample in Srim. but I don't know how to put the beam into my source, I mean that how can define the position of ions in soil sample. because my beam arising from my soil sample. and my source actually is soil. if you answer my...
  44. esha

    Why is degree of ionization inversely proportional to....

    Degree of ionization is the number of particles which dissociate by the total number of particles. if that's the case then higher number of particles should mean higher number of particles which get dissociated. this should also mean higher the concentration the degree of ionization will also...
  45. L

    Resistance proportional with velocity problem

    Homework Statement If we have object with mass 10 kg traveling at starting velocity of 50 km/s and one force of resistance that is equal to v^2 of object's velocity how can we calculate distance and time in which that object travels until it gets to velocity of 10 km/s.Homework EquationsThe...
  46. E

    I Proportion in 2D and 3D static equilibrium?

    If you were to look at a simple 2D or 3D static equilibrium diagram, where a mass is suspended by multiple ropes at different angles, my gut feeling is that there is a fairly simple proportion between the distance between the center of mass and the rope (the distance created opposite of the...
  47. Amru123

    B Force directly proportional to negative of displacement?

    I don't seem to understand this formula. How there should a negative sign before the displacement.Can anyone help me out?
  48. D

    Kepler's third law implies force proportional to mass

    Homework Statement Show that Kepler's third law, \tau = a^{3/2}, implies that the force on a planet is proportional to its mass. Homework Equations 3. The Attempt at a Solution [/B] I haven't really attempted anything. I'm not sure what the question is going for. What can we assume and use?