What is Pid controller: Definition and 28 Discussions

A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller or three-term controller) is a control loop mechanism employing feedback that is widely used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control. A PID controller continuously calculates an error value


{\displaystyle e(t)}
as the difference between a desired setpoint (SP) and a measured process variable (PV) and applies a correction based on proportional, integral, and derivative terms (denoted P, I, and D respectively), hence the name.
In practical terms it automatically applies an accurate and responsive correction to a control function. An everyday example is the cruise control on a car, where ascending a hill would lower speed if only constant engine power were applied. The controller's PID algorithm restores the measured speed to the desired speed with minimal delay and overshoot by increasing the power output of the engine.
The first theoretical analysis and practical application was in the field of automatic steering systems for ships, developed from the early 1920s onwards. It was then used for automatic process control in the manufacturing industry, where it was widely implemented in at first pneumatic, and then electronic controllers. Today the PID concept is used universally in applications requiring accurate and optimized automatic control.

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  1. A

    Setup of Sestos PID controller

    Hello, I use Sestos PID temperature controller D1S-VR-220, http://www.sestos-hk.com/english/download/d1s-en.pdf I need to maintain 37.3 degrees Celsius. Uses a 130W heating element. The problem is with the initial operation of the controller. In initial operation the temperature rises to...
  2. M

    From differential equations to transfer functions

    *** MENTOR NOTE: This thread was moved from another forum to this forum hence no homework template. Summary:: Trying to find transfer functions to design a block diagram on simulink with a PID controller and transfer functions for a water tank system. ----EDIT--- The variables and parameters...
  3. J

    Substitute PID Controls with a Polynomial Equation/Table?

    So, I had a discussion with a friend of mine, neither of us are in controls but I was curious about an answer here. In a PID controller, we essentially take in an error value, do a mathematical operation on it and determine the input (controller output signal B) needed to the actuator to produce...
  4. S

    Inverted pendulum on a cart using a PID controller

    hi everyone. in my project , I'm facing with a problem. in PID controller , desire poles are -1+j3 & -1-j3 after design , the overshoot is very high and the settling time more than PD controller i change the K and zi (pi) several times . but not better. the pd controller : (s+23) pid controller...
  5. Y

    Understanding and Tuning Non-Linear PID Controllers for UAVs

    Hello, I'm working on a project controlling a UAV (quadcopter) I'm trying to understand non-linear PID controllers. I know that a linear PID is given by: and a non-linear PID the konstant terms are replaced with functions My question is: how to i find these function and tune the paremeters, i...
  6. D

    How proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller

    Homework Statement (a) With the aid of a sketch explain how proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller whose output is 0.2 to 1.0 bar. Assume that the controller is direct acting. (b) Show, mathematically, that the output is dependent on the difference between the measured and...
  7. Abdul Wali

    Disadvantages of unnecessary increase in PID gain

    hi, I read somewhere that if we increase the PID gains unnecessarily, it will cause more energy consumption of the controller and it will lead to noise and distortion in the practical. May someone please give me more explanation on this?? that how it lead to noise or distortion in practical??
  8. A

    Setup of Sestos PID controller

    Hi, I intend to use Sestos PID temperature controller D1S-VR-220. Sensor is connected to 220V power supply. The controller receives output from immersion temperature probe: http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/DRG-010632B-Labfacility-Pt100-Temperature-Sensor-6X100mm-/132203898276 However, when I...
  9. J

    Help Interpreting PID Controller Settings

    I am somewhat familiar with a PID controller and how it operates. But I am having a hard time interpretting my PID controller setting and getting them to do what I want. I figured I would open up here for some help. I have a copper cylinder that is being heated up with a band heater. in the...
  10. MexChemE

    Types of signals in process control

    Hello, PF! I've been learning some process control on my own lately, and some questions have come to my head while on it. Consider the following on-off control loop: Let's say we want to control the temperature of the fluid inside the tank. We set up an on-off control loop and establish a...
  11. B

    Fuzzy logic control vs PID [Resume]?

    I have found this topic but I am not allowed to answer. https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/fuzzy-logic-control-vs-pid.667717/ I have the same concern that the fuzzy is basically similar to a proportional control. In the thread I liked above, there is also this link...
  12. gfd43tg

    IMC-based PID Controller for unstable system

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I'm working on parts (c) and (d) now, but I will show my work for (a) and (b) for completeness. (a) Starting with the process transfer function $$ g_{p} = \frac {-1.43}{s^{2}+3.687s-7.177} $$ The denominator is factorized, $$...
  13. gfd43tg

    IMC-Based PID Controller Design for Second Order Process - Homework Solution

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Hello, I know for a second order process, the tuning parameters are given as ##k_{c} = \frac {\tau_{1}+\tau_{2}}{k_{p} \lambda}##, ##\tau_{I} = \tau_{1} + \tau_{2}##, and ##\tau_{D} = \frac {\tau_{1}+\tau_{2}}{\tau_{1} \tau_{2}}##...
  14. azeriAggie

    How can I control two outputs with a single PID-controller?

    Overview I'm trying to levitate a constrained permanent magnet with 2 electromagnets. I'm having trouble conceptualizing the control system for such an operation. Setup The permanent magnet is fixed onto a horizontal pendulum and is repelled by an electromagnet above and repelled by an...
  15. Z

    Adaptive PID controller implementation

    Hello, I am trying to implement a simple adaptive PID controller paper. However, I am having some problems which I could not find out due to what.. Paper is the following; http://www.aedie.org/9CHLIE-paper-send/337_CHAINHO.pdf Quite simple. Using the Tagaki-Sugeno fuzzy system, in accordance...
  16. S

    Rule of thumb for PI, PD and PID controller

    hello there, how to tune PI, PD and PID controller according to rule of thumb?
  17. S

    Ziegler nichols method (PID control)

    hello there, i just want to ask some questions related to PID controller. currently, i have run zumo robot to detect line by using PID controller approach ziegler nichols method..however, by testing P,PI, and PID, P gives the most accurate when zumo follows the line..which is better actually? P...
  18. H

    PID controller for current control by adjusting the PWM

    Hi, I'm a starter here! I am trying to build a buck converter without the use of any IC. I want to drive a single LED. Here are some calculated data: Vin =5V, Vout =3.225V, Duty circle = 0.651, L=6.8micro Henri, Switching frequency = 1.4Mhz, Desired current is 1A, I also assume ripple current...
  19. D

    PID Controller: Order, Stability & Labview

    I'm a physics student so don't do much in the way of electrical engineering, pardon my ignorance. However I'm looking at using a PID controller with a resistance thermometer sensor and heating element plant, with a reference point of some resistance on the thermometer. That is heat up a device...
  20. P

    PID Controller rise time question

    In optimising the PID controller produced on Simulink, my controller has a step voltage of 100V and I am not sure if the rise time is the point where the response curve first reaches (or crosses)this point, or if it is the point where it hits the first overshoot peak?
  21. R

    Designing a PID controller - control systems engineering

    Homework Statement I am given the transfer function Gp (s) = 1/(s+16) and I have to design a controller of the form Gc (s) = K(1 + 1/T*s) (which is a PID controller) To meet the following requirements: Maximum steady state error to a steadily changing desired position = 5% Maximum...
  22. M

    Confused about PID controller for current control with PMW

    Hi, I'm looking into the control of a PMSM (permanent magnetics synchronous motor) motors using H-briges and PWM (puls width modulation). I'v seen motor controllers that use a PID controller for speed regulation. The output of the PID controls the PMW. This makes sense to me because the PMW...
  23. M

    Help Needed! Simulating PID Controller in Simulink - Mark's Project

    Hello I'm a student working on a project in temperature control. I have to investigate some of the properties of a standard PID controller. Sadly my project supervisor is not very helpful and I was hoping somebody here could offer me a litte guidance. I would like to simulate my controller in...
  24. S

    Pid controller for position control in amb simulink help

    hi ! basically i need help in simulink plotting the output can anyone help i have attached the output desireed for my model in pic below below pleasez help me out guys thnx in advance
  25. C

    Obtain transfer function of a system and simulate it with a PID controller

    I want to tune my PID controller. For this I could either do this on-line using the controller on the system, or I could try to obtain the systems' transfer function and then simulate it off-line together with the PID controller to tune it to the desired behavior. I suspect the system is...
  26. N

    How to design a PID controller for this application?

    I just took over a project for a person that left the company. The project was supposed to be fully documented, but the documentation seems to have come up missing. The application involves using a microcontroller as a PID controller. I will have a desired speed, and the actual speed. I...
  27. T

    Buck,boost and buck-boost with PID controller problem

    Hi! I try to simulate buck,boost and buck-boost converters in Matlab/Simulink with PID controller but I don't know how calculate PID parameters Sad Anybody knows how I calculate this parameters ? Or maybe someone haves buck,boost or buck-boost example circuit in Matlab/Simulink ? Or maybe...
  28. M

    Design a PID Controller for Pedestrian Road-Crossing Shuttle

    Hey guyz, I am trying to finish off my dissertation and the last bit remaining is to design the actual PID controller for the system at hand.I did it once and I've been told it was wrong so have to re-do it.My knowledge of PID controllers is indeed not worth mentioning so I am...