What is Pneumatic: Definition and 99 Discussions

Pneumatics (from Greek πνεῦμα pneuma ‘wind, breath’) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Pneumatic systems used in industry are commonly powered by compressed air or compressed inert gases. A centrally located and electrically-powered compressor powers cylinders, air motors, pneumatic actuators, and other pneumatic devices. A pneumatic system controlled through manual or automatic solenoid valves is selected when it provides a lower cost, more flexible, or safer alternative to electric motors, and hydraulic actuators.
Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.

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  1. D

    Understanding the mechanical advantage of a Pneumatic linkage system

    Hi all, I need to derive an equation for the mechanical advantage between the force applied at the wall and the force at the piston for a linked system. I have attempted this but my equation suggests that the wall force increases expenantionally as the connecting rod approaches the horrizontal...
  2. I

    I Compressed air Pushing a Column of Water

    Greeting, I have been noodling on this problem for a bit and was hoping to have some input from this form. what volume of compressed air, at 200 PSI, will it take to push lets say 30 gallons of water 8 feet up a 3/4" pipe at a minimum of 8 gpm with a minimum pressure of 8psi at the top if...
  3. W

    Troubleshooting Pneumatic Interlock Switch for Machine Safety

    I have a machine that when operator presses button, it will move upwards. When it gets to the end position, a switch is made and that causes a double acting pneumatic cylinder to engage... pushing a pin into a sort of "Dead bolt" safety position.. to lock machine in place. Operator then does...
  4. W

    Need to determine best placement and stroke length of a pneumatic cylinder

    I'm making a device that will tilt a 500# load 20 degrees. Going to consist of a hinged 24" x 24" platform (that the load sets on). The platform will tilt to the right(clockwise) according to sketch. The upright post that the cylinder is attached to could be any length. The cylinder will...
  5. Cburg

    Looking for Pneumatic control valve information

    I am looking to find out if there is a control valve type that will move a duel port cylinder in both directions but then the current to the valve is turned off the cylinder will NOT be locked up. I thought a 5/2 double coil valve would do this but it holds cylinder when current is removed...
  6. I

    I Resulting force on a chamfered pneumatic piston

    I was reading up on forces on hydraulic/pneumatic cylinders, and I've been thinking of this for a while: So for a pneumatic cylinder, the force on the piston is simply: P = F/a F = P x a where a = area of the piston that the air pressure is acting on. So what would happen if the piston is...
  7. F

    Choosing pneumatic solenoid, AC or DC

    Hi There are mixed information on these on google. I want speed(low lag) first, valves will be open and closed 1-2 minutes. Controlling them with Arduino or ESP with relays. Do I get this right? AC 220 - controlling them with Solid State Relays + Speed of Solenoid with AC is faster than DC +...
  8. J

    Ideal gas law problem -- Pneumatic piston movement with air temperature changes

    I have come up with the change in height as 170 cm. My professor does not want to solve for the problem for a reason I do not understand. 170 cm is not part of the answer key. The answer according to the answer key is 65 cm. My attempt is: Initial temperature: p=F/A; (50 *9.8) / (pi * 0.05^2)...
  9. V

    Misc. Pneumatic cylinder selection - Help calculating the force needed

    This is my first post in this great community. English is not my native language, so i am sorry for any mistakes. I need to build a pill crusher using a pneumatic cylinder with 30mm stroke (effective travel). i have e metal container with 25mm base diameter where i have to make powder from 6-8...
  10. Polar24

    Can this version of pneumatic piston sustain a certain load on its own?

    Hey guys I am a freshman design student and I have been doing a project in which I am using a pneumatic piston that I designed, I don't have depth knowledge about pneumatics but I tried something. I am using simple concept for this if the cylinder is already pressurized and I am able to join...
  11. M

    B Calculations relating to a pneumatic launcher

    Hello, and thanks for reading. Any help with this will be greatly appreciated. One of my hobbies is amateur radio. We often use wire for antennas, and getting those wires up in high places can be a challenge. I built a pneumatic "launcher" for this purpose, using ideas from others who have...
  12. G

    Pneumatic cylinder and working speed

    we have a pick & place application so please give the solution for that data cylinder stoke length 200mm, travel distance 200mm ,what is the picking time?
  13. S

    Why isn't the Pneumatic Tyre used for suspension?

    I've been contemplating the design of a motorcycle, and I've been reading up on the sprung & unsprung weight thing, how you want to minimise unsprung weight (IE, the part of the vehicle which moves with the road, the wheel and lower half of the suspension) to improve handling. This got me...
  14. D

    How proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller

    Homework Statement (a) With the aid of a sketch explain how proportional action is produced in a pneumatic controller whose output is 0.2 to 1.0 bar. Assume that the controller is direct acting. (b) Show, mathematically, that the output is dependent on the difference between the measured and...
  15. T

    Nitrogen pneumatic gas ram -- force to compress the piston in a cylinder

    Hi, Can some one point me to where I can workout the amount of force required to compress a niitrogen filled ram. Ram has an 80 mm bore and 172 mm stroke. We have filled it with nitrogen to both 1 and 1.5 bar. thanks Brett
  16. S

    Physics concepts behind pneumatic tube systems?

    I have a project for my physics class that revolves around the idea of building a working pneumatic tube system. I understand how I would build it and such but my teacher wants me to explain the theory behind it. Does anyone have any ideas about the physics behind this or the principles, rules...
  17. D

    How does air behave in the daisy chaining of compressors?

    I'm working on a project involving compressing air to a desired high pressure. So far the only equation I've been paying attention to is the ideal gas law. My question is if an air compressor pump is rated to create a maximum pressure of 100 psi based on its inlet being at atmospheric pressure...
  18. Jason Doyle

    Can a 1 MPA valve handle the weight on a pneumatically adjustable massage table?

    Hey guys, First off, Id like to say that I am not an engineering student, I study Physical Therapy. I am wanting to make an old massage table I have pneumatically adjustable height wise. I was thinking of putting a 16 mm bore pneumatic cylinder inside each leg (Or possibly replacing the leg...
  19. M

    Understanding pneumatic springs

    Hello all, I'm working on a DIY project, I know I need to use pneumatic springs because it allows me to be flexible with the spring rates, but I forgot quite a bit about compressible air, and from what I remember, in my courses we mostly dealt with compressible air for aerodynamics, and skipped...
  20. F

    A Total force generated in a pneumatic cylinder-piston with kn

    I have also asked this question in SO and CFD online Assuming that we have a pneumatic cylinder-piston with arbitrary but known surface area A, a known clarence c, and a known length L. What is the best model to describe the total steady state force applied on the piston considering the...
  21. A

    Learn About Pneumatic Airgun Actuation & Reloading

    I am working on a mechanism to make an automatic pneumatic airgun as a high schooler. I can't sail any further than some basic concepts. Would appreciate some useful links, resources or books to study actuation and reloading mechanisms etc
  22. P

    Steps to calculate Air Consumption of a Pneumatic System

    Hi there, I'm new to this forum and this is my first post so nice to meet you all! Since English is my second language, I apologize for some odd sentences. I'm a 4th year university student and currently has an internship in a Press Shop of a car manufacturer in Thailand. The project has been...
  23. D

    Bicycle tire width vs. pressure for identical comfort

    Here is what I want to know specifically: if I replace my 5cm wide rear tire with a 6.25cm wide tire, how much can I increase the inflation pressure to obtain the same comfort? I realize "comfort" is not a quantifiable measurement, maybe shock absorption characteristics is better. Perhaps it...
  24. L

    B Calculating Speed and Distance for a Pneumatic Tricycle

    Hello. I am working on planning to build a small pnumatic tricycle. I got far in my calculations, but not quite finished because I am stuck. If someone could check my math, that'd be great, but my problem starts at the second line. ______________________________________________ 1. Let's say...
  25. S

    Building a Diesel-Powered Car: Pneumatic Starter Questions

    Hi I'm very new to this so bear with me lol. I'm trying to plan out a project for building a diesel powered car and I want to use an of the shelf pneumatic starter for novelty but I don't know how much volume I need. So the starter requires 120 psi @500scfm. My idea is to use scuba tanks or...
  26. A

    What is the Best Control System for Compressed Air in a Drone?

    Hey, I'm working on a project to build a drone which is powered through air jets. The drone needs a valve control system which can control the flow rate (hence the thrust) going to each nozzle in order to adjust it's altitude and stabilty. I need to set up a circuit which can electronically...
  27. S

    Self-cleaning solar panel in a desert

    I am making a self cooling & self cleaning solar. I have already finished the cooling part by attaching fins from the back of the solar. Now, I am going to clean the solar using compressed air system. I am going to attach a 35 in tube from one of the sides of the solar and has a diameter of...
  28. K

    Pneumatic safety valve question

    I am developing a machine which consists of a horizontally mounted cylindrical drum, where the door is front mounted, top opening pneumatically actuated (Picture enclosed). The door is lifted up by the pneumatic cylinder. Now there is an obvious possibility of the door crashing down if the air...
  29. tim100

    Pneumatic regulator idea/question

    Hi guys, I have a quick question that someone might be able to assist me with. As a job i build waste water treatment plants and lately we have moved from using an electric butterfly valve to a pneumatic pinch valve. We have a common air supply of 6 bar and we now regulate to 3 different...
  30. Patrick23

    Robot Arms -- which pneumatic cylinders and valves to use?

    Hi, Im trying to make robotic arms actuated by pneumatic valve which I found here http://www.e-pneumatic.com/valves/pneumatic-valves.html And also cylinders here http://www.e-pneumatic.com/pneumatic-cylinders.html and I wanted to ask if one of these cylinder types would work as a robotic arm...
  31. P

    Calculate pressure drop in dense phase pneumatic conveying

    I've came across many references for pressure drop calculations for dilute phase pneumatic conveying, but I've yet to encounter any for dense phase. Anyone has any idea how do i calculate that? Thank you
  32. T

    How Many Times Can the Piston Operate Per Air Bottle in a Pneumatic Lift System?

    Homework Statement A pneumatic lift system is being demonstrated at a sales show. The total load is 70 kg, and the lift piston is 15.2 cm in diameter and has a 20.2 cm stroke. A portable air bottle with an initial pressure of 20 MPa and a temperature of 23 Celsius degrees is to be used as the...
  33. P

    Pneumatic Conveying: Calculating Flow Rate of Cement

    I have a question on pneumatic conveying. For a certain material such as cement, given that I already pipelines designed at certain dimensions (say 6"). Available air pressure is approximately 10 bar g. If the cement needs to be transferred from a tank to a vessel, how do I go about calculating...
  34. P

    Build Your Own Pneumatic TV Lift - Affordable and Customizable

    hi all, somewhat related to physics. i embark on a new project, to build my own TV lift using pneumatic lift. anyone have any links to places that carry thin OD (~3/4") that has about 24" stroke and can lift ~25-30lbs? i find spending $600 on a electric TV lift absurd, with my metal stock i...
  35. J

    Pressure inside pneumatic cylinder

    Hello, I'm having issues with pressure calculations that I'm using for a double acting pneumatic cylinder. In my application, I start the piston near one end of the cylinder with both sides closed, and then move the piston towards the other end. At each point, I update the pressure, volume, and...
  36. siansoft

    Designing a Pneumatic Filling Machine

    Hi All I'm designing a pneumatic filling machine and I'm looking for this parts in the photo attached so please can anyone knows where can i found it? Thank You
  37. O

    Engineering Pneumatic circuit diagram question

    Homework Statement Figure 1 shows a pneumatic circuit diagram used for air supply and exhaust in an automatic control system. Question: State how the system works.Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution [/B] Once the system is activated the piston will begin to move cyclically...
  38. O

    Need guidance on pneumatic motorcycle fuel system

    Hello, I'm a physics student at Michigan State and I started an applied physics club. One of our first major projects is converting a 4-stroke combustion engine into a pneumatic engine to drive a motorcycle. We completed the prototype using a 4.5 hp tecumseh 139cc motor, a 5lb CO2 tank, some...
  39. S

    Calculating Force and Energy in Pneumatic Air Testing

    Hi, Is it possible to determine the force (energy) behind a 300dia blank when under a pressure of 0.5bar and subsequently how far the force (energy) may move the blank which has a mass of 16kg? I know the volume and pressure of the air so can the stored internal energy be approximated by...
  40. R

    How much pressure needed for pneumatic cylinders to lift?

    Hello, I work for a company specialized in building van bodies. The problem is our engineer left and I know nothing about pneumatics. The customer's requirement is to be able to raise and lower the roof by up to 1 m. The box bodies are 7-8 meters long, so I think 6-8 pneumatic cylinders will...
  41. Comfort_Cube

    Is this correct reasoning? Questions on the physics of pneumatic spud gun.

    I'm building a pneumatic spud gun, and am thinking about the volume of the muzzle/barrel. It will be cylindrical (a pvc pipe). The projectile will either be a spherical or cylindrical object (same mass). The muzzle will be connected to the air chamber via a sprinkler valve. So, the aim in this...
  42. M

    Create Pneumatic Bicycle: High Torque or RPM?

    I wish to create a pneumatic bicycle but not sure if i should use high torque low rpm or higher rpm with lower torque. I am thinking that a low rpm with high torque will use less compressed air and make better use of the PSI.
  43. PiNgWiZaRd

    Pneumatic Cylinder testing for leaks

    Hi, Excuse the ignorance of an electronic engineer here but is there a procedure/tool to measure for leaks in pneumatic cylinders? One that will give a percise reading, ie. 30% pressure loss in a cylinder. This is not an automobile qusetion and not a combustible engine leak down test just a...
  44. W

    How can I use Pneumatic Muscles as Hydraulic Muscles?

    Hi everyone, this is my first post I was wondering how can I turn a pneumatic artificial muscle into a hydraulic one using water. http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-air-muscles!/ These are the air muscles I was planning on using. What sort of pump would I need? Please be specific as...
  45. Scott Davies

    Why are there no pneumatic cylinders for CO2 PSI?

    I have only found pneumatic cylinders for pressures up to 450 PSI. Why do they not make them for higher pressures?
  46. S

    Inflatable Seatbelt Help: Calculations & Optimum Pressure

    howdy, I am making a project on inflatable seat belt () I need some help with calculations I will be working with a air cylinder with compressed air in it, a solenoid valve (electro pneumatic), and seatbelt made out of airbag fabric. how do i determine how much pressure i need in air...
  47. S

    High capacity pneumatic positive displacement pump

    I need to find a high capacity (60-90 gpm) pneumatic pump that is able to pump 2.8 cP (fairly low viscosity) dirty water reliably. there's no need to worry about discharge pressure or suction head, because the level in the vessel provides plenty of head pressure. I had a vendor propose a...
  48. E

    Tolerance for pneumatic cylinder and piston

    What is the tolerance for pneumatic cylinder and piston operating about 2 psi, at room temperature, so that the piston can move freely without leakage? The piston diameter is 20 mm.
  49. M

    Pneumatic filling machine

    im designing a pneumatic filling machine with four filling heads. in all 7 cylinders are working simultaneously through p l c. the filling volume will be 100 ml/bottle within 6 seconds. what should be the working pressure of air so that i can decide the capacity of compressor. the bore size of...
  50. S

    Pressure, diameter and flow in a pneumatic system

    Hi everyone, I have a problem (which is likely to be fairly simple), which I need a hand to resolve. I'm trying to determine the impact of changing the internal diameter of the hose/fitting system in a compressed air system (in this case a portable compressor, with an inbuilt air receiver)...