Tensor algebra Definition and 46 Discussions

In mathematics, the tensor algebra of a vector space V, denoted T(V) or T•(V), is the algebra of tensors on V (of any rank) with multiplication being the tensor product. It is the free algebra on V, in the sense of being left adjoint to the forgetful functor from algebras to vector spaces: it is the "most general" algebra containing V, in the sense of the corresponding universal property (see below).
The tensor algebra is important because many other algebras arise as quotient algebras of T(V). These include the exterior algebra, the symmetric algebra, Clifford algebras, the Weyl algebra and universal enveloping algebras.
The tensor algebra also has two coalgebra structures; one simple one, which does not make it a bialgebra, but does lead to the concept of a cofree coalgebra, and a more complicated one, which yields a bialgebra, and can be extended by giving an antipode to create a Hopf algebra structure.
Note: In this article, all algebras are assumed to be unital and associative. The unit is explicitly required to define the coproduct.

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  1. Vanilla Gorilla

    B Attempted proof of the Contracted Bianchi Identity

    My Attempted Proof ##R^{mn}_{;n} - \frac {1} {2} g^{mn} R_{;n} = 0## ##R^{mn}_{;n} = \frac {1} {2} g^{mn} R_{;n}## So, we want ##2 R^{mn}_{;n} = g^{mn} R_{;n} ## Start w/ 2nd Bianchi Identity ##R_{abmn;l} + R_{ablm;n} + R_{abnl;m} = 0## Sum w/ inverse metric tensor twice ##g^{bn} g^{am}...
  2. SH2372 General Relativity (8X): Components of tensor operations

    SH2372 General Relativity (8X): Components of tensor operations

  3. SH2372 General Relativity (8): Tensor operations

    SH2372 General Relativity (8): Tensor operations

  4. A

    Showing that the gradient of a scalar field is a covariant vector

    In a general coordinate system ##\{x^1,..., x^n\}##, the Covariant Gradient of a scalar field ##f:\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}## is given by (using Einstein's notation) ## \nabla f=\frac{\partial f}{\partial x^{i}} g^{i j} \mathbf{e}_{j} ## I'm trying to prove that this covariant...
  5. Samama Fahim

    Total Momentum Operator for Klein Gordon Field

    As $$\hat{P_i} = \int d^3x T^0_i,$$ and $$T_i^0=\frac{\partial\mathcal{L}}{\partial(\partial_0 \phi)}\partial_i\phi-\delta_i^0\mathcal{L}=\frac{\partial\mathcal{L}}{\partial(\partial_0 \phi)}\partial_i\phi=\pi\partial_i\phi.$$ Therefore, $$\hat{P_i} = \int d^3x \pi\partial_i\phi.$$ However...
  6. L

    I Anyone knows why musical isomorphism is called so?

    Anyone knows why musical isomorphism is called so? Why is it musical? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_isomorphism
  7. S

    I Proving ##\partial^{i} = g^{ik} \partial_{k}##

    Let ##\varphi## be some scalar field. In "The Classical Theory of Fields" by Landau it is claimed that $$ \frac{\partial\varphi}{\partial x_i} = g^{ik} \frac{\partial \varphi}{\partial x^k} $$ I wanted to prove this identity. Using the chain rule $$ \frac{\partial}{\partial x_{i}}=\frac{\partial...
  8. A

    I Parallel transport of a tensor

    According to my book, the equation that should meet a vector ##\mathbf{v}=v^i\mathbf{e}_i## in order to be parallel-transported in a manifold is: ##v_{, j}^{i}+v^{k} \Gamma_{k j}^{i}=0## Where ##v_{, j}^i## stands for ##\partial{v^i}{\partial y^j}##, that is, the partial derivative of the...
  9. A

    I Derivation of the contravariant form for the Levi-Civita tensor

    The covariant form for the Levi-Civita is defined as ##\varepsilon_{i,j,k}:=\sqrt{g}\epsilon_{i,j,k}##. I want to show from this definition that it's contravariant form is given by ##\varepsilon^{i,j,k}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{g}}\epsilon^{i,j,k}##. My attempt What I have tried is to express this...
  10. A

    I Showing that the determinant of the metric tensor is a tensor density

    I'm trying to show that the determinant ##g \equiv \det(g_{ij})## of the metric tensor is a tensor density. Therefore, in order to do that, I need to show that the determinant of the metric tensor in the new basis, ##g'##, would be given by...
  11. A

    I Doubt about the purpose of some elements in tensor calculus

    I would like to know what is the utility or purpose for which the elements below were defined in the Tensor Calculus. They are things that I think I understand how they work, but whose purpose I do not see clearly, so I would appreciate if someone could give me some clue about it. Tensors. As...
  12. A

    I Expressing the vectors of the dual basis with the metric tensor

    I'm trying to understand why it is possible to express vectors ##\mathbf{e}^i## of the dual basis in terms of the vectors ##\mathbf{e}_j## of the original basis through the dual metric tensor ##g^{ij}##, and vice versa, in these ways: ##\mathbf{e}^i=g^{ij}\mathbf{e}_j##...
  13. Wannabe Physicist

    On the Validity of Swapping Dummy Indices in Tensor Manipulation

    Property (a) simply states that a second rank tensor that vanishes in one frame vanishes in all frames related by rotations. I am supposed to prove: ##T_{i_1 i_2} - T_{i_2 i_1} = 0 \implies T_{i_1 i_2}' - T_{i_2 i_1}' = 0## Here's my solution. Consider, $$T_{i_1 i_2}' - T_{i_2 i_1}' = r_{i_1...
  14. snypehype46

    Riemann curvature coefficients using Cartan structure equation

    To calculate the Riemann coefficient for a metric ##g##, one can employ the second Cartan's structure equation: $$\frac{1}{2} \Omega_{ab} (\theta^a \wedge \theta^b) = -\frac{1}{4} R_{ijkl} (dx^i \wedge dx^j)(dx^k \wedge dx^l)$$ and using the tetrad formalism to compute the coefficients of the...
  15. J

    I Ricci scalar for FRW metric with lapse function

    I need the Ricci scalar for the FRW metric with a general lapse function ##N##: $$ds^2=-N^2(t) dt^2+a^2(t)\Big[\frac{dr^2}{1-kr^2}+r^2(d\theta^2+\sin^2\theta\ d\phi^2)\Big]$$ Could someone put this into Mathematica as I don't have it?
  16. F

    Find the tensor that carries out a transformation

    I got stuck in this calculation, I can't collect everything in terms of ##dx^{\mu}##. ##x'^{\mu}=\frac{x^{\mu}-x^2a^{\mu}}{1-2a_{\nu}x^{\nu}+a^2x^2}## ##x'^{\mu}=\frac{x^{\mu}-g_{\alpha \beta}x^{\alpha}x^{\beta}a^{\mu}}{1-2a_{\nu}x^{\nu}+a^2g_{\alpha \beta}x^{\alpha}x^{\beta}}##...
  17. George Keeling

    I Problem with vanishing tensor equation and raising all indices

    I have an equation $$ \chi_\nu\nabla_\mu\chi_\sigma+\chi_\sigma\nabla_\nu\chi_\mu+\chi_\mu\nabla_\sigma\chi_\nu=0 $$so we also have$$ g_{\nu\rho}g_{\mu\tau}g_{\sigma\lambda}\left(\chi^\rho\nabla^\tau\chi^\lambda+\chi^\lambda\nabla^\rho\chi^\tau+\chi^\tau\nabla^\lambda\chi^\rho\right)=0 $$Does...
  18. Data Base Erased

    I Beginner question about tensor index manipulation

    For instance, using the vector ##A^\alpha e_\alpha##: ##g_{\mu \nu} e^\mu \otimes e^\nu (A^\alpha e_\alpha) = g_{\mu \nu} (e^\mu, A^\alpha e_\alpha) e^\nu ## ##g_{\mu \nu} e^\mu \otimes e^\nu (A^\alpha e_\alpha) = A^\alpha g_{\mu \nu} \delta_\alpha^\mu e^\nu = A^\mu g_{\mu \nu} e^\nu = A_\nu...
  19. S

    I Transformation of the contravariant and covariant components of a tensor

    I have read many GR books and many posts regarding the title of this post, but despite that, I still feel the need to clarify some things. Based on my understanding, the contravariant component of a vector transforms as, ##A'^\mu = [L]^\mu~ _\nu A^\nu## the covariant component of a vector...
  20. C

    Momentum conservation for a free-falling body in GR

    Hello everyone! It seems I can't solve this exercise and I don't know where I fail. By inserting the metric on the lefthand side of I. and employing the chain rule, the equation eventually reads (confirmed by my notes from the tutorial): $$m\frac{\mathrm{d}p_\delta}{\mathrm{d}t} =...
  21. M

    A Tensor and vector product for Quantum

    Hello, I am calculating the krauss operators to find the new density matrix after the interaction between environment and the qubit. My question is: Is there an operational order between matrix multiplication and tensor product? Because apparently author is first applying I on |0> and X on |0>...
  22. RicardoMP

    Derivatives on tensor components

    This was my attempt at a solution and was wondering where did I go wrong: -\frac{\partial}{\partial p_\mu}\frac{1}{\not{p}}=-\frac{\partial}{\partial p_\mu}[\gamma^\nu p_\nu]^{-1}=\gamma^\nu\frac{\partial p_\nu}{\partial p_\mu}[\gamma^\sigma...
  23. T

    I Why are coordinates independent in GR?

    I can see that by the tensor transformation law of the Kronecker delta that ##\frac{\partial x^a}{\partial x^b}=\delta^a_b## And thus coordinates must be independent of each other. But is there a more straightforward and fundamental reason why we don’t consider dependent coordinates? Is it...
  24. George Keeling

    A Question about covariant derivatives

    I am reading I am reading Spacetime and Geometry : An Introduction to General Relativity -- by Sean M Carroll and have arrived at chapter 3 where he introduces the covariant derivative ##{\mathrm{\nabla }}_{\mu }##. He makes demands on this which are \begin{align} \mathrm{1.\...
  25. Prez Cannady

    A Question regarding EFE's contravariant and covariant reps

    Depending on the source, I'll often see EFE written as either covariantly: $$R_{\mu\nu} - \frac{1}{2}Rg_{\mu\nu} = 8 \pi GT_{\mu\nu}$$ or contravariantly $$R^{\alpha\beta} - \frac{1}{2}Rg^{\alpha\beta} = 8 \pi GT^{\alpha\beta}$$ Physically, historically, and/or pragmatically, is there a...
  26. T

    Is this derivative in terms of tensors correct?

    Homework Statement Solve this, $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x^{\nu}}\frac{3}{(q.x)^3}$$ where q is a constant vector. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x^{\nu}}\frac{3}{(q.x)^3}=3\frac{\partial(q.x)^{-3}}{\partial (q.x)}*\frac{\partial (q.x)}{\partial...
  27. Q

    I Swapping Tensor Indexes

    What is the difference between ##{T{_{a}}^{b}}## and ##{T{^{a}}_{b}}## ? Both are (1,1) tensors that eat a vector and a dual to produce a scalar. I understand I could act on one with the metric to raise and lower indecies to arrive at the other but is there a geometric difference between the...
  28. saadhusayn

    Divergence of the energy momentum tensor

    I need to prove that in a vacuum, the energy-momentum tensor is divergenceless, i.e. $$ \partial_{\mu} T^{\mu \nu} = 0$$ where $$ T^{\mu \nu} = \frac{1}{\mu_{0}}\Big[F^{\alpha \mu} F^{\nu}_{\alpha} - \frac{1}{4}\eta^{\mu \nu}F^{\alpha \beta}F_{\alpha \beta}\Big]$$ Here ##F_{\alpha...
  29. Marcus95

    Time Derivative of Rank 2 Tensor Determinant

    Homework Statement Show that for a second order cartesian tensor A, assumed invertible and dependent on t, the following holds: ## \frac{d}{dt} det(A) = det(a) Tr(A^{-1}\frac{dA}{dt}) ## Homework Equations ## det(a) = \frac{1}{6} \epsilon_{ijk} \epsilon_{lmn} A_{il}A_{jm}A_{kn} ## The...
  30. Ron19932017

    I Contracovarient and covarient basis form orthogonal basis

    Hi everyone, I am trying to self study some general relativity however I met some problem in the contravarient and covarient basis. In the lecture, or you can also find it on wiki page 'curvilinear coordinates', the lecturer introduced the tangential vector ei =∂r/∂xi and the gradient vector ei...
  31. Avatrin

    I Motivating definitions in calculus on manifolds

    Hi I am a person who always have had a hard time picking up new definitions. Once I do, the rest kinda falls into place. In the case of abstract algebra, Stillwell's Elements of Algebra saved me. However, in the case of Spivak's Calculus on Manifolds, I get demotivated when I get to concepts...
  32. F

    I Index Notation for Lorentz Transformation

    The Lorentz transformation matrix may be written in index form as Λμ ν. The transpose may be written (ΛT)μ ν=Λν μ. I want to apply this to convert the defining relation for a Lorentz transformation η=ΛTηΛ into index form. We have ηρσ=(ΛT)ρ μημνΛν σ The next step to obtain the correct...
  33. redtree

    A Relationship between metric tensor and position vector

    Given the definition of the covariant basis (##Z_{i}##) as follows: $$Z_{i} = \frac{\delta \textbf{R}}{\delta Z^{i}}$$ Then, the derivative of the covariant basis is as follows: $$\frac{\delta Z_{i}}{\delta Z^{j}} = \frac{\delta^2 \textbf{R}}{\delta Z^{i} \delta Z^{j}}$$ Which is also equal...
  34. F

    I What is the outer product of a tensor product of vectors?

    If one has two single-particle Hilbert spaces ##\mathcal{H}_{1}## and ##\mathcal{H}_{2}##, such that their tensor product ##\mathcal{H}_{1}\otimes\mathcal{H}_{2}## yields a two-particle Hilbert space in which the state vectors are defined as $$\lvert\psi ,\phi\rangle...
  35. F

    I Transformation of Tensor Components

    In the transformation of tensor components when changing the co-ordinate system, can someone explain the following: Firstly, what is the point in re-writing the indicial form (on the left) as aikTklajl? Since we're representing the components in a matrix, and the transformation matrix is also...
  36. P

    I Mathematics of tensor products in the Bell states

    I'm having trouble with the mathematics of tensor products as applied to Bell states. Say I have the state \begin{align*} \left|\psi\right> &= \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left(\left|0\right>_A \otimes \left|0\right>_B + \left|1\right>_A \otimes \left|1\right>_B\right) \end{align*} How would the...
  37. V

    I Understanding dual basis

    Hello all! I've just started to study general relativity and I'm a bit confused about dual basis vectors. If we have a vector space \textbf{V} and a basis \{\textbf{e}_i\}, I can define a dual basis \{\omega^i\} in \textbf{V}^* such that: \omega^i(\textbf{e}_j) = \delta^i_j But in some pdf and...
  38. S

    Tensor product of two arbitrary vectors an arbitrary tensor?

    I am trying to show that if (C^ab)(A_a)(B_b) is a scalar for arbitrary vectors A_a and B_b then C^ab is a tensor. I want to take the product of the two vectors then use the quotient rule to show that C^ab must then be a tensor. This lead to the question of whether or a not the product of two...
  39. D

    Deriving geodesic equation using variational principle

    I am trying to derive the geodesic equation using variational principle. My Lagrangian is $$ L = \sqrt{g_{jk}(x(t)) \frac{dx^j}{dt} \frac{dx^k}{dt}}$$ Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, I have got this. $$ \frac{d^2 x^u}{dt^2} + \Gamma^u_{mk} \frac{dx^m}{dt} \frac{dx^k}{dt} =...
  40. C

    Divergence of Gradient inverse

    Dear All, I'm doing some tensor calculation on the divergence of gradient (of a vector) inverse. Am I allowed to first use the nabla operator on gradient and then inverse the whole product? In other words, I'm searching for the divergence of a 2nd order tensor which is itself inverse of...
  41. K

    Transformation rule for product of 3rd, 2nd order tensors

    1. Problem statement: Assume that u is a vector and A is a 2nd-order tensor. Derive a transformation rule for a 3rd order tensor Zijk such that the relation ui = ZijkAjk remains valid after a coordinate rotation. Homework Equations : [/B] Transformation rule for 3rd order tensors: Z'ijk =...
  42. meyol99

    Describe movement of particles with one equation?

    Hello everybody, I have a new thread to post,it is very important to find a solution for this : -Imagine a box full of air particles.The particles are forced to move to a point A on the edge of the box.My question is now,how can I mathematicly describe the movement of these particles toward...
  43. D

    Definition of tensor product

    I'm relatively new to differential geometry and would like to check that this is the correct definition for the tensor product of (for simplicity) two one-forms \alpha,\;\beta\;\;\in V^{\ast} : (\alpha\otimes\beta)(\mathbf{v},\mathbf{w})=\alpha (\mathbf{v})\beta (\mathbf{w}) where...
  44. BiGyElLoWhAt

    Tensors in GR

    Hi all, I'm fairly new to GR, and I'm also somewhat new to tensors as well. I'm looking for some detailed explanation of a tensor, as I want to begin studying GR mathematically. I watched a video that was posted on PF not too long ago that was pretty good. I'm having trouble remembering who it...
  45. sweetdreams12

    Tensor coordinate system help

    Homework Statement A tensor and vector have components Tαβγ, and vα respectively in a coordinate system xμ. There is another coordinate system x'μ. Show that Tαβγvβ = Tαβγvβ Homework Equations umm not sure... ∇αvβ = ∂vβ/∂xα - Γγαβvγ The Attempt at a Solution Tαβγvβ =...
  46. C

    Why can we not do algebraic methods like transposing with tensors

    Hello everyone! Even though I have done substantial tensor calculus, I still don't get one thing. Probably I am being naive or even stupid here, but consider $$R_{\mu\nu} = 0$$. If I expand the Ricci tensor, I get $$g^{\sigma\rho} R_{\sigma\mu\rho\nu} = 0$$. Which, in normal algebra, should...