# What is X rays: Definition and 28 Discussions

An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30×1015 Hz to 30×1018 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. He named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spellings of X-ray(s) in English include the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).

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1. ### I Characteristic X Rays: Understanding Atom Reversion

I was reading about characteristic x rays. I have a question I did not find an answer for it in the book (Concepts of Modern Physics-Sixth Edition-Arthur Beiser) or in the internet search. My question is: How do the atom in the target (in the x ray production experiment) go to the normal state...
2. ### I Question about X-ray power emitted by the Coolidge tube

hello i found this equation in a course about x rays , and i couldn't find it anywhere else they said that it is the theoretical expression of the energy spectrum , and dφ/dE is variation of the power emitted by the Coolidge tube as a function of the energy of the x ray. but i didn't understand...
3. ### B Exploring the Potential X-Ray Emissions of Neon Signs

Hello guys. I'm interested about wether or not a conventional neon sign such as this one could emit xray that could be harmful. Thanks a lot :)
4. L

### Determining which energy level transfers cause peaks in x-ray spectra

Hi all, I'm wondering how, for each peak in an x-ray spectra from a material (and using a crystal analyser), it is determined which energy level jump the peak corresponds to? How would you figure out the correct value of n to substitute into Bragg's Law to find the energy of the beam? Thank you!
5. ### Medical Electron Acceleration and X-Ray Emission in X-Ray Machines

Good morning all, I was just wondering the following question. When an electron is accelerated it emits electromagnetic radiation, depending on how much it is accelerated the energy varies so the frecuency does and the electromagnetic wave emitted would be of different colors or maybe even...
6. ### I How to determine the energy of photons released in decay

What equation would I need to use to determine the energy of photons released when radio-isotopes decay? I would like to figure out the energies of photons released when tritium and plutonium 237 decay.
7. ### I Medical Physics Question about the formula D(x)=alfa*mu*I(x)/rho

Hello I had two doubts, I know that medical physicist when working with x-rays use the formula D(x)=alfa*mu*I(x)/rho where D(x) is the dosis absorbed Alfa is the factor of the energy that damages Rho is the density mu is the absorbtion coefficient My doubt is the following: Does this formula...
8. ### Radioactive particles and x rays

When electrons of high energy fall on metal X rays are produced.What about the metals having large atomic number and showing natural radio activity?Will there be a collision between the electrons and alpha and beta particle? I can not understand this. So please help me.
9. ### How much are machine learning and NMR related in medical imaging?

Hi everyone. By reading stuff on the Internet, I found many times the correlation between machine learning and NMR, or, better, algorithms that are implemented for that kind of technology( The same goes for PET, or CT scans. The thing I want to ask is, how much do you think that the two things...
10. ### Graduate Career: Engineering or Physics?

HI everyone. I'm a student of communication systems engineering in Italy, doing his year of bachelor. What i wanted to ask, to all of you, was a doubt which I had during the last few months : choosing a carreer in Physics, or in Engineering, after getting my bachelor's degree in Engineering...
11. ### Penetration of X Rays in body tissue

I have been looking for information about the way Radiotherapy works and, needless to say, there is much more involved than just local frying of tissue. I have been told and also read, that the dose received in tissue is not necessarily maximum at the surface. For instance, the dose seems to be...
12. ### Bremsstrahlung X-Rays: Coulomb Interaction & Electron Acceleration

1. I have problems finding the truth of this statement. The statement is cited from "book". I want to draw your attention to the following words: electron is decelerated 2. Statement: "Bremsstrahlung X rays result from Coulomb interaction between the incident electron and the nuclei of the...
13. ### How Do you Calculate how many x rays are coming off a fusion reaction?

Hello, I'm trying to figure out how to calculate how much energy is being released in a nuclear fusion reaction from x rays. I think it will have to do with how much deuterium is in the vacuum chamber, how many volts I am using and the amount of resistance of the mesh the electricity is...
14. ### Producing fusion reaction with x rays?

Would it be possible to produce a fusion reaction(fusing deterium atoms) using x rays instead of high voltages? Scientist are trying to create fusion using laser, which is just focused photons, but if you have energetic photons such as x rays, which would knock the electron of the deterium atom...
15. ### Given potential difference of X-ray machine find energy of X rays

Homework Statement Given is the X-ray machine in which electrons are accelerated in the potential difference of 10000 V before hitting the electrode and loosing its energy. Find the maximum energy of the emitted X rays in keV and in Joules. Homework Equations The Attempt at a...
16. ### Evaluate the energies of muonic K X rays in Fe

Homework Statement Using a 1 electron model, evaluate the energies of the muonic K X rays in Fe assuming a point nucleus. Homework Equations The \Delta E is the difference between energy of the 1s state in an atom with a "point" nucleus and the 1s energy in an atom with uniformly charged...
17. ### XRF: Producing X Rays with a Rechargeable Battery

Well i couldnot help out with the concept that conventional tubes for x ray production require high acceleration voltages in the order of kVs but how a portable XRF produces x rays with a rechargeable battery ?? Does it produce high enough accelerationn pressure, i have some doubts or there is...
18. ### Why do x rays travel faster than light in some states of matter

hi All, why is this? some matter has a refractive index of slightly less than one for light in the x ray region. This implies a phase velocity faster than c, right? could someone explain what is actually happening here? THANKS!
19. ### What is the minimum wavelength of x-rays produced by a 50 kV emf?

Homework Statement An x-rays tube is connected to a 50 kV emf. Calculate the minimum wavelength that one can find in the radiation spectra that the tube produces.Homework Equations No idea! This is why I ask help here. The Attempt at a Solution Stuck at start. I've searched in google and...
20. ### Origin of Characteristic X Rays: How Do Atoms Produce Them?

I know the process of their production, now I want to know what's their origin? How does an atom produce them? PS:Donno whether it's the right forum to ask this question or not, so feel free to move it to the right place!:smile:
21. ### Can Scotch Tape Really Produce X-Rays?

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/28/science/28xray.html?ref=science I don't know why but I found this to be amusing. It sounds like something from the Onion, or our own Turnip...hey whatever happened to the Turnip thread.
22. ### What's the difference between gamma rays and x rays?

what's the difference between gamma rays and x rays?
23. ### What Is the Correct Slit Width for X-Ray Diffraction with a 10A Wavelength?

Problem: Diffraction of X rays has been observed when a beam strikes an extremely fine slit. What must be the width if the slit if X rays of wavelength 10A are to display a diffraction pattern with a central beam of angular width 0.1? I used Bragg's equation to obtain...
24. ### Comparing Light & X-Rays: Wavelengths

Hey here is the question I have to answer... What is the principal difference between light and an X-ray? I thought that X rays have short wavelengths, and light has long? Thanks
25. ### Anyone know the future uses of x rays within a hospital?

Anyone know the future uses of x rays within a hospital? or what the future adaptations are to make it less harmful etc? help! xx
26. ### How fast do X rays travel in a vacuum?

How fast do X rays travel in a vacuum? m/s
27. ### Can Moseley's Law accurately calculate X-ray parameters?

Hi I am looking for a website which explains the use of Moseley's Law for calculating parameters for characteristic X-ray spectra (in particular K_{\alpha} lines and the compliance with Bohr's formula (modified). Searched google but didn't find anything comprehensive enough. Eagerly...
28. ### X Rays vs. Radio Waves - Danger to Humans.

Ok, so we all know that the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency, and the higher the photon energy for EM radiation. How does this relationship explain why X rays are highly dangerous to living things, and radio waves are not? Thanks in advance.