# x rays Definition and Topics - 6 Discussions

An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30×1015 Hz to 30×1018 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. He named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spellings of X-ray(s) in English include the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).

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### Determining which energy level transfers cause peaks in x-ray spectra

Hi all, I'm wondering how, for each peak in an x-ray spectra from a material (and using a crystal analyser), it is determined which energy level jump the peak corresponds to? How would you figure out the correct value of n to substitute into Bragg's Law to find the energy of the beam? Thank you!
2. ### Medical X-Ray Machines and Physics

Good morning all, I was just wondering the following question. When an electron is accelerated it emits electromagnetic radiation, depending on how much it is accelerated the energy varies so the frecuency does and the electromagnetic wave emitted would be of different colors or maybe even...
3. ### I How to determine the energy of photons released in decay

What equation would I need to use to determine the energy of photons released when radio-isotopes decay? I would like to figure out the energies of photons released when tritium and plutonium 237 decay.
4. ### I Medical Physics Question about the formula D(x)=alfa*mu*I(x)/rho

Hello I had two doubts, I know that medical physicist when working with x-rays use the formula D(x)=alfa*mu*I(x)/rho where D(x) is the dosis absorbed Alfa is the factor of the energy that damages Rho is the density mu is the absorbtion coefficient My doubt is the following: Does this formula...
5. ### Machine learning and NMR

Hi everyone. By reading stuff on the Internet, I found many times the correlation between machine learning and NMR, or, better, algorithms that are implemented for that kind of technology( The same goes for PET, or CT scans. The thing I want to ask is, how much do you think that the two things...