artificial intelligence Definition and Topics - 18 Discussions

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality. The distinction between the former and the latter categories is often revealed by the acronym chosen. 'Strong' AI is usually labelled as artificial general intelligence (AGI) while attempts to emulate 'natural' intelligence have been called artificial biological intelligence (ABI). Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), and also imperfect-information games like poker, self-driving cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. After AlphaGo defeated a professional Go player in 2015, artificial intelligence once again attracted widespread global attention. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into sub-fields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences. Sub-fields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. AGI is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.
The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment.In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.

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  1. E

    Is quantum computing the key to achieving an AGI?

    Is advanced quantum computing the key to achieving the world's first true artificial general intelligence? The astronomical amount of computing power required for an AGI is currently not possible with classical computing.
  2. Auto-Didact

    A Taxonomy of Theories in Theoretical Physics

    It goes without saying that theoretical physics has over the years become overrun with countless distinct - yet sometimes curiously very similar - theories, in some cases even dozens of directly competing theories. Within the foundations things can get far worse once we start to run into...
  3. Curiose

    A Question: A novel set in the future

    I have been writing this science fiction novel in the form of a blog so that I can get feedback. It's based on the direction that technology is progressing on a whole, but in a "distant" future when we basically Ray Kurzweil got his way, but it didn't turn out exactly how he predicted. Chapter...
  4. JTC

    What is Artificial Intelligence?

    Please bear with me... In a curriculum in mechanical engineering, there is a set of standard topics: statics, dynamics, vibrations, fluid mechanics, thermondynamics, etc. What is Artificial Intelligence, and what does it entail? (at the moment, it seems like a buzz phrase that does not...
  5. pairofstrings

    Conventional Computers vs Artificially Intelligent Computers

    Hello. A conventional computer has an Operating System that has Process, Memory, Scheduler, Input/Output and Files. My question is: What the Operating System of Artificially Intelligent Computers will have? Thank you.
  6. A

    Do you feel safer with self-driving cars on the road?

    As a AI programmer, among other things, I know the limitations of the technology. So I vote No to this question. For one thing, safe driving demands being able to think ahead and anticipate situations which sensors do not pick up.
  7. pairofstrings

    Job Skills Artificial Intelligence

    Hello. I am looking for guidance. I have been working in software industry for about eight years now. I see that the trend is moving towards making a machine intelligent. I want to be part of this trend and move forward. My questions is: What skills do I need to become part of this era of...
  8. M

    Other What kind of jobs are available in deep learning?

    What kind of jobs are available in the field of deep learning? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_learning
  9. AaronK

    Advances in Machine Intelligence

    I am an undergraduate student pursuing computer science in the Southwestern United States (I just switched my major to comp. sci actually). Recently, I came across an individual who claimed to research AI professionally and who expressed to me the following view after some discussion of various...
  10. EnumaElish

    AI made of light "possibly science" or "pure fiction"?

    At the end of the movie about a robot boy who sleeps a long time under water ("AI"? by Spielberg?), sentient beings seemingly made of light appear. That's what I remember anyway. Is that within the possibilities of known science? Can light particles behave as organized matter in and of...
  11. E

    Google's AI beats world Go champion

    Go has been considered one of the games in which the human is superior to any AI. However in a first match Google's AI has beaten world Go champion Lee Se-dol. Earlier this year the AI beat the European Go champion.
  12. H

    Programs Artificial intelligence: what double degree to choose?

    My only dream in life is to develop a robot that has common sense and wisdom and pretty much be as smart as a human that can help society solve ISIS, food shortages etc. So I am choosing Computer Science next year for university. Though I have heard that doing the degree purely is too dry and...
  13. 4

    Short Survey for my EPQ on Artificial Intelligence

    Hi everyone! I'm a sixth form student currently writing an EPQ (5000 word essay) on artificial intelligence. I would appreciate it if you could spare five minutes of your time to take this short survey. I hope you find it interesting. <<link deleted>> Thank you for your time! Rob
  14. Abtinnn

    How Far Will Computer Science Go?

    Many problems in modern science are being solved by computers and not humans (though technically it's the humans that give the task to the computer). If this keeps advancing, would there be anything left for us as a "job?" Sorry if my question sounds dumb but i thought it would be interesting to...
  15. Domenico94

    Machine learning or algorithm design

    HI everyone. I was just wondering about a career in the IT (I study communication systems engineering, but I'm rather interested in coding, rather than Internet and communcation systems- related stuff). I wanted to ask you, given the advances that technology is making, which skills would be...
  16. Domenico94

    Machine learning and NMR

    Hi everyone. By reading stuff on the Internet, I found many times the correlation between machine learning and NMR, or, better, algorithms that are implemented for that kind of technology( The same goes for PET, or CT scans. The thing I want to ask is, how much do you think that the two things...
  17. F

    The "Intelligence" behind quantum physics

    THE “INTELLIGENCE” BEHIND QUANTUM PHYSICS If the nature of quantum mechanics is that an observer affects the end “collapsed” state of a particle, than what constitutes a state of observation. The the only thing I can come up with that seems to determine what constitutes a form of observation is...
  18. BiGyElLoWhAt

    Python Strings in python

    I'm revisiting python, because recently our physics department decided to adopt it as our computational language, and I missed the class. I've also been given the impression that it's a very good language for algorithms and what-not. According to...
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