What is Artificial intelligence: Definition and 68 Discussions

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality. The distinction between the former and the latter categories is often revealed by the acronym chosen. 'Strong' AI is usually labelled as artificial general intelligence (AGI) while attempts to emulate 'natural' intelligence have been called artificial biological intelligence (ABI). Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is often used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving".As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), and also imperfect-information games like poker, self-driving cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, and military simulations.Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. After AlphaGo defeated a professional Go player in 2015, artificial intelligence once again attracted widespread global attention. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into sub-fields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences. Sub-fields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. AGI is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many other fields.
The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment.In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.

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  1. Sagittarius A-Star

    Stephen Wolfram: Can AI Solve Science?

    Stephen Wolfram wrote an article about the role of AI in science. https://writings.stephenwolfram.com/2024/03/can-ai-solve-science/ His conclusion:
  2. J

    Build a Natural Language Processing Transformer from Scratch

    I have read that transformers are the key behind recent success in artificial intelligence but the problem is that it is quite opaque. I wonder if anybody knows how to build and train one from scratch or if there is any book, video, or website explaining it. Thanks
  3. A

    Can AI Technologies Interpret and Convert Musical Notes into Audio?

    Musical notes Can AI, Machine learning, Data science, Computer vision, image processing technologies assist in interpreting musical notes ? Input dataset : Musical notes Output : Sound (Audio file) played. A python program which can assist in interpreting or converting text to speech ?. The...
  4. E

    Is quantum computing the key to achieving an AGI?

    Is advanced quantum computing the key to achieving the world's first true artificial general intelligence? The astronomical amount of computing power required for an AGI is currently not possible with classical computing.
  5. T

    I PDEs cracked by Artificial Intelligence at Cal Tech

    With a 1000 time speed-up too, this could be a game-changer. From: https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/10/30/1011435/ai-fourier-neural-network-cracks-navier-stokes-and-partial-differential-equations/ They did it by solving in "...Fourier space (rather) than to wrangle with PDEs in Euclidean...
  6. D

    Ancient artificial intelligence limits

    What do members speculate, using restrained imagination of what may be possible, may be the highest level of knowledge and ability possible for an ancient race of artificial intelligence entities millions of years evolved that have long mastered whatever organic brain consciousness is and gone...
  7. A

    Any good books on artificial intelligence for self-studying?

    Summary:: what are some good books they recommend on the topic? thanks in advance
  8. zezee42

    Physics Master's degree: Computational Science vs. Artificial Intelligence?

    Hello everyone, I study physics in Hungary and this is the last year of the BSc. After that I would like to do my Master's degree in Austria either at TU Wien (Computational Science and Engineering) or at JKU in Linz (Artificial Intelligence). My question is: which field has better career...
  9. Gjmdp

    Is Artificial Intelligence a subfield of Computer Science?

    At first glance it does seem obvious that AI is a subfield of Computer Science for that programming is essential in the building of intelligent systems. However following that reasoning, Physics could be classified as a branch of Mathematics since Calculus is essential for its understanding. AI...
  10. P

    Do you think artificial intelligence and DFT codes can be merged?

    Hello! Do you think artificial intelligence and DFT codes can be merged? Is it time for the intelligent DFT?
  11. Auto-Didact

    A Taxonomy of Theories in Theoretical Physics

    It goes without saying that theoretical physics has over the years become overrun with countless distinct - yet sometimes curiously very similar - theories, in some cases even dozens of directly competing theories. Within the foundations things can get far worse once we start to run into...
  12. Demystifier

    Challenges for artificial intelligence

    Here I would like to see interesting challenges for artificial intelligence, which seem very hard for AI and yet in the spirit of what AI usually does. Here is my proposal: Let us feed the machine with a big sample (containing, say, a million numbers) of prime numbers and a big sample of...
  13. Gjmdp

    What are the implications if P=NP in Artificial Intelligence?

    If it turns out that there is, indeed, an algorithm that can solve any NP problem (now also P) in polynomial type, so that P=NP, creativity would prove worthless with such algorithm. Thereby, AI will not be needed as any intellectual inquiry we would ever had could be easily solved with this...
  14. Curiose

    A Question: A novel set in the future

    I have been writing this science fiction novel in the form of a blog so that I can get feedback. It's based on the direction that technology is progressing on a whole, but in a "distant" future when we basically Ray Kurzweil got his way, but it didn't turn out exactly how he predicted. Chapter...
  15. JTC

    What is Artificial Intelligence?

    Please bear with me... In a curriculum in mechanical engineering, there is a set of standard topics: statics, dynamics, vibrations, fluid mechanics, thermondynamics, etc. What is Artificial Intelligence, and what does it entail? (at the moment, it seems like a buzz phrase that does not...
  16. pairofstrings

    Conventional Computers vs Artificially Intelligent Computers

    Hello. A conventional computer has an Operating System that has Process, Memory, Scheduler, Input/Output and Files. My question is: What the Operating System of Artificially Intelligent Computers will have?Thank you.
  17. A

    Do you feel safer with self-driving cars on the road?

    As a AI programmer, among other things, I know the limitations of the technology. So I vote No to this question. For one thing, safe driving demands being able to think ahead and anticipate situations which sensors do not pick up.
  18. Zantra

    Technological singularity and artificial intelligence

    I didn't find this exact topic, so here we are! Let me begin by saying that the singularity is inevitable- Its not "if", it's how soon. Elsewhere on this board it was mentioned that we're far from autonomous driving. Assuming we mean level 5 autonomy, it means millions of hours of road...
  19. david2

    Will artificial intelligence be our impending doom

    Stephen Hawking is afraid that computers in the (not so far) future will become super intelligent, and that this will spell the end of the human race. And he is not the only one who thinks that. my view is that they suffer from paranoia. What do you think?
  20. pairofstrings

    Job Skills Becoming Part of the AI Revolution: Skilling Up for the Future

    Hello. I am looking for guidance. I have been working in software industry for about eight years now. I see that the trend is moving towards making a machine intelligent. I want to be part of this trend and move forward. My questions is: What skills do I need to become part of this era of...
  21. M

    Other What kind of jobs are available in deep learning?

    What kind of jobs are available in the field of deep learning? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_learning
  22. T

    Math Job in Artificial Intelligence with a Math Degree

    I'm currently going for my Master's in math (bachelors in applied math) but while applying I had to make the choice between math and computer engineering. I went ahead and chose math because when looking at job postings it seemed like it was an acceptable degree for several of them. Almost...
  23. AaronK

    Advances in Machine Intelligence

    I am an undergraduate student pursuing computer science in the Southwestern United States (I just switched my major to comp. sci actually). Recently, I came across an individual who claimed to research AI professionally and who expressed to me the following view after some discussion of various...
  24. EnumaElish

    AI made of light "possibly science" or "pure fiction"?

    At the end of the movie about a robot boy who sleeps a long time under water ("AI"? by Spielberg?), sentient beings seemingly made of light appear. That's what I remember anyway. Is that within the possibilities of known science? Can light particles behave as organized matter in and of...
  25. E

    Google's AI beats world Go champion

    Go has been considered one of the games in which the human is superior to any AI. However in a first match Google's AI has beaten world Go champion Lee Se-dol. Earlier this year the AI beat the European Go champion.
  26. carllacan

    Artificial Intelligence and astrophysics

    Hi. My Astrophysics teacher has offered us to do an extra credit writing assignment, whose topic we can choose. I'd like to do something on the relation of astrophysics and artificial intelligence, but I don't know what to pick. I'd appreciate if you could suggest some topics I could talk...
  27. HyperTechno

    Artificial Intelligence for human evolution

    Artificial Intelligence Technology can be used to develop intelligent Operation systems/ Management Systems for vehicles, buildings, factories, to control various systems.. etc. We can make robots out of it... and make intelligent equipment that improves the comfort ability of our day to day...
  28. G

    Artificial intelligence mathematics

    Hello, I'm currently in a physics/CS undergrad program and I would like to continue to graduate level in artificial intelligence. But recently I started to browse artificial intelligence papers and discovered that they are very mathematical. I ask myself if I should switch to maths/CS undergrad...
  29. H

    Programs Artificial intelligence: what double degree to choose?

    My only dream in life is to develop a robot that has common sense and wisdom and pretty much be as smart as a human that can help society solve ISIS, food shortages etc. So I am choosing Computer Science next year for university. Though I have heard that doing the degree purely is too dry and...
  30. 4

    Short Survey for my EPQ on Artificial Intelligence

    Hi everyone! I'm a sixth form student currently writing an EPQ (5000 word essay) on artificial intelligence. I would appreciate it if you could spare five minutes of your time to take this short survey. I hope you find it interesting. <<link deleted>> Thank you for your time! Rob
  31. Abtinnn

    How Far Will Computer Science Go?

    Many problems in modern science are being solved by computers and not humans (though technically it's the humans that give the task to the computer). If this keeps advancing, would there be anything left for us as a "job?" Sorry if my question sounds dumb but i thought it would be interesting to...
  32. Domenico94

    Machine learning or algorithm design

    HI everyone. I was just wondering about a career in the IT (I study communication systems engineering, but I'm rather interested in coding, rather than Internet and communcation systems- related stuff). I wanted to ask you, given the advances that technology is making, which skills would be...
  33. Domenico94

    How much are machine learning and NMR related in medical imaging?

    Hi everyone. By reading stuff on the Internet, I found many times the correlation between machine learning and NMR, or, better, algorithms that are implemented for that kind of technology( The same goes for PET, or CT scans. The thing I want to ask is, how much do you think that the two things...
  34. F

    The "Intelligence" behind quantum physics

    THE “INTELLIGENCE” BEHIND QUANTUM PHYSICS If the nature of quantum mechanics is that an observer affects the end “collapsed” state of a particle, than what constitutes a state of observation. The the only thing I can come up with that seems to determine what constitutes a form of observation is...
  35. BiGyElLoWhAt

    Python Strings: Revising & Altering for AI Programming

    I'm revisiting python, because recently our physics department decided to adopt it as our computational language, and I missed the class. I've also been given the impression that it's a very good language for algorithms and what-not. According to...
  36. icecubebeast

    Artificial intelligence prerequisites?

    What are some prerequisites for problem solving, planning and machine learning in artificial intelligence? I was always fascinated by the topic of machine learning until I decided to teach myself how to do it. When I came across a course on machine learning, I was shocked and confused because it...
  37. K

    Artificial Intelligence neuron networks

    Homework Statement 1. Homework Statement For a neuron with the transfer function given below deterimne the weight updates after presentation of the two constructive training samples: xA = [2,-1] and xB = [-1,1], where the former one belongs to class A (desired output is 1), the latter to...
  38. S

    MIT maths for artificial intelligence

    I want to learn artificial intelligence, so I decided to learn maths. I began from one-variable calculus at MIT open course ware. And these lectures seemed to me very easy, especially compared with Apostol's or Spivak's calculus. So I want to ask is it enough MIT open course ware lectures for my...
  39. A

    Laser Physics or Artificial Intelligence

    Hello. I have a bachelor degree in physics and I'm an embedded programmer now. I would like to engage in scientific activities, but I can't choose the area: Laser Physics or Artificial Intelligence (Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition...). I heard opinion that artificial intelligence - the...
  40. S

    Are Computational Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence the same?

    What is the real difference between computational and artificial intelligence?
  41. S

    Re: artificial intelligence tied to universe construct?

    So Briane Greene, in his documentary describes the idea that the future is already pre-existing due to the different time planes observed by an alien light years away. That is my interpretation at least. In the event this is true- it would imply that my future must already exist. In a way- no...
  42. P

    Programs Best double major for Artificial Intelligence?

    Hi, what's the best double major for someone interested in succeeding in artificial intelligence research after college? Of course, Computer Science is primary. Or is it Computer Engineering? There's also mathematics and its subdivisions (like applied math or statistics), any of the cognitive...
  43. J

    Can artificial intelligence truly replicate the complexity of the human brain?

    I don't know much about artificial intelligence and stuff but still a thought - If we are able to know completely about how our brain works we can design a chip that works like our brain right? Brain works through chemical and electrical signals so if are able to discover the functioning of...
  44. pairofstrings

    Artificial Intelligence and other data processing technologies

    Hello everyone. We all know that conventional data computing technology is not sufficient to make complex mathematical calculations in some sense and we need to look at some other data computing technologies. I did some reading but could not deduce any answers for the following questions...
  45. A

    Career in Artificial Intelligence

    I know for a fact that all the relevant knowledge required to achieve this career, I will have to somehow get on my own. But I want to know which is the best "official" career path for me? Would it be electrical/computer engineering, neuroscience, or something else since my university does not...
  46. G

    Would artificial intelligence and singularity mean the end of humanity?

    If you haven't seen the TIME article: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2048299,00.html So what exactly would happen if AI became more intelligent than any human that could ever exist? What would stop such a machine from creating another machine more intelligent than itself ad...
  47. Tungamirai

    Programming language and artificial intelligence

    What programming language is used when creating artificial intelligence.
  48. jhae2.718

    An experiment in artificial intelligence

    It's time to admit we haven't exactly been straightforwards with PFers. The user you know as jhae2.718 is not, in fact, a person at all, but rather an experiment in artificial intelligence that we have been running in our computer science department. One of our PhD students wrote her...